Introduction to Media Management  8. Practical Mediology 1      Kenji Saito <ks91@sfc.wide.ad.jp>                  SFC ∆N2...
“Technology is neither good nor bad, nor evenneutral. Technology is one part of the complex ofrelationships that people fo...
Mediology (Oct/25,27, Nov/1)DAY 1   Discuss what changes and problems arise when a new   medium (new technology) is cast i...
What is a medium anyway?What are ‘media’ in ‘Graduate School of Media Design’?                                     Introdu...
What is a Medium?   Any extension of ourselves                  – M. McLuhan “Understanding Media”   I think that we may c...
What is a Medium?   Any extension of ourselves                  – M. McLuhan “Understanding Media”   I think that we may c...
Today’s Agenda“LAWS OF MEDIA”“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”THE REVERSED GALAXY– Changes Caused by Digital MediaManaging Civilizati...
“LAWS OF MEDIA”Marshall and Eric McLuhan, “Laws of Media”Introduces a tool to think about mediaTetrad (group of four)   En...
Tetrad (of Media Effects)‘What general, verifiable statements can be madeabout all media?’ We are surprised to find only fou...
Ex. Tetrad for AutomobilesHuman mobility               Traffic jamPrivacy                      Traffic accidents            ...
EnhancementWhat does the artefact enhance or intensify or makepossible or accelerate?             – M. & E. McLuhan “LAWS ...
ObsolescenceIf some aspect of a situation is enlarged orenhanced, simultaneously the old condition orunenhanced situation ...
RetrievalWhat recurrence or retrieval of earlier actions orservices is brought into play simultaneously by thenew form?Wha...
ReversalWhen pushed to the limits of its potential, the newform will tend to reverse what had been its originalcharacteris...
Ex. Tetrad for AutomobilesHuman mobility               Traffic jamPrivacy                      Traffic accidents            ...
Today’s Agenda“LAWS OF MEDIA”“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”THE REVERSED GALAXY– Changes Caused by Digital MediaManaging Civilizati...
“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”Marshall McLuhan, “The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making ofTypographic Man”The invention and its impacts ...
Gutenberg’s Typographical PrinterJohannes Gutenberg1398? ∼ 1468?Invented typography inaround 1445, combiningvarious existi...
Gutenberg Bible180 copies were made onpaper and papyrus inabout five years startingfrom 145048 copies remainThe copies are ...
Meaning of This InventionThe invention of typography confirmed and extendedthe new visual stress of applied knowledge, prov...
From Manuscripts to PrintingManuscripts  Rare resources  Content and formats are inhomogeneous and  inconsistent  Identity...
Tetrad for TypographyHomogeneous and         Digital medianumerous copiesFixed points of view                 ENH REV     ...
The Gutenberg Galaxy                          Birth of ‘authors’                          Establishment of scientific      ...
Birth of ‘Authors’Identity of texts was not guaranteed before printing   Each manuscript possibly had different usage of  ...
Establishment of Scientific MethodsScientific methods, i.e.   Building up hypotheses and conducting   experiments with consi...
Acceleration of NationalismBeginning of collective national consciousness   Visualization and unification of ethnic languag...
Preparation for Birth of Moving Image. . . [Cinema] is a consistent series of static shots or“fixed points of view” in homo...
Separation of Complete and Incomplete MaterialsThe printed version is the complete one, clearlydistinguished from manuscri...
Establishment of IndividualismReading before printing was a group activityIt has transformed itself into a personal act   ...
Monotonization of Mass CultureTo make publishing a successful business, massprinting of popular and selling books was nece...
Infiltration of Typographical CultureFor the first 50∼100 years, typography was regardedjust as a convenient technique   For...
Today’s Agenda“LAWS OF MEDIA”“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”THE REVERSED GALAXY– Changes Caused by Digital MediaManaging Civilizati...
THE REVERSED GALAXY – Changes Caused by Digital                 Media What are the impacts of digital media?              ...
Tetrad for TypographyHomogeneous and         Digital medianumerous copiesFixed points of view                 ENH REV     ...
Let’s Draw a TetradDraw a tetrad for digital media   Enhancement     What does it enhance or intensify?   Obsolescence    ...
The Gutenberg Galaxy                          Birth of ‘authors’                          Establishment of scientific      ...
The Reversed Gutenberg Galaxy                        Death of “authors”                        Reconsidering scientific met...
History of Social Changes                            Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago)                                  Introduction to...
History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago)  Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to ag...
History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago)   Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to a...
History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago)   Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to a...
History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago)   Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to a...
History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago)   Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to a...
History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago)   Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to a...
History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago)   Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to a...
History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago)   Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to a...
History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago)   Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to a...
Peak Oil/Coal/Uranium. . .                                      Peak Oil                                           The poi...
