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Oncolytic Virus Therapy

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General introduction to use of viruses to treat cancers.

Oncolytic Virus Therapy

  1. 1. Oncolytic Viral Therapy <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presented by Katherine Sawyer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Oncolytic Viral Therapy <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Onco-” = cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ -lytic” = killing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral = using virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy = for treatment </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Onco = Cancer <ul><li>Cancer is…… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual cell growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by genetic mutation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually in form of tumor </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Onco = Cancer <ul><li>Cancer …… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual cell growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by genetic mutation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually in form of tumor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks immune system with proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes resources from healthy cells </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Onco = Cancer <ul><li>Cancer …… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual cell growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by genetic mutation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually in form of tumor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks immune system with proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes resources from healthy cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can occur in almost any tissue </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cancer Treatments <ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove tumor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success only if all of tumor is removed, but many cancers metastasize (break and spread) or have irregular shapes difficult to remove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk associated with any invasive surgery </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cancer Treatments <ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of toxic drugs to kill the cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often severe side effects because it also kills some healthy cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly effective but side effects significant (nausea, fatigue, immune weakness) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cancer Treatments <ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation aimed at tumor to kill the tumor cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects severe, significant damage to surrounding tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly effective in reducing tumor </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cancer Treatments <ul><li>Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use carbon or other molecule to carry drug or radiation to the tumor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use shells of cells to carry drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach drugs to molecules that can fit through wide cancer blood vessel walls that healthy cells don’t have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetically draw device to tumor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry marker for tumor to monitor progress </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cancer Treatments <ul><li>Genetic Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use nanotechnology to re-program cancer cells’ DNA to make them die young. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Cancer Treatments <ul><li>Oncolytic Viral Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically modifying a virus so that it kills cancer cells instead of healthy cells </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Virus: Description <ul><ul><li>Protein shell with DNA inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a host cell to reproduce </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Virus: Description <ul><ul><li>Requires a host cell to reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein shell with DNA inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease causing agent for diseases like measles, herpes, varicella (chicken pox), smallpox, HIV, adeno virus (common cold), influenza, rabies, and many others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike bacteria, there are no beneficial viruses (always kills its host) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Virus: Structure <ul><li>Protein shell called a capsid contains DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement of one or more protein fibers or spikes for bonding with host cell </li></ul>
  15. 15. Virus: Structure
  16. 16. Virus: Structure
  17. 17. Virus: Structure
  18. 18. Virus: Reproduction <ul><li>Attaches to host cell with spikes or filaments </li></ul>
  19. 19. Virus: Reproduction <ul><li>Attaches to host cell with spikes or filaments </li></ul>
  20. 20. Virus: Reproduction <ul><li>Attaches to host cell with spikes or filaments </li></ul>
  21. 21. Virus: Reproduction <ul><li>Attaches to host cell with spikes or filaments </li></ul>
  22. 22. Virus: Reproduction <ul><li>Once attached, it pushes its DNA inside the cell, </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the cell’s DNA as building blocks for its new DNA </li></ul><ul><li>New virus breaks through cell wall </li></ul>
  23. 23. Virus: Reproduction
  24. 24. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Method <ul><li>Choose a resilient virus that is successful in human body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herpes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adeno virus (common cold) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenza virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallpox </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Method <ul><li>Choose a resilient virus that is successful in the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Splice DNA into virus DNA that codes for a protein that bonds well and is attracted to tumor’s protein </li></ul>
  26. 26. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Method <ul><li>Choose a resilient virus that is successful in the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Splice DNA into virus DNA that codes for a protein that bonds well and is attracted to tumor’s protein </li></ul><ul><li>Inject the modified viruses into tumor site </li></ul>
  27. 27. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Method <ul><li>Choose a resilient virus that is successful in the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Splice DNA into virus DNA that codes for a protein that bonds well and is attracted to tumor’s protein </li></ul><ul><li>Inject the modified viruses into tumor site </li></ul><ul><li>Used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and nanotechnology </li></ul>
  28. 28. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Challenges <ul><li>Genetic modification to match specific cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Main challenge is patient’s own immune system killing the virus before the virus can kill the cancer. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Challenges <ul><li>Genetic modification to match specific cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Main challenge is patient’s own immune system killing the virus before the virus can kill the cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast acting virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of virus on the virus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Block immune system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Timeline <ul><li>1970’s Mayo Clinic noted that measles patients with cancer experienced tumor reduction </li></ul><ul><li>1980’s research proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Human genome project, other genetic research </li></ul><ul><li>2005 first clinical trials of oncolytic viral therapy </li></ul>
