"Science demands from a man all his life. If you had
two lives that would not be enough for you. Be
passionate in your work and in your searching." Ivan Pavlov
Birth and Death
About Ivan Pavlov’s Life
Field of Research
Classical or Pavlovian Conditiong
Principles of Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov was born September 14, 1849
He died on February 27, 1936
Ivan Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849, in
In 1870, he began studying the natural sciences at the
University of Saint Petersberg.
In 1875, he graduated with a degree of Candidate of
Natural Sciences; however, wanting more education in
physiology, Pavlov enrolled in the Academy of Medical
Surgery. In 1879, he was awarded another gold medal.
In 1881, Pavlov married Seraphima Vasilievna
Karchevskaya, a teacher and had five children:
Wirchik, Vladimir, Victor, Vsevolod, and Vera. Wirchik
died in childhood.
In 1890, Pavlov was appointed as a professor at St.
Petersburg Military-Medical Academy.
During 1891-1900, at the Institute of Experimental
Medicine, Pavlov conducted his research on the physiology
In 1901, Pavlov was elected as corresponding member of the
Russian Academy of Sciences.
In 1904, during his Nobel Prize address, Pavlov introduced
his findings on conditioned reflexes.
In 1907, Pavlov was elected Academician of the
Russian Academy of Sciences.
In 1912, Pavlov received an honorary doctorate degree
from Cambridge University.
In 1915, Pavlov was awarded the Order of the Legion of
Pavlov died on February 27, 1936 in Leningrad.
Pavlov's primary interests were the study of physiology and natural
sciences. He helped found the Department of Physiology at the
Institute of Experimental Medicine and continued to oversee the
program for the next 45 years. While researching the digestive function
of dogs, he noted his subjects would salivate before the delivery of
food. In a series of well-known experiments he presented a variety of
stimuli before the presentation of food, eventually finding that, after
repeated association, a dog would salivate to the presence of a stimulus
other than food. He termed this response a conditional reflex. Pavlov
also discovered that these reflexes originate in the cerebral cortex of
the brain. Pavlov received considerable acclaim for his work, including
a 1901 appointment to the Russian Academy of Sciences and the 1904
Nobel Prize in Physiology. The Soviet government also offered
substantial support for Pavlov's work, and the Soviet Union soon
became a well-known center of physiology research.
Pavlov became a well-known psychologist after his
work with dogs and studying digestion. He developed
a theory called ‘Classical’ or ‘Pavlovian Conditiong’.
Ivan Pavlov conducted neurophysiological
experiments with animals for years after receiving his
doctorate at the Academy of Medical Surgery. He
became fully convinced that human behavior could be
understood and explained best in physiological terms
rather than in mentalist terms. The legendary
experiment for which Pavlov is remembered was when
he used the feeding of dogs to establish a number of
his key ideas.
Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the
school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. Discovered by Russian
physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs
through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally
Behaviorism is based on the assumption that learning occurs through
interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are
that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states
such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in
It's important to note that classical conditioning involves placing a neutral
signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with
dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring
reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus
with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the
tone alone could produce the salivation response.
In order to understand how more about how classical conditioning works, it is
important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process.
The Unconditioned Stimulus :-
The unconditioned stimulus is one that
unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a
response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite
foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this
example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned
The Unconditioned Response :The unconditioned response is the unlearned response
that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned
stimulus. In our example, the feeling of hunger in response
to the smell of food is the unconditioned response.
The Conditioned Stimulus :-
The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus
that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned
stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. In
our earlier example, suppose that when you smelled your favorite
food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is
unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was
paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually
trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the
whistle is the conditioned stimulus.
The Conditioned Response :The conditioned response is the learned response to the
previously neutral stimulus. In our example, the conditioned
response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of
The site or smell of food (the unconditioned stimulus)
causes the dog to salivate (the unconditioned
Ordinarily a neutral stimulus, such as a bell
ring does not cause the dog to salivate.
There is no response to food, only to a sound
where the dog may move it's ears.
We can however condition the dog to respond to the
Simply ring the bell and immediately follow it with
This should be repeated several times.
Eventually, the dog will salivate (conditioned
at the sound of the bell alone (the
The dog has associated the tone with food
and has been conditioned
Not only was Pavlov able to stimulate salivation through the sound of a
metronome. . He replaced the metronome with other stimuli for use as
the Conditional Stimulus. He conditioned the dogs using a buzzer, the
flash of a light, a touch on the dog's harness, and the use of different
pitches of a whistle in which the dogs had to differentiate between to
determine which pitch resulted in access to food.
He also wrote a book called conditioned reflexes.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for his
work on digestive secretions.