Extraterrestial Volcanoes

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Extraterrestial Volcanoes

  1. 1. Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Sun Extraterrestrial Volcanoes
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ Fires that shook me once, </li></ul><ul><li>but now to silent ashes </li></ul><ul><li>fall'n away. Cold upon </li></ul><ul><li>the dead volcano sleeps </li></ul><ul><li>the gleam of dying day.” </li></ul><ul><li>Tennyson </li></ul>
  3. 3. Volcano Types: Shield Cone: Circular base, gentle slopes, basaltic, non-explosive. Cinder-cone: Small, steep, ejected material returns. Composite Cone: Large, explosive, fragments plus lava.
  4. 4. Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Sun Past Volcanism on Mercury Abundance of surface craters No craters more that 50 km in diameter Evidence of lava-filled craters Volcanic rock samples predate Earth Rock samples dated @ >3000 million years ago
  5. 5. Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Volcanic Activity on Venus 80% of the planet’s surface shows volcanic activity Several million volcanoes have been detected Venus is ( debatably) volcanically extinct Many volcanoes are several hundred km across, and thousands of km high
  6. 6. NASA Photo: A Volcano on Venus Largest volcanoes are shield-cone type No plate tectonics, which is part of how Earth cools Unconfirmed cooling theories: hot spot volcanism and/or bubbling, blistering surface volcanoes
  7. 7. Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Terrestrial Volcanism is a separate topic not covered here; please refer to your textbook, the internet, or other relevant Earth-science resources.
  8. 8. Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Martian Volcanoes Mars is almost volcanically extinct; this is debatable Martian volcanoes are probably all shield-cone types Mars has at least 3 volcanoes larger than those on Earth Mars has the largest volcano in the solar system: Olympus Mons
  9. 9. Olympus Mons: A Shield Volcano on Mars Earth’s Largest Volcano : Mauna Loa 9 km high 120 km across Olympus Mons: 24 km high 550 km across x 3 = Mars ≈ 1/2 of Earth’s diameter Olympus Mons ≈ 3 times the size of Earth’s largest Volcano Huge size disparity due to Mars’ stationary crust, hence enormous hot-spots that build-up in stationary positions
  10. 10. Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Volcanoes on Io: A moon of Jupiter The most volcanically active place in the solar system At least 8 active volcanoes have been mapped Plumes extend ≈ 280 km above Io’s surface Molten rock spews out faster than the speed of sound The size of Io is ≈ Earth’s moon Jupiter ≈ 318 times more massive than Earth itself Io and Earth’s moon ≈ same orbit, but Io has greater gravitational stress, causing huge amounts of internal heat
  11. 11. Io: One of Jupiter’s Moons
  12. 12. Io: Images from Galileo’s Mission (“Raw” images) (Digitally remastered)
  13. 13. Io Lesson Plans & Activities: presented by ThursdaysClassroom.com August 3, 2001 Thursday's Classroom Corner These stories and lessons are based on the Science@NASA article &quot;Another Daring Adventure for Galileo&quot; KIDS’ STORIES: These far-out discussion questions are as hot as the volcanoes on Io. [lesson plan] [questions] Me-O, My-O, Io!: Students will use the words in the kid's stories and the Volcano Glossary to create their own volcanic verse. Sample poems include Haiku, limerick and simple rhyming forms. [lesson plan] [activity sheet] [sample poems] [glossary] Volcano Jeopardy: Divide your class into competing teams and play this fun game designed to familiarize students with volcanoes all over the Solar System. [lesson plan] [Jeopardy Questions] [Volcanoes Around the Solar System] Io Pizza Party: Some scientists think Io looks like a gigantic pepperoni & olive pizza. Students can decide for themselves by making their own Io Pizza Pie and comparing their work to pictures of Io. [lesson plan] [Io picture] Paper Clip Quicky: In this quick and easy lesson, students use paper clips to understand how Io got so hot on the inside. [lesson plan]
  14. 14. Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Volcanoes on Other Moons of Jupiter: Europa and Ganymede have “ Cryovolcanism !”
  15. 15. Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Triton: The seventh (and largest) of Neptune’s Moons also features “ Ice Volcanoes! ”
  16. 16. Triton is the only large moon with a retrograde orbit Temperature equals Pluto’s ≈ - 235ºC Surface contains only a few craters The surface is young; older features destroyed Ice Volcanoes ! Liquid Nitrogen ??
  17. 17. Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Pluto Venus Mercury Earth Mars Jupiter ? Scientists continue to search for evidence of extraterrestrial volcanism…… ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  18. 18. Websites Used for Research can be found at: www.deafscience.net under the “Astronomy” category And…on your Earth Science Class Web you can download the document “ E.T. Websites. ”

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