The mass of an atom consists of: Nucleus › Electrons- negative charge › Neutrons- neutral charge › Protons- positive charge Nucleus is made protons and neutrons Electrons orbit the Electrons nucleus
Biology is the study of life and living organisms. › Plant and animal life › Structure and functions of living things › Classification › Life Cycles › Origin and Evolution through time › Reproduction
Chemistry refers to: The study of matter. How atoms interact with other atoms. How chemical bonds are formed. The physical properties of matter. Changes from one state of matter to another (ex. solid to gas). Matter is organized by elements in the periodic table (see picture to the left).
Discover is defined as „to make known or visible‟. Knowledge is constructed when students are provided the opportunity to discover the expected content or lesson. Science must be taught as an active process-as something we do. Science experiments allow for such discovery to occur within the classroom.
States of energy: › Kinetic-energy due to motion › Potential-stored energy Forms: › Activation-the energy › Heat necessary to transfer or convert potential › Light energy into kinetic › Solar radiation energy. › Chemical When kinetic energy is › Electrical greatest, potential energy is lowest. › Magnetic Conservation of energy- › Sound The total energy within a › Mechanical closed system remains the same. Energy can not be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another.
Force-the action of Newton‟s Law of motion moving an object by › 1st law- an object at rest pulling or pushing. will remain at rest unless When force is applied to acted upon by an an object, work is unbalanced force. accomplished. › 2nd law-acceleration is produced when a force acts on mass and the greater the mass of the object being accelerated, the greater the amount of force needed to accelerate that object. › 3rd law- for every force, there is an equal and opposite force.
Geology is the study of Layers of the Earth: solid Earth, the rocks of › Crust-the outer portion which it is composed, of the Earth. It varies and the processes by from 3 miles to 40 miles which it evolves . thick. › Mantle-thickest layer of the Earth. It is located below the crust. It is made of mostly rocks and metals. Magma is formed in this layer. › Core-inner part of Earth. Solid inner core consists of iron and nickel and a liquid outer core.
Human body has many systems › Immune System-defends against to help it function: foreign proteins and infectious › Musculoskeletal System-The organisms. human skeleton consists of more than 200 bones held together by connective tissues called ligaments. Skeletal muscles allow for movement of › Respiratory System-takes in bones. (2) oxygen by expanding the lungs. When the lungs contract, › Nervous system- carbon dioxide is released. (3) Somatic-allows for voluntary control of skeletal muscles Automatic-controls cardiac and glandular functions (8) › Digestive and Excretory System- food is processed to acquire energy for the body. Waste that is not used is excreted. (1) › Circulatory System-process in which the heart pumps blood from the heart, through the lungs where it picks up oxygen › Reproductive System- child and distributes it to the rest of bearing system that occurs the body. It then cycles back through meiosis. through the heart. (9)
Inquiry model known as the learning cycle consist of three phases: Engage › Exploration › Concept invention › Application Evolved into the 5-E model › Engage-gain student‟s attention. Elaborate EVALUATION Explore › Explore-Student-centered, hands-on activity. › Explain-students present and share information with classmates. › Elaborate-students use the new concept they learned as it is Explain applied to new contexts. › Evaluate-the teacher uses authentic ways to measure learning in each phase.
A journal is a scientific tool used to record data. Observations result in various findings that must be recorded for use in future experiments. Scientists use a journal to record sights, sounds, smells, textures, speed, mass, or temperature of outcomes from experiments. Scientists might also use journals to record predictions of possible outcomes to refer to after a test has been conducted.
Knowledge is defined „as the acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, as from study or investigation‟. It is best constructed though hands-on activities that engage the mind and link to new ideas to prior knowledge. (4)
Life cycle of plants begins with a seed. Seeds begin to grow roots which extend through the soil. The roots allow for the plant to gather water and nutrients for the plant to sprout. The leaves that grow above the ground capture energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy through a process called photosynthesis. A tree sprout becomes a sapling as it continues to grow. Once the tree matures, it may produce fruit or flowers that generate more seeds. Seeds are then planted into the soil to cause the life cycle of another tree. (10)
Matter is defined as anything Three different states of that has mass or takes up matter: space. › Solid- Properties of matter: › Physical-Color, density, hardness, and conductivity › Thermal-sensitive to temp › Liquid- changes › Electrical- acts as a conductor or nonconductor of electrical current › Chemical-chemical properties of matter will › Gas- react with properties of different types of matter. It will not react with the same type of matter.
The common basic needs of all living things are air, water, food, and shelter. Living organisms need nutrients, the appropriate temperature, and a balanced ecosystem to survive and reproduce. The sun provides energy for plants; plants are consumed by animals, animals are consumed by other animals. When animals die, they become food sources for plants. An ecosystem must be balanced to exist. If it is disrupted by nonnative species or removal of organisms, animals and plants will either die or they must adapt to the change to survive.