A Big Picture — of Human Civilizations                                                                   Sun is the domina...
A Big Picture — of Human Civilizations                                                                   Sun is the domina...
A Big Picture — of Human Civilizations                                                                   Sun is the domina...
Today’s Agenda“LAWS OF MEDIA”“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”THE REVERSED GALAXY– Changes Caused by Digital MediaManaging Civilizati...
Managing CivilizationsTo share a viewpoint   NEO IN WONDERLAND — A Tale of Money That Changed   Our Future   Reading Druck...
NEO IN WONDERLAND                    A sci-fi monetary fantasy                    Existence of technology to               ...
Why Science Fiction?SF (science fiction) is  A literary or cinematic genre in which fantasy,  typically based on speculativ...
Reading Drucker from a Viewpoint of a Manager of Human                     Civilizations P.F. Drucker, “Management: Tasks ...
Motivation             Reading “If a female             student manager of a high             school baseball team read   ...
Motivation             Reading “If a female             student manager of a high             school baseball team read   ...
Motivation             Reading “If a female             student manager of a high             school baseball team read   ...
To read Drucker from a viewpoint of managing civilizationsBusiness, Enterprise → CivilizationEntrepreneurship → Our Resear...
Drucker says (on Purpose of Business)To know what a business is, we have to start with itspurposeIts purpose must lie outs...
Drucker says (on Customers and Definition of Business)“Who is the customer?” is the first and the crucialquestion in defining...
Drucker says (on Customers and Definition of Business)“Who is the customer?” is the first and the crucialquestion in defining...
Drucker says (on Customers and Definition of Business)“Who is the customer?” is the first and the crucialquestion in defining...
Drucker says (on Two Functions of Business)There will always be, one can assume, a need forsome sellingBut the aim of mark...
Drucker says (on Two Functions of Business)There will always be, one can assume, a need forsome sellingBut the aim of mark...
Drucker says (on Innovation)Innovation is not science or technology, but valueInnovation is not something that takes place...
Drucker says (on Innovation)Innovation is not science or technology, but valueInnovation is not something that takes place...
Drucker says (on Survival of Business)The social dimension is a survival dimensionAn enterprise exists in society and the ...
Drucker says (on Strategic Planning)Another, even more compelling, reason whyforecasting is not strategic planning is that...
Drucker says (on Structures)Strategy –that is, the answers to the questions,“What is our business? What should it be? What...
Structure with Earth Scale Operating System                     Present                                                   ...
Today’s Agenda“LAWS OF MEDIA”“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”THE REVERSED GALAXY– Changes Caused by Digital MediaManaging Civilizati...
Subject of DiscussionNetwork gift economy  from Bruce Sterling’s “Maneki Neko”  “We computer cops have names for your kind...
Maneki Neko“Maneki Neko” is one of many gift economy networks  Terminal devices direct people for mutual aids  Sometimes, ...
Further Settings for the Sake of DiscussionHow did the gift economy started?  A group of freesoftware including A.I. was c...
Assignment for Everyone1. Draw a media tetrad for the network gift economy    Just enumerate items for ENH, RET, OBS and R...
How to SubmitSend an e-mail message to ks91@sfc.wide.ad.jpSubject: media managementWrite your name, student # and your ans...
See you on Wednesday!                    Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.61/61
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Slides I used in the last term of Media Management Basics course I did until 2010 at Graduate School of Media Design, Keio University. Includes "Reading Drucker from a Viewpoint of a Manager of Human Civilizations."

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Practical Mediology 1

  1. 1. Introduction to Media Management 8. Practical Mediology 1 Kenji Saito <ks91@sfc.wide.ad.jp> SFC ∆N214Graduate School of Media Design, Keio University Fall 2010 Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.1/61
  2. 2. “Technology is neither good nor bad, nor evenneutral. Technology is one part of the complex ofrelationships that people form with each other andthe world around them; it simply cannot beunderstood outside of that concept.” — Samuel Collins Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.2/61
  3. 3. Mediology (Oct/25,27, Nov/1)DAY 1 Discuss what changes and problems arise when a new medium (new technology) is cast into a society Practice: Draw a media tetrad (assignment for everyone to draw another) Reading: M. McLuhan, “The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man” M. McLuhan, “Laws of Media: The New Science” P.F. Drucker, “Management: Tasks Responsibilities Practices”DAY 2 Discuss who would react how if a new medium is cast into a society based on a hypothetical example, and find out what problems would arise Text: B. Sterling, “Maneki Neko”DAY 3 Debate on the issues with respect to a new hypothetical medium from DAY 2 in the form of a simulated public hearing Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.3/61
  4. 4. What is a medium anyway?What are ‘media’ in ‘Graduate School of Media Design’? Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.4/61
  5. 5. What is a Medium? Any extension of ourselves – M. McLuhan “Understanding Media” I think that we may call anything existing between two persons a ‘medium’ – Kazuhiko Hachiya⇒ In this class, a medium is defined as follows: Any artifact, technology or being among people Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.5/61
  6. 6. What is a Medium? Any extension of ourselves – M. McLuhan “Understanding Media” I think that we may call anything existing between two persons a ‘medium’ – Kazuhiko Hachiya⇒ In this class, a medium is defined as follows: Any artifact, technology or being among people Ex. automobile, IP, HTTP, HTML, blog, industrial society, air Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.5/61
  7. 7. Today’s Agenda“LAWS OF MEDIA”“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”THE REVERSED GALAXY– Changes Caused by Digital MediaManaging CivilizationsSubject of Discussion and Assignment Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.6/61
  8. 8. “LAWS OF MEDIA”Marshall and Eric McLuhan, “Laws of Media”Introduces a tool to think about mediaTetrad (group of four) Enhances, Obsolesces, Retrieves, Reverses into Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.7/61
  9. 9. Tetrad (of Media Effects)‘What general, verifiable statements can be madeabout all media?’ We are surprised to find only four,here posed as questions: What does it enhance or intensify? What does it render obsolete or displace? What does it retrieve that was previously obsolesced? What does it produce or become when pressed to an extreme? – M. & E. McLuhan “LAWS OF MEDIA”Questions that can be asked about any media What are the side effects of the medium?A tool to realize what have not been realized Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.8/61
  10. 10. Ex. Tetrad for AutomobilesHuman mobility Traffic jamPrivacy Traffic accidents ENH REV RET OBSFreedom of Horses, horsemovement carriages and relatedPersonal space industries Urban living space Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.9/61
  11. 11. EnhancementWhat does the artefact enhance or intensify or makepossible or accelerate? – M. & E. McLuhan “LAWS OF MEDIA”For example, automobiles Enhance mobility of human Make mobile private space possible Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.10/61
  12. 12. ObsolescenceIf some aspect of a situation is enlarged orenhanced, simultaneously the old condition orunenhanced situation is displaced therebyWhat is pushed aside or obsolesced by the new‘organ’? – M. & E. McLuhan “LAWS OF MEDIA”For example, automobiles Make horses, horse carriages and related industries obsolete Make urban living space obsolete (birth of suburbs) Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.11/61
  13. 13. RetrievalWhat recurrence or retrieval of earlier actions orservices is brought into play simultaneously by thenew form?What older, previously obsolesced ground is broughtback and inheres in the new form? – M. & E. McLuhan “LAWS OF MEDIA”For example, automobiles Retrieve freedom of movement by one’s own will Retrieve personal space Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.12/61
  14. 14. ReversalWhen pushed to the limits of its potential, the newform will tend to reverse what had been its originalcharacteristicsWhat is the reversal potential of the new form? – M. & E. McLuhan “LAWS OF MEDIA”New technology produces new accidents – Paul Virilio⇒ Let’s also consider accidents as reversalFor example, automobiles Weaken mobility and privacy with traffic jam Take away mobility and privacy with traffic accidents Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.13/61
  15. 15. Ex. Tetrad for AutomobilesHuman mobility Traffic jamPrivacy Traffic accidents ENH REV RET OBSFreedom of Horses, horsemovement carriages and relatedPersonal space industries Urban living space Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.14/61
  16. 16. Today’s Agenda“LAWS OF MEDIA”“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”THE REVERSED GALAXY– Changes Caused by Digital MediaManaging CivilizationsSubject of Discussion and Assignment Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.15/61
  17. 17. “THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”Marshall McLuhan, “The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making ofTypographic Man”The invention and its impacts Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.16/61
  18. 18. Gutenberg’s Typographical PrinterJohannes Gutenberg1398? ∼ 1468?Invented typography inaround 1445, combiningvarious existingtechnologies of the time Hinted by a wine-press Gutenberg Typographical Printer Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.17/61
  19. 19. Gutenberg Bible180 copies were made onpaper and papyrus inabout five years startingfrom 145048 copies remainThe copies are owned byKeio University, British Li- Genesis Exodusbrary, etc. Gutenberg Bible (Keio) Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.18/61
  20. 20. Meaning of This InventionThe invention of typography confirmed and extendedthe new visual stress of applied knowledge, providingthe first uniformly repeatable commodity, the firstassembly-line, and the first mass-production. – M. McLuhan “THE GUTENBERG GALAXY” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.19/61
  21. 21. From Manuscripts to PrintingManuscripts Rare resources Content and formats are inhomogeneous and inconsistent Identity of text is not certain, no clarification of quotes, mosaic-like Viewpoints are not fixedPrinting Mass-produceable Consistently written and formatted Texts are identically copied Viewpoints are fixed Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.20/61
  22. 22. Tetrