Read pg. 193Spain’s geography heavily influenced its ability to build an empire.What factors do you think influenced Christopher Columbus to want to set out on his voyage? Students may suggest the desire for fame, fortune, to find the unknown, to find a route to the Far East, or to finish what he started. Why might the Spanish monarchs have been reluctant to support him? They might have been reluctant because other European leaders had turned him down, he wasn’t Spanish, they didn’t trust him, they thought the plan wouldn’t succeed, the cost was to high, or they could look foolish.Figure 9-1 What impression of Christopher Columbus does this portrait give? Students may feel that Columbus seems young, serious, and thoughtful. The globe and telescope suggest his interest in sailing and exploring.Compare this portrait with the one of page 104. Students might suggest that Columbus seems older, more physically imposing, and more like a soldier, carrying banner and sword.
Like the rest of Europe, Spain was largely Christian at the beginning of the Middle Ages. Within a few years, however, conquerors from the Arab world were able to take over most of Spain. Islam became the predominant religion. This rule lasted for several hundred years until Christian forces reclaimed the country in the 1200s.“Geography controls everything”. How does this saying apply to Canada?
Bisigoths, a people who had invaded Spain from the north at the end of the Roman Empire.Created a sense of national identity – built a mosque in Cordoba (p. 33)Many Christians converted over time, but not all (to Islam)
For example, Islam discourages showing human beings, animals, and other subjects realistically because it may lead to idolatry, that is, worshipping idols. Thus, Muslim artists often created works of art using designs and written script.For 5 centuries Spain was part of a vast empire.Arab Islamic world was part of the largest economic trade zone in the world-culturally divers with customs and traditions-exchange of goods and ideas from all over (Spain, Egypt, Syria, Zanzibar and Indonesia)Muslim rulers and rich merchants supported the arts (music, art, architecture – reflected Islamic values -> discouraged showing human beings, animals and other subjects realistically because it may lead to idolatry (worshipping idols) – often created works of art using designs and written script.
First university is over 200 years before the first university in EuropeGreat centers of learning (Cordoba, Seville, Granada)Admired the Greek reasoning skillsKnew much more about natural science than the Europeans did.
See quote on p. 197
They grouped large numbers of soldiers, all using the same weapon, into tight formations that were difficult to overrun. As a result the Spanish infantry became the deadliest fighting force in Europe. The Spanish brought this very effective style of fighting with them to the Americas.
Read p. 199-200
Canadian History examples:AcadiansFirst NationsWWII Japanese Canadians (British Columbia) – security risk after bombing of Pearl Harbor by Japan
p. 206 – Memory and Reconciliation
Chapter 9 notes
Chapter 9SPAIN LOOKS WESTWARD
THE SPANISH WORLDVIEW OF COLUMBUS’ TIME Religious intolerance Emphasis on gold Maritime confidence
HOW MIGHT THE LOCATION OF A COUNTRYINFLUENCE ITS RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCES?
AL-ANDALUS, MUSLIM SPAIN Most of Spain was Christian at the beginning of the middles ages. Spain was ruled by the Visigoths (invaded Spain from the north at the end of the Roman Empire). Spain became vulnerable (allowing Muslims to take control) due to: Internalstruggles A series of weak rulers
YEAR 711: MUSLIM FORCES Tariq ibn-Ziyad landed in Spain with his Muslim forces. Conquered almost the entire Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). In 785 began building the Aljama Mosque of Cordoba (expanded over the next 200 years). Many Christian converted to Islam, but some did not.
LIFE AND SOCIETY Spain was part of the Islamic world for the next five centuries. The Arab Islamic world was part of the largest economic trade zone in the world. Goods and ideas were exchanged between places as far as Spain, Egypt, Syria, Zanzibar and Indonesia. Muslim rulers supported the arts (reflected Islamic values).
CENTRES OF LEARNING Learning was greatly valued (understand the universe; aid in living an ethical life). World’s first university was established in Cairo in 971. Muslim scholars studied medicine and science. Muslim and Jewish scholars translated books and essays of the ancient Greeks.
RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE Tolerant of religious minorities. Read religious Tolerance on p. 198
The area of jurisdictionof Islamic rulers.In 1000s, Spain began todecline due to ineffectiverulers which led to civilunrest and thesectioning of Al-Andaluzinto a number ofindependentprincipalities (states)CALIPHATE
RECONQUISTA Began as a way for the Christian kingdoms to expand their power and influence. Was also a war based on religious differences During this time the Spanish developed a new way of fighting on the battlefield. Read p. 199
TIMELINE: Because of its location, Spain was influenced by the Arab world and the Muslim religion.
TIMELINE: Tariq ibn-Ziyad crossing the Sait of Gibraltar and landing in Spain.
TIMELINE: Muslims expand across the Iberian Peninsula and conquer all of it.
TIMELINE: New rulers construct mosque at Cordoba to help create national identity.
TIMELINE: Exchange of goods and ideas to and from Spain
TIMELINE: Music, art and architecture reflect Islamic values
TIMELINE: Cordoba and Granada become centres of learning
TIMELINE: Muslim Spain was largely tolerant of minority religions.
TIMELINE: Number of independent states replace a unified Spanish nation
TIMELINE: Quarrelling among local leaders weakens the country.
TIMELINE: Christian kingdoms begin to expand across Spain (The Reconquista)
VOCABULARY Mosque: a sacred place of worship in the Islamic faith Hadith: the authenticated sayings of the Prophet Muhammed Caliph: a supreme ruler under the Islamic faith Caliphate: the area of jurisdiction of Islamic rulers Principalities: small areas often ruled by princes Martyr: a person who is willing to die for his convictions or beliefs Reconquista: the Christian reconquest of Spain from the Muslims
CREATING A CHRISTIAN SPAIN King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (declared Christian Monarchs by the pope in Rome) Wanted to create unity in Spain by; Unifying religions or outlaw any that competed with the Catholic Church. Distributing economic wealth more uniformly throughout regions Go to war to create a common enemy
RECONQUISTA Long process Christian crusaders (European) helped the Spanish Christian forces win territory from the Muslims. Granada was captured on January 2, 1492. From the Pyrenees Mountains in the north to the Rock of Gibraltar in the south, Spain was now a Christian land.
THE SPANISH INQUISITION King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Catholic Monarchs Christian Crusaders from Europe Helped Spanish Christian forces regain land from Muslims Took over the Spanish Inquisition from the Church
THE SPANISH INQUISITION State-run system of courts Church officials put non-Christian believers on trial Convert or be exiled Some left Spain; some pretended to convert Muslims/Jews lived in fear
THE SPANISH INQUISITION – NEGATIVE EFFECTS Spanish Jews/Muslims – large part of educated middle class (financiers/business people/economic)
SAVING SOULS King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella believed it was their duty of convert people to Catholicism Supported Columbus Missionaries
GOLD AND GLORY Key motivation for European explorers Personal Country – economic Buy the things they lacked Pay for wars (protection) Take over other territories
WEATH IN SPAIN 1492 – Spain used up its gold and silver reserves Crusades had been expensive Read p. 208 – 209 Handout Group activities on Columbus for remainder of week.