Inwhat ways does a society’s worldview affect its ability to adapt to rapid change?
Thefirst Western military force to enter Japan. TheAmericans had more powerful weapons than the Japanese. How do you think this would influence the way the two countries would deal with each other?
How would the Japanese respond to the idea of trade with the United States? How would the other Western countries respond to US efforts to open up Japan? What changes would take place in Japan? What stresses would these changes have on traditional Japanese society?
What factors motivated Japan’s decision to end its isolation? • Limited contact with the Portuguese and the Dutch • Kept the Russians, British and Americans out • Perry’s visit was different – this time Japan lost its battle to remain a closed society due to internal pressures. Why?
• July 14, 1853 sailed into Uraga Harbour (2 steamships, 2 sailing vessels, 977 men, and 66 guns)• Presented a letter from President Millard Fillmore.• Asked for trade and protection for shipwrecked American sailors/right to buy coal for ships• Said he would return for an answer
• In 1854, Perry returned with 8 black ships and more troops• Signed the Treaty of Kanagawa (opened two Japanese ports to American ships, established an American consulate in Japan, and accepted the demands regarding trading rights to the US)• Japan signed similar treaties with England, France, the Netherlands, and Russia
Perry’s Strategies: • A strong show of military force • An insistence on meeting with high-level representatives of Japanese leadership • An attitude of patience and persistence • Why did these contribute to his success?
These were known as the “unequal treaties” Many Japanese were unhappy with the terms They lost control over their trade
Howdoes Manifest Destiny help to explain Perry’s mission to Japan? ManifestDestiny included the belief that the west was empty. What impact did American actions taken as a result of this belief have on Aboriginal peoples?
Whatprivileges does this article give to the United States? Why would this article be beneficial from the American perspective? What does it suggest about the American attitude toward Japan?
List under each speaker the ideas he presents. What similarities and differences to you see? Whichof these quotations contain generalizations? Do you think the generalizations make the viewpoint less convincing? Why or why not? Were you surprised that some Japanese people celebrated Perry’s arrival? Explain your thinking.
Perry’smilitary strength Japanese knowledge of what had happened between European powers and their Asian neighbours (China) – The Opium War
Coinciding with Perry’s arrival: • Loss of respect for the shogunate • Uprising against the inefficiency and corruption of its officials
Motto Ideas Solution(s)“Honour the Emperor; Japan is the “divine War against Westernersexpel the barbarians” land”; the Japanese are superior to Westerners Continued isolation“Eastern ethics and Adopt Western Adopt some elements ofWestern science” technology, particularly Western civilization military equipment, but keep Japanese values and moralsNo motto Overseas trade is Welcome the necessary to increase Americans and the wealth of Japan; Europeans and trade change is inevitable with themHow do these responses reflect the Japanese pride in their country and itsculture? How do you think being forced to sign the treaties affected theirpride?
Whatare some examples of “culture shock” depicted in the silk scroll and the woodblock print? Can you think of any other examples of “culture shock”?
Many people saw the treaties as proof that the shogun was week. • Rioting in the streets and other acts of violence • Daimyo who opposed the shogun were retired or put under arrest. Their samurai were imprisoned, exiled, or executed. • Attacks on foreigners increased (and was sometimes returned upon them)
• In 1868, the shogun resigned, but formally petitioned the Emperor to take over• Civil war broke out between those who wanted to restore the shogunate and those who favoured rule by the emperor.• 30,000 troops supporting the emperor blasted a shogunate stronghold
Towhat extent did the changes made during the Meiji Restoration affect the lives of Japanese citizens?
Prince Mutsuhito/Emperor of Japan • selected a new name during the first year of his reign Meiji, which means “enlightened rule” • The three-year period beginning in 1867 when the young Emperor Meiji came to the throne is known as the “Meiji Restoration”. • His reign lasted until his death in 1912 and is known as the “Meiji period”
Oligarchy– a form of government in which a small group of people have all the power • In Japan, this now consisted of the samurai who supported the Emperor (advisors) and the Emperor
Control (i.e. China); economic and military strength (establish it’s place) TheMeiji leaders began their program of reform by changing the way Japan was governed. They had two goals: • To create a strong central government that could unite the country and rule it effectively • To create a form of government closer to the democracies of the West
Symbol of power to the Japanese people Believed to be the descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu. Began their transformation by emphasizing that allegiance to the emperor was the foundation of a strong nation.
Movethe imperial court from Kyoto to Tokyo (previously Edo), the Capital Nowthe government and the emperor were in the same location and the connection between the two would be apparent.
Meijileaders encouraged the daimyo to turn over their lands to the state in return for pensions as compensation Abolish the samurai system (now only the government could collect taxes)
Restate each of the 1. Deliberative assembly shall be widely terms of the Oath in established and all matters decided by public your own words. discussion. 2. All classes, high and low, shall unite in Which of the terms vigorously carrying out the administration of demonstrate a move the affairs of state. to a more democratic 3. The common people, no less than the civil government and and military of officials, shall each be allowed society? to pursue his own calling so that there may be no discontent. Which of the terms 4. Evil customs of the past shall be broken off do you find vague or and everything based upon the just laws of confusing? Do you nature. think that they would 5. Knowledge shall be sought throughout the have been clear to world so as to strengthen the foundation of the Japanese? imperial rule. Explain.
Commoners were given new rights after the Charter Oath. • Allowed to choose where they would live • Allowed to choose their occupation • Allowed to have a family surname • Dress codes were no longer enforced • Peasants were made outright owners of their land • Legislation was passed to end discrimination against outcasts.