ppt on Ivan pavlov


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ppt on Ivan pavlov

  1. 1. "Science demands from a man all his life. If you had two lives that would not be enough for you. Be passionate in your work and in your searching." Ivan Pavlov
  2. 2.  Birth and Death  About Ivan Pavlov’s Life  Career  Field of Research  Classical or Pavlovian Conditiong  Principles of Classical Conditioning  Example  Intresting Information
  3. 3.  Ivan Pavlov was born September 14, 1849  He died on February 27, 1936
  4. 4.  Ivan Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849, in Ryazan, Russia.  In 1870, he began studying the natural sciences at the University of Saint Petersberg.  In 1875, he graduated with a degree of Candidate of Natural Sciences; however, wanting more education in physiology, Pavlov enrolled in the Academy of Medical Surgery. In 1879, he was awarded another gold medal.
  5. 5.  In 1881, Pavlov married Seraphima Vasilievna     Karchevskaya, a teacher and had five children: Wirchik, Vladimir, Victor, Vsevolod, and Vera. Wirchik died in childhood. In 1890, Pavlov was appointed as a professor at St. Petersburg Military-Medical Academy. During 1891-1900, at the Institute of Experimental Medicine, Pavlov conducted his research on the physiology of digestion. In 1901, Pavlov was elected as corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1904, during his Nobel Prize address, Pavlov introduced his findings on conditioned reflexes.
  6. 6.  In 1907, Pavlov was elected Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences.  In 1912, Pavlov received an honorary doctorate degree from Cambridge University.  In 1915, Pavlov was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honour.  Pavlov died on February 27, 1936 in Leningrad.
  7. 7. Pavlov's primary interests were the study of physiology and natural sciences. He helped found the Department of Physiology at the Institute of Experimental Medicine and continued to oversee the program for the next 45 years. While researching the digestive function of dogs, he noted his subjects would salivate before the delivery of food. In a series of well-known experiments he presented a variety of stimuli before the presentation of food, eventually finding that, after repeated association, a dog would salivate to the presence of a stimulus other than food. He termed this response a conditional reflex. Pavlov also discovered that these reflexes originate in the cerebral cortex of the brain. Pavlov received considerable acclaim for his work, including a 1901 appointment to the Russian Academy of Sciences and the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology. The Soviet government also offered substantial support for Pavlov's work, and the Soviet Union soon became a well-known center of physiology research.
  8. 8. Pavlov became a well-known psychologist after his work with dogs and studying digestion. He developed a theory called ‘Classical’ or ‘Pavlovian Conditiong’. Ivan Pavlov conducted neurophysiological experiments with animals for years after receiving his doctorate at the Academy of Medical Surgery. He became fully convinced that human behavior could be understood and explained best in physiological terms rather than in mentalist terms. The legendary experiment for which Pavlov is remembered was when he used the feeding of dogs to establish a number of his key ideas.
  9. 9.  Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.  Behaviorism is based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior.  It's important to note that classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response.  In order to understand how more about how classical conditioning works, it is important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process.
  10. 10.  The Unconditioned Stimulus :- The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus.  The Unconditioned Response :The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. In our example, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response.
  11. 11.  The Conditioned Stimulus :- The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. In our earlier example, suppose that when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the conditioned stimulus.  The Conditioned Response :The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. In our example, the conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.
  12. 12. The site or smell of food (the unconditioned stimulus) causes the dog to salivate (the unconditioned response). Ordinarily a neutral stimulus, such as a bell ring does not cause the dog to salivate. There is no response to food, only to a sound where the dog may move it's ears.
  13. 13. We can however condition the dog to respond to the tone. Simply ring the bell and immediately follow it with food. This should be repeated several times. Eventually, the dog will salivate (conditioned response) at the sound of the bell alone (the conditioned stimulus). The dog has associated the tone with food and has been conditioned
  14. 14. Not only was Pavlov able to stimulate salivation through the sound of a metronome. . He replaced the metronome with other stimuli for use as the Conditional Stimulus. He conditioned the dogs using a buzzer, the flash of a light, a touch on the dog's harness, and the use of different pitches of a whistle in which the dogs had to differentiate between to determine which pitch resulted in access to food. He also wrote a book called conditioned reflexes. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for his work on digestive secretions.