The envelope of gases that surrounds the planet.
The atmosphere is made up of a mixture of atoms and molecules of different kinds.
Made up of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Water vapor and many other gases.
Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall
Science Explorer, Boston MA.
The atmosphere explained…
The atmosphere is made up of mixture of atoms and molecules of different
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, other gases, water vapor and particles of
liquids and solids make up the atmosphere.
Nitrogen is the most abundant (78%)
Bibliography-Composition of the Atmosphere
• Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall
Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice
The atmosphere protects life on Earth by
absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming
the surface through heat retention
The Earth's atmosphere (or air)- is a layer
of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is
retained by the Earth's gravity
78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon,
0.038% carbon dioxide
Density= mass of a substance Air has mass because it has atoms
in a given volume and molecules, which have mass.
Pressure is the force pushing in an
area or on a certain substance.
Air pressure is when weight of
a column of air pushes down
on an area.
Air pushes in all Mass
directions. Density = volume
Altitude and Properties of Air
Air pressure is measured with a barometer. There are two kinds of
barometers, a aneroid barometer and a mercury barometer.
Air pressure decreases as density decreases as altitude increases .
The higher you are the harder it is to breathe because there are fewer air
• “tropo” means turning
• The inner or lowest layer of the atmosphere
• Contains almost all the mass of the atmosphere
• Depth of troposphere-16 km above the equator to
less than 9 km above the North and South Poles.
• The layer where weather occurs
• Brooks Simons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science
Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Karlee and Nicole:]<33 The region of the
atmosphere above the
troposphere and below the
The Stratosphere mesosphere.
supports bacteria life,
making it part of the
The stratosphere is
almost always free of
clouds and all other
The Stratosphere is
the second layer of
In the Stratosphere, the air
doesn’t flow up and down, but it flows
parallel to the earth in very fast moving
air streams. This is the layer where
most jet planes fly. The stratosphere
starts at around 10 kilometers and goes Ozone is the by-product of
to about 50 kilometers high. The top sun radiation and oxygen; by
edge of the stratosphere is abundant capturing the ultraviolet rays of the
with ozone. sun and deploying it, ozone takes
out the harmful effects. This is very
important to all living things on
earth, since unfiltered radiation
from the sun can destroy all animal
In the Earth's mesosphere, the air is relatively mixed
together and the temperature decreases with altitude.
The atmosphere reaches its coldest temperature of
around -90°C in the mesosphere. This is also the
layer in which a lot of meteors burn up while entering
the Earth's atmosphere.
The mesosphere is on top of the stratosphere
The upper parts of the atmosphere, such as the
mesosphere, can sometimes be seen by looking at
the very edge of a planet
Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice
Hall Science Explorer, Boston, MA.
• The outermost layer of the atmosphere.
• Extends from 80 km above Earth’s surface
and has no definite outer layer.
• “thermo” means heat.
• Up to 1800 C and thin layer; due to the
sunlight hitting this layer first
• Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer.
Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
the part of the earth's atmosphere beginning at an
altitude of about 50 kilometers (31 miles) and
extending outward 500 kilometers (310 miles) or
Casey & Robert
The ionosphere is part of the
thermosphere. It is made of
electrically charged gas particles
(ionised). The particles get this
electric charge by ultraviolet rays
of the sun. The ionosphere has
the important quality of bouncing
radio signals, transmitted from
the earth. That’s why places all
over the world can be reached
The upper most layer of Earth’s atmosphere
Phone calls and TV pictures are
relayed by way of communication
satellites that orbit earth in the
• Brooks Simmons, Barbara. (2007)
Prentice Hall Science Explorer, Boston,
• Pictures from Google images
(forest fires, soil erosion, dust
Two types of pollution… storms, pretty much anything that
Human- (farming, construction, we don’t cause…)Discharges
burning of fossil fuels, cars, vehicles, smoke/dust into the air.
factories, power plants…) Transfers
soil + dust into the air. -Human
Pollutants- harmful things in the air, water and
nitrogen oxide, sulfur,
dust clouds, oxides
poisonous •Burning- coal, oil,
gasses. gasses, releases
soot into air.
Definition of Pollution-The act or process of polluting or the state of being
polluted, especially the contamination of soil, water, or the atmosphere by
the discharge of harmful substances.
• During winter months, 49 percent of soot and other particle pollution in Sacramento is caused
by burning wood in fireplaces and wood stoves.
2. According to the World Health Organization, if you are one of the 18 million residents of
- Breathing daily air pollution is like smoking 20 cigarettes a day
- You take in over 20 times the acceptable level of air pollution each day
3. The World Bank reported in 2002 that pollution causes 2.42 billion dollars worth of damage
to the Egyptian environment annually - equaling about 5 percent of the country’s annual gross
4. The risk of cancer from breathing diesel exhaust is about ten times more than ingesting all
other toxic air pollutants combined, with diesel emissions contributing to over 70% of the
cancer risk from air pollution in the USA.
5. The Boston area ranks number 5 in the country for premature deaths due to diesel pollution
Classic smog: is the most basic
form and is the result of burning of
fossil fuels. Acidification can cause trees or
others on high elevations to
The weather that comes with smog is become damaged.
stagnant winds and when the hot air
presses with the cold air below. Occurs when SO2 and NOx when
they mix together with water and
oxygen and other chemicals to form
The term smog was founded in 1905 by
when Harold Antoine des Voeux wanted
to name the heavy fog in London.
Acid rain is a mixture of wet and dry