Observation is a key part of how science it developed. We study and observe other living things to learn about their manner of survival. We observe how elements react to each other to create new man-made elements. Such creations might lead to a cure for what are now considered incurable diseases.
The moon completes a lunar New moon (11) Half moon (13) orbit around Earth in about 28 days. The moon‟s visibility from Earth is categorized in phases based on how much of the surface of the moon we can see. Crescent moon › New Moon- no moon can (12) Gibbous Moon (14) be seen in the sky. › Crescent moon- the shape of the moon is often compared to a banana. › Half moon-only half of the Full Moon moon is visible. › Gibbous moon-3/4 of the moon can be seen. › Full moon- the whole moon is visible.
Questions can be the starting “Who questions much, shall point to a great discovery. learn much, and retain Questions such as: much.” › How does that work? Francis Bacon (5) › Is their life on other planets? › Can plants grow in space? › What life exists at the bottom of the ocean? are fueling missions around the world to experiment and discover answers. These answers will be recorded and distributed to fellow scientists and people around the world.
Single-celled organisms In multi-celled organisms, cells reproduce by mitosis. In this divided through a process called process, a cell duplicates creating meiosis. In this process, the cell another cell with the same DNA. divides twice causing the genetic This process is also referred to as material to divide in half. When asexual reproduction since no genetic materials from a male exchange of genetic material and female species combine, the occurs. Each offspring is identical DNA material from both cells join to the parent cell. (15) creating a new life form. This process is also referred to as sexual reproduction. It requires DNA from two organisms of the same species to create a new organism. (16)
› Inner planets: Mercury Venus Earth Mars › Outer planets Jupiter Saturn Uranus Solar System consists of the stars, planets, Neptune dwarf planets, satellites, asteroids, › Dwarf planets meteoroids, comets. Pluto The sun is the star in our solar system which all Ceres planets revolve around. Eris Planets are large bodies orbiting the sun. Haumea Satellites are moons that orbit planets. Not all Makemake planets have moons. Dwarf planets are small bodies orbiting the sun. Asteroids are small, dense objects or rocks orbiting our sun. Meteoroids are fragments of rock in space, most originating from the debris left behind by comets. Comets are small icy objects traveling through space in an elongated, elliptical orbit around the sun.Earth Earth rotates on an axis. It takes 24 hours to complete one rotation. Earth completes one orbit around the sun in 365 ¼ days. One moon orbits Earth. It takes about 28 days to complete one full orbit around the Earth.
The TEKS require students to Tools: › Hand lenses gather information using specific › Computers equipment and tools. Teachers › Balances need to become familiar with › Cup and bowls these tools and have them › Thermometers available in their classrooms for › Clocks › Meter sticks student use. › Microscopes › Safety goggles › Compasses › Calculators › Hot plates › Graduated cylinders › Flasks › Test tubes and holders › Sound recorders › Burners › Timing devices By the 5th grade, students will become familiar with all of these tools and learn safe use within a science lab.
A synonym for understanding is comprehension. The most effective method to develop understanding for the student is to develop their science thinking skills. Table 4.1on page 265 of the TExES book lists all the steps necessary to develop understanding in the field of science.
Volcanoes are http://www.youtube. another factor that com/watch?v=uZp1 can cause changes dNybgfc in the Earth‟s surface. Watch the short video about volcanoes, by clicking the link on this page.
Weathering is a factor that Physical weathering: causes changes to occur in › Freeze-thaw occurs the Earth‟s surface. It occurs when water finds its way into joints or crevices when rock, soil, and minerals within a rock. When the break down by natural, water freezes, it chemical, and biological expands causing the processes. rock to break. It also occurs when water that Chemical weathering: contains salt crystals › Acid formation-acid is enters a rock. When the water evaporates, the formed under various salt crystals remain. conditions. In the event They expand and the of acid rain, rain fall can rock breaks. weather and create › Exfoliation happens in chemical changes within places such as the desert. Soil is exposed the properties of the soil. to high temperatures › Hydration-minerals in causing it to expand. rock absorb water and When the temperature cools, the soil contracts. expand. The chemical Stress from the changes composition of the rock in the soil causes the can change altering the outer layer of the rock rock‟s formation to peel off. altogether.
Experience: „a particular instance of personally encountering or undergoing something‟. Experiments provide the experience that a student needs to achieve success. Experiments provide the experience that leads to expert knowledge in a subject… such as science. (6)
Yield is the amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction. This is a science term that students begin to learn in upper elementary through high school.(17)
Zoology is study that relates to the animal kingdom. Zoologists study the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct.(7)