  31. 31. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Trials <ul><li>Measles Virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most successful trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain cancer –high success rate (Mayo Clinic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple myeloma --previously incurable bone cancer (Mayo Clinic) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Trials <ul><li>Seneca Valley Virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Neoptrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful at destroying small cell lung cancer </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Trials <ul><li>Adeno Virus (cold virus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to kill cells with common mutation of colon cancer (unidentified research group) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful with breast, liver, skin cancers (University of Birmingham) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Trials <ul><li>Herpes Virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of tumors (Baylor University in San Diego with Immusol in China) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% success rate with pancreatic cancer previously a nearly untreatable cancer (Nagoya University, Japan) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Specialized Trials <ul><li>Measles Virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusogenic Membrane Glycoproteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(FMG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes cancer cells to fuse with each other and die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Mayo Clinic) </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: SpecializedTrials <ul><li>Intravenous VS Virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First trial of intravenous oncolytic viral therapy(others used injection at tumor site) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential to “chase down” metastasized cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(University of Calgary) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Specialized Trials <ul><li>Polymer-coated Adeno Virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the oncolytic virus from patient immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Oxford University) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Specialized Trials <ul><li>Polymer-coated Adeno Virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the oncolytic virus from patient immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Oxford University) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heating bone cancer to fever temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stops production of protective protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oncolytic virus has higher success rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(University of Southern California, San Francisco) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Specialized Trials <ul><li>Smallpox virus modified to kill cancer cells and also stimulate production of white blood cells which weaken cancer </li></ul><ul><li>(Stanford University) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Benefits and Hope for the Future <ul><li>Fewer side effects than other treatments </li></ul>
  41. 41. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Benefits and Hope for the Future <ul><li>Fewer side effects than other treatments </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer treatments required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The virus increases and continues “dosage” because it replicates itself </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Benefits and Hope for the Future <ul><li>Fewer side effects than other treatments </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer treatments requiredThe virus increases and continues “dosage” because it replicates itself </li></ul><ul><li>Treating previously incurable cancers </li></ul>
  43. 43. Oncolytic Viral Therapy: Benefits and Hope for the Future <ul><li>Fewer side effects than other treatments </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer treatments required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The virus increases and continues “dosage” because it replicates itself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treating previously incurable cancers </li></ul><ul><li>Greater success rate, survival rate </li></ul>
  44. 45. Sources <ul><li>&quot; Chemo drug helps cancer-killing virus.  &quot;  UPI NewsTrack .   (August 29, 2006): NA.  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Mayo Clinic Cancer Center -- Harnessing the Measles Virus to Attack Cancer ; Seeking a Cure for Glioblastoma Multiforme , Other Deadly Cancers.  &quot;  The America's Intelligence Wire .   (Oct 30, 2006): NA.  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Researchers Find New Cancer-Fighting Virus That Kills Invasive Brain Cancer.  &quot;  CNW Group .   (Oct 31, 2006): NA.  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; British scientists to use common cold virus to fight cancer.  &quot;  Xinhua News Agency .   (Jan 11, 2007): NA.  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  </li></ul>
  45. 46. Sources <ul><li>&quot; Common virus pitted against cancer.  &quot;  UPI NewsTrack .   (June 21, 2007): NA.  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Anticancer virus for heads for trials.  &quot;  Pharmaceutical Technology Europe .   18.7 (July 2006): 11(1).  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  Seppa, N. &quot; Virus attack on cancer: heat makes neglected technology work better.  &quot;  Science News .   168.6 (August 6, 2005): 85(2).  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; BIOTECHNOLOGY Progress in Magnetic Nanoparticle Cancer Therapy.  &quot;  Nanoparticle News .   8.10 (Nov 2005): NA.  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  </li></ul>
  46. 47. Sources <ul><li>&quot; Drug delivery.  &quot;  Medical Device Technology .   17.5 (June 2006): 6(1).  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  </li></ul><ul><li>Weeks, Katie. &quot; Targeting cancer with herpes: Immusol , Inc.  &quot;  San Diego Business Journal .   27.6 (Feb 6, 2006): 20(1).  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  </li></ul><ul><li>Goho, A. &quot; Nanotherapy : gold-drug combo could target tumors.(This Week) . .&quot;  Science News .   172.12 (Sept 22, 2007): 180(2).  General OneFile . Gale. Washtenaw Community College. 17 Jan. 2008  </li></ul>
  47. 48. Sources <ul><li>Kasuya, H, Takeda S, Nomoto S., Nakao A. “The Potential of Oncolytic Virus Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. Retrieved April 15, 2008 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15818382 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gene and Virus Therapy Program: Harnessing Viruses to Treat Cancer, Developing Novel Gene-Based Approaches” Mayo Clinic Research, Retrieved April 15, 2008 from http://cancercenter.mayo.edu/mayo/research/gene_virus_therapy_program/overview.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>The Measles Virus Tamed and Trained, Virotherapy: Reprogramming the Measles Virus to Attack Cancer Cells. Retrieved April 15, 2008 from http:// discoverysedge.mayo.edu/measles/index.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer-killing Virus Modified to Deliver a One-Two Punch, Retrieved April 15, 2008 from http://www.wired.com/medtech/genetics/news/2007/10/cancer_virus </li></ul>
  48. 49. Sources <ul><li>Genetically Engineered Viruses Set to Fight Cancer Retrieved April 15, 2008 from http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/20040416225902data_trunc_sys.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers use genetically modified cold virus to kill cancer cells (Oct. 2007) Retrieved April 15, 2008 from http://www.newscentre.bham.ac.uk/press/2007/10/Cancer_Cold_Virus_03_10_07.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>“ Genetically Engineered virus to kill cancer cells” Retrieved April 15, 2008 from http:// www.biotechblog.org / </li></ul><ul><li>“ Measles Virus to Kill Multiple Myeloma” Retrieved April 15, 2008 from http://medicineworld.org/news/news-archives/infectious-disease-news/June-20-2007.html </li></ul>
  49. 50. Presentation <ul><li>Presented April 17, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine Sawyer </li></ul><ul><li>Biology 103 </li></ul><ul><li>Washtenaw Community College </li></ul><ul><li>(Ann Arbor, Michigan) </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Ross Strayer </li></ul>

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