CLOUD COMPUTING: A BOON FOR LIBRARY SERVICES Presented by Deepshikha Sen Nilratan Bhattacharjee Library Trainee Master in Library and Information ScienceNational Institute of Technology Assam University & Dr. Mukut Sarmah Assistant Professor Department of Library and Information Science Assam University
INTRODUCTIONCloud computing has evolved through a number of phases which includeautomatic computing, client-server model, mainframe computing, grid utilitycomputing and application service provision (ASP).But the overarching concept of delivering computing resources through a globalnetwork is rooted in the sixties. The idea of an "intergalactic computernetwork" was introduced in the sixties by J. C. R. Licklider, who was responsiblefor enabling the development of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects AgencyNetwork) in 1969. Cloud computing denotes a model on which a computing infrastructure is viewed as a “cloud,” from which businesses and individuals access applications from anywhere in the world on demand. The main principle behind this model is offering computing, storage, and software “as a service.”
MEANING OF CLOUD COMPUTINGAccording to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)definition (2009), Cloud computing is a model for enablingubiquitous, convenient on-demand network access to a shared pool ofconfigurable computing resources(e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidlyprovisioned and released with minimal management effort or service providerinteraction. Cloud computing is a model for delivery of resources as a service. The resources are retrieved from the Internet through various web based tools and application. Cloud computing resources includes infrastructure, service and lastly application. Cloud computing is so named because the information being accessed is found in the "clouds", and does not require a user to be in a specific place to gain access to it.
SERVICE MODELS OF CLOUD COMPUTINGSoftware as a Service (SaaS): It is the most familiar and widely used form ofcloud technology service. In this model the consumer use an application of theservice provider but does not control the OS and other hardware and software onwhich it is running. Googles Gmail and Apps, instant messaging fromAOL, Yahoo and Google, are common examples of this.Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): Here Cloud Computing providesgrids, servers, networks, storage and systems software on need basis. It providesfull control over the OS and all the resources. Ex. Amazon Elastic ComputeCloud (Amazon EC2), Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) Platform as a Service (PaaS): In this model service provider delivers virtualized servers on which customers can run existing applications or develop new ones without having to worry about maintaining the operating systems, server hardware, load balancing or computing capacity. Ex. Microsofts Azure, Force.com, Google Maps, ADP Payroll processing.
TYPES OF CLOUD COMPUTINGCloud computing can be divided into four types which are public, private, hybridand community cloud and each one has its own characteristics.Public cloud: In this model the vendor or service provider controls the wholecloud system and offers service on demand over Internet on pay-per-use basis. Itis also known as provider cloud.Examples of Public Cloud: Google App Engine, Microsoft WindowsAzure, IBM Smart Cloud, Amazon EC2 Private cloud Private clouds are generally built within an organization for the benefit of the particular organisation. Private cloud is also known as “internal cloud”. Examples of Private Cloud: Eucalyptus, Amazon VPC (Virtual Private Cloud), VMware Cloud Infrastructure Suite, Microsoft ECI data centre.
TYPES OF CLOUD COMPUTINGHybrid cloudHybrid cloud means the compilations of two cloud technology i.e. private andpublic cloud or internal and external cloud. It is also known as combined cloud.Examples of Hybrid Cloud: Windows Azure (capable of HybridCloud), VMware vCloud (Hybrid Cloud Services) Community cloud Community cloud infrastructure is shared by some organizations and supports a specific community that shares concerns (e.g. mission, education and compliance considerations).It may either be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. Examples of Community Cloud: Google Apps for Government, Microsoft Government Community Cloud.
benefits of cloud computing approach in librariesCloud computing helps in increased visibility and accessibility of collections.Cloud computing helps in reducing duplication of effort from network technicalservices and collection management.Make libraries greener by sharing computing power thus reducing carbonfootprints. For patrons, web-based cloud services can be accessed remotely at aconvenient time and also help to save transportation costs.It helps to create an illusion of availability of infinite computer resources ondemand.It helps to create an on-demand self sufficient service, thereby eliminating theneed for cloud user to plan ahead.
benefits of cloud computing approach in libraries Cloud technology is paid incrementally (you-pay-only-for-what-you-need) saving libraries’ money in the short run and then this money saved can be used for other important resources. Increased storage capacity helps libraries to store more data than on private computer systems. Highly automated atmosphere of cloud computing helps the libraries to keep a bay on IT personnel’s help for keeping software up-to-date, as maintenance is the job of the service provider on the cloud. With Cloud computing, services of libraries will have a new leap in the future. In fact, services provided by the libraries will become more user-centric, more professional and more effective. This will in turn help the libraries to create more knowledge benefits for the country .
Application of Cloud computing in librariesLibraries can build their computer system on web technology with cloud technologies sothat user can integrate more easily the system.Libraries can build digital library, content management system, institutionalrepository, Inter Library Loan (IIL) system and Integrated Library System (ILS) fromlocally-managed to vendor-hosted environment, of their own with the help of cloudtechnology.With the help of cloud computing technology libraries can host their website. TheDistrict of Columbia Public Library is using Amazon’s EC2 (Elastic Computing Cloud)service to host their website.Libraries can use cloud technology like Google Docs to collect responses to webforms, Google Calendar for instruction and meeting rooms, and Google Analytics tocollect statistics about their website, catalogue and blogs.Cloud technology can be applied for backing up of media collections and storing andaccessing of bibliographic data. Libraries can also store and maintain much of the samedata hundreds and thousands of times.
Service providers of Cloud computing for libraries • Polaris Library Systems- Library Automation System, it provides standard acquisition and processing system. The systems uses number of well know standards like MARC 21 for bibliographic data, XML, Z39.50 for information retrieval, Unicode etc. • Dura Cloud: Digital library services, Its concern of the Duraspace which is a collaboration of the Dspace digital library software and Fedora Commons, It is available for all type of libraries and also for consortia, It offers complete solution for digital library with standard software and hardware solution, It also provides open source code and the code needs to be installed on your machine.
CONCLUSIONCloud computing is a new and promising paradigm delivering ITservices as computing utilities. Cloud computing bring severalbenefits for libraries and give them a different future.Cloud computing encourages libraries and their users to participatein a network and community of libraries by enabling them to reuseinformation and socialize around information. It also creates apowerful, unified presence for libraries on the web and gives users alocal, group and global reach. Some problems such as platformsecurity, technical standards, regulatory and other services are notwell resolved yet in practice.