PATENT LANDSCAPING OFVACCINES AND DRUGSAVAILABLE FOR HIV-AIDS. Presented by : - Nirnimesh Pandiya Bhartrihari Pandiya Dept. of Management Sciences, NIT Silchar.
Intellectual property• Rights recognized for creation of mind.• Owners granted rights for intangible assets- music , literary , discoveries etc. Objectives. • Promoted progress. • Absolute protection. • Real property Limitations• Harms health, preventing progress• Public interests harmed by ever expansive monopolis.
Patent –Right to prevent others from using the patented inventionwithout permission.Application- Filing application(how to make and use of invention)drawings illustrate.
Copyright• Enacted by most govt. giving the creator exclusive rights to it for a limited time.• Copyright initially was conceived as a way for government to restrict printing; the contemporary intent of copyright is to promote the creation of new works by giving authors control of and profit from them
Scope• Applies to a wide range of creative,--poems, plays , movies etc.• Exclusive rights• to produce and sell the work.• to import or export the work• to create derivative works• to perform or display the work publicly• to sell or assign these rights to others• to transmit or display by radio or video
Trademark• Distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual, business organization, or other legal entity. A trademark may be designated by-• ™,• ℠,• ®
Trade-secretA trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument,pattern, or compilation of information which is not generallyknown or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business canobtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers
Patent landscaping• Its a comprehensive state of art search. It gives the past and present patent and non-patent activities of the competitors in the technology.• It provides information about the past and present activities of various top and small players in a given broad-spectrum of a technology, identifying the key competitors.
Description• This mapping of the intellectual property identifies the claims of competitive inventors and the scope of their coverage. PURPOSE• This task indicates what can be used freely from the public domain, such as expired patents. The analysis also highlights potential partners who own adjacent or competitive intellectual property.(can be used by public)
Advantage• A patent landscape analysis is a strategic element of a new product market launch. It helps understanding the business risks and opportunities presented by the intellectual property.• Helps to know whether or not it is already done or not. DISADVANTAGE• A landscape analysis does not report what areas give rights to commercialize. It does not specify, which areas can be specified.
Something About the disease Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a member of the retrovirus family. Causes Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system(T cells) allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.
TYPES• Two types of HIV have been characterized: HIV-1 and HIV-2.• HIV-1 is more virulent, more infective, and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally.• Because of its relatively poor capacity for transmission, HIV-2 is largely confined to West Africa.
CURE?• There is currently no publicly available cure for HIV infection. Treatment consists of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, or HAART.• Current HAART options are combinations (or "cocktails") consisting of at least three drugs of types of antiretroviral agents. Eg-reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitor.
• HAART neither cures the patient nor uniformly removes all symptoms• But many HIV-infected individuals have experienced remarkable improvements in their general health and quality of life.• Reduction in morbidity and mortality in the developed world.
Why no vaccine?• Large genetic variation among HIV-1 strains worldwide.• The virus’s sophisticated shielding mechanisms and a failure thus far to elicit a broadly reactive neutralization against native structures of the virus.
Vaccine A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. • Vaccines can be prophylactic (preventive)or therapeutic (e.g. to treat the patient after any disease has been diagnosed)
Patent• Due to activist pressure and competition from generic manufacturers there is a dramatic drop in the price of certain drugs to treat HIV and AIDS in developing countries.• Around 5.25 million people in low- and middle- income countries are currently receiving drugs to treat HIV/AIDS due to reduction in the price of antiretrovirals drugs (ARVs).
Indian Scenario• In 2001, Indian generic drug manufacturer, Cipla, announced that it would sell a generic copy of a triple-therapy antiretroviral for US$350 per patient per year. This had an incredible impact in the market.
Cost reduction• In the early 2000s, large pharmaceutical companies manufacturing drugs to treat HIV/AIDS were subject to intense pressure to lower their prices.• Organisations such as the Clinton foundation and UNITAID, alongside AIDS activists and a number of national governments, all worked to achieve price reductions.
• Brazil too aimed to break Merck AIDS drug patent. It wants lower price on anti-retroviral medication.• Steps to make an inexpensive generic version of an AIDS drug made by Merck & Co. available in Brazil despite the U.S. drug company’s patent.
Landscaping• The scope of the project was to conduct a patent landscape analysis of technologies pertaining to protein/peptide vaccines and drugs applicable to HIV.
Databases • Three databases were used for searching purpose(i) USPTO(ii) ESP@CENET &(iii) PATENT LENS.• A software named PATENT TOOLS was used
UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE(USPTO)
PREPARATION OF TABLES AND GRAPHSPatent vs. Country• A table was prepared and the number of patents allotted to assignee of different countries and graph was prepared on the result obtained.Patent vs. Publication Year• A table was prepared on the basis of number of patents allotted year wise and accordingly a graph was prepared.
Table showing the various data of a patent ANTIBODY SCREENING PEPTIDE SCREENING VS PROPHYLACTIC PEPTIDE/PROTEIN FORMULATION THERAPEUTIC ANTIBODIES OF LIBRARY PROTEINS PEPTIDES LIBRARY SL.NO PATENT NUMBER TITLE ASSIGNEE/APPLICANT Pyridinone Hydroxycyclopentyl WO Univ Georgia [US]; Nair Vasu [US]; Okello Carboxamides: Hiv Integrase 1 2011071849 (A2 T Inhibitors With Therapeutic Maurice O [US]; Nishonov Abdumalik A ) [US]; Mishra Sanjaykumar [US] Applications WO Ldl Quantitation And Methods 2 2011072115 (A1 Y Of USe Bristow Cynthia L [US] ) Peptides And Their Derivatives Internat Ct For Genetic Engineering And WO Inhibiting Extracellular Release Biotechnology Icgeb [IT]; Scuola Normale 3 2011070533 (A1 Y Y Of Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Hiv-1 Superiore Di Pisa [IT]; Agostini Silvia [IT]; ) Replication Giacca Mauro [IT] Tibotec Pharm Ltd [IE]; Medivir Ab [SE]; Kalayanov Genadiy [SE]; Kesteleyn Bart Rudolf Romanie [BE]; Parkes Kevin [GB]; Samuelsson Bengt Bertil [SE]; Schepens WO 5-Amino- 4-Hydroxypentoyl Wim Bert Griet [BE]; Thuring Johannes 2011070131 (A1 Y Amides Wilhelmus J [BE]; Wallberg Hans Kristian 4 ) [SE]; Wegner Joerg Kurt [BE]
Novel Phosph(On)Ate- And Sulf(On)Ate-Based Phosphate WO Univ Leuven Kath [BE]; Herdewijn Piet [BE];5 2011069688 (A1) Y Modified Nucleosides USeful As Marliere Philippe [FR] Substrates For Polymerases And As Antiviral Agents Membrane Proximal Region Of Hiv US 2011142869 (A1) Gp41 Anchored To The Lipid Layer Of Berkower Ira [US] A Virus-Like Particle Vaccine6 Y US 2011144050 (A1) Salts Of Hiv Inhibitor Compounds Gilead Sciences Inc [US]7 P US 2011142847 (A1) Methods Of Eliciting Broadly Panacos Pharmaceuticals Inc [US]; Government Of Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting Hiv- The U S Represented By The Secretary Dept Of 1 Gp41 Health And Human Services [US]8 Y US 2011142911 (A1) Hiv Epitopes And Pharmaceutical Composition Containing CENTRE NAT RECH SCIENT [FR]9 Y AU 2011202130 (A1) Siv And Hiv Vaccination USing Rhcmv- And Hcmv-Based Vaccine Vectors P UNIV OREGON HEALTH & SCIENCE10 EP 2333543 (A1) Analysis Of Hiv-1 Coreceptor USe IN Health Research Inc [US] The Clinical Care Of Hiv-1 Infected T Patients11 EP 2332538 (A1) Combinations Comprising A 4- Japan Tobacco Inc [JP] Isoquinolone Derivative And Anti-Hiv Agents Y12
• Abstract of WO 2011061590 (A1)• The present invention relates to carboxamide derivatives of Formula (I), where B1, B2, X, L, n, R, R1, R2, Z1, Z2, Rx and Ry are as defined in the claims, as compounds and compositions for inhibiting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and process for making the compounds.
Inference from Result• The results were almost one sided as US dominated the patent landscaping in this field as maximum patents were done by it in various areas of AIDS be it prophylactic or therapeutic.
Results Time-wise• Also most patents were granted recently. Thus it’s an eye- opener for other countries to research and apply for patents in this relevant disease which is spreading more and more. In this way least legal battles will be fought as monopoly of the United States in the patent domain will decrease.