Atmosphere 2


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This is a brief overview of an 8th grade atmosphere lesson, student created.

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Atmosphere 2

  1. 1. Atmosphere Presentation -Period 4 Grade 8 Taconic Hills Middle School Science Class June 2009
  2. 2. The condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place.
  3. 3. Weather occurs in the Troposphere. Rain, snow, and most clouds occur here. The first weather satellite was launched in 1960. The burning of fossil fuels creates smog and acid rain.
  4. 4. Brooks Simmons, Barbra (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Paerson Prentice Hall.
  5. 5. Atmosphere Jeremy
  6. 6. Atmosphere explained  The envelope of gases that surrounds the planet.  The atmosphere is made up of a mixture of atoms and molecules of different kinds.  Made up of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Water vapor and many other gases.
  7. 7. Bibliography   mb/...  Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer, Boston MA.
  8. 8. Composition of the Atmosphere
  9. 9. The atmosphere explained…  The atmosphere is made up of mixture of atoms and molecules of different kinds.  Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, other gases, water vapor and particles of liquids and solids make up the atmosphere.  Nitrogen is the most abundant (78%)
  10. 10. Bibliography-Composition of the Atmosphere • • • https:/.../earthspace/Atmosphere/earth_pie.gif • Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  11. 11. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention The Earth's atmosphere (or air)- is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by the Earth's gravity 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide
  12. 12. Sources •'s_atmospher • • hl=en&q=atmosphere&gbv=2&aq=f&oq=
  13. 13. Density= mass of a substance Air has mass because it has atoms in a given volume and molecules, which have mass. Pressure is the force pushing in an area or on a certain substance. Air pressure is when weight of a column of air pushes down on an area. Air pushes in all Mass directions. Density = volume
  14. 14. Brooks Simons, Barbara. (2007) Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA; Pearson Prentice Hall. Atmosphere/AtmosphericContentPercent.jpg 998~Airplanes-Formation-Taking-Off-Posters.jpg _AIM-9_on_Tornado.jpg/250px-AGM-88_and_AIM-9_on_Tornado.jpg xBVTeI/AAAAAAAAAfo/yXpJTAAf- Og/s400/Bald-Eagle.gif bald-eagle.jpg _Eagle-Wingspan-1024x768.jpg
  15. 15. A barometer is how you measure air pressure by mercury, which contains vacuum mercury. The aneroid barometer which contains vacuum chamber, lever, spindle and pointer.
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Altitude and Properties of Air
  18. 18. Altitude and Properties of Air Air pressure is measured with a barometer. There are two kinds of barometers, a aneroid barometer and a mercury barometer. Air pressure decreases as density decreases as altitude increases . The higher you are the harder it is to breathe because there are fewer air molecules .
  19. 19. Bibliography     Brooks Simons, Barbara. (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer, Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall
  20. 20. Troposphere
  21. 21. Troposphere • “tropo” means turning • The inner or lowest layer of the atmosphere • Contains almost all the mass of the atmosphere • Depth of troposphere-16 km above the equator to less than 9 km above the North and South Poles. • The layer where weather occurs
  22. 22. Bibliography-Troposphere • • • Brooks Simons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  23. 23. Karlee and Nicole:]<33 The region of the atmosphere above the troposphere and below the The Stratosphere mesosphere. supports bacteria life, making it part of the biosphere. The stratosphere is almost always free of clouds and all other forms weather. The temperature The Stratosphere is increases as the second layer of altitude increases. Earth’s atmosphere.
  24. 24. In the Stratosphere, the air doesn’t flow up and down, but it flows parallel to the earth in very fast moving air streams. This is the layer where most jet planes fly. The stratosphere starts at around 10 kilometers and goes Ozone is the by-product of to about 50 kilometers high. The top sun radiation and oxygen; by edge of the stratosphere is abundant capturing the ultraviolet rays of the with ozone. sun and deploying it, ozone takes out the harmful effects. This is very important to all living things on earth, since unfiltered radiation from the sun can destroy all animal tissue.
  25. 25. First Slide:] imgurl= ov/headlines/y2001/ast11oct_1.htm&usg=__ql8vT3pDd_6JjpdVFcew_jNL6sI=&h=400&w=400&sz=32&hl=e n&start=7&um=1&tbnid=F3alSwbYumoPjM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dstratosphere %2Blayer%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 reports/atmosphere/images/atfg001.jpg&imgrefurl= reports/atmosphere/introduction-1.html&usg=__XJ3zSkjhsk719EdWQzGRa46mAEI=&h=640&w=490&sz=45&hl=en&s tart=11&um=1&tbnid=1p04j29rjb0NxM:&tbnh=137&tbnw=105&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dstratosphere%2Blayer%26hl %3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 Second Slide:] imgurl= = %3D/earth/Atmosphere/images/stratosphere_diagram_big_jpg_image.html%26edu %3Delem&usg=__YeDCOwan4NtSrR_eFmQuey1H-7s=&h=440&w=720&sz=65&hl=en&start=9&tbnid=6lQE 9ySNgsVJ6M:&tbnh=86&tbnw=140&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlayer%2Bstratosphere%26gbv%3D2%26hl %3Den
  26. 26. The Mesosphere Pat/Garret
  27. 27. In the Earth's mesosphere, the air is relatively mixed together and the temperature decreases with altitude. The atmosphere reaches its coldest temperature of around -90°C in the mesosphere. This is also the layer in which a lot of meteors burn up while entering the Earth's atmosphere. The mesosphere is on top of the stratosphere The upper parts of the atmosphere, such as the mesosphere, can sometimes be seen by looking at the very edge of a planet
  28. 28. Bibliography  Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer, Boston, MA.
  29. 29. Thermosphere
  30. 30. Thermosphere • The outermost layer of the atmosphere. • Extends from 80 km above Earth’s surface and has no definite outer layer. • “thermo” means heat. • Up to 1800 C and thin layer; due to the sunlight hitting this layer first
  31. 31. Bibliography-Thermosphere • • Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  32. 32. the part of the earth's atmosphere beginning at an altitude of about 50 kilometers (31 miles) and extending outward 500 kilometers (310 miles) or more Casey & Robert
  33. 33. Ionosphere: The ionosphere is part of the thermosphere. It is made of electrically charged gas particles (ionised). The particles get this electric charge by ultraviolet rays of the sun. The ionosphere has the important quality of bouncing radio signals, transmitted from the earth. That’s why places all over the world can be reached via radio.
  34. 34.
  35. 35. The upper most layer of Earth’s atmosphere Phone calls and TV pictures are relayed by way of communication satellites that orbit earth in the exosphere.
  36. 36. • Brooks Simmons, Barbara. (2007) Prentice Hall Science Explorer, Boston, . MA. • Pictures from Google images
  37. 37. Natural- (forest fires, soil erosion, dust Two types of pollution… storms, pretty much anything that Human- (farming, construction, we don’t cause…)Discharges burning of fossil fuels, cars, vehicles, smoke/dust into the air. factories, power plants…) Transfers soil + dust into the air. -Human Pollutants- harmful things in the air, water and dirt… •Contains- -Natural hydrocarbons, hydrogen, carbon, carbon monoxide, •volcanoes- nitrogen oxide, sulfur, dust clouds, oxides ash, poisonous •Burning- coal, oil, gasses. gasses, releases soot into air. •Wind- particles, mold, dust,
  38. 38. Bibliography free/water_air_pollution.jpg&imgrefurl= xVPxyoWxDzeKvQDk=&h=274&w=500&sz=31&hl=en&start=16&tbnid=QsWE-tag3lTPyM:&tbnh=71&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dair %2Bpollution%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX imgurl= tp:// WZi44ts=&h=600&w=399&sz=276&hl=en&start=5&tbnid=lcqNPNHL5XctSM:&tbnh=135&tbnw=90&prev =/images%3Fq%3Dwater%2Bpollution%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX
  39. 39. Definition of Pollution-The act or process of polluting or the state of being polluted, especially the contamination of soil, water, or the atmosphere by the discharge of harmful substances. • During winter months, 49 percent of soot and other particle pollution in Sacramento is caused by burning wood in fireplaces and wood stoves. 2. According to the World Health Organization, if you are one of the 18 million residents of Cairo, Egypt: - Breathing daily air pollution is like smoking 20 cigarettes a day - You take in over 20 times the acceptable level of air pollution each day 3. The World Bank reported in 2002 that pollution causes 2.42 billion dollars worth of damage to the Egyptian environment annually - equaling about 5 percent of the country’s annual gross domestic product. 4. The risk of cancer from breathing diesel exhaust is about ten times more than ingesting all other toxic air pollutants combined, with diesel emissions contributing to over 70% of the cancer risk from air pollution in the USA. • 5. The Boston area ranks number 5 in the country for premature deaths due to diesel pollution annually.
  40. 40. S/IMAGES/Water-pollution.jpg pollution-fast-facts-statistics-to.html
  41. 41. Classic smog: is the most basic form and is the result of burning of fossil fuels. Acidification can cause trees or others on high elevations to The weather that comes with smog is become damaged. stagnant winds and when the hot air presses with the cold air below. Occurs when SO2 and NOx when they mix together with water and oxygen and other chemicals to form The term smog was founded in 1905 by different compounds. when Harold Antoine des Voeux wanted to name the heavy fog in London. Acid rain is a mixture of wet and dry composition.
  42. 42. •…/2007/SmogNY.jpg •…/acidrain.jpg • •https:/…/sry74/Website/pics/beijing_smog.jpg •…/uploads/2007/08/smog2.jpg • • • • • •…/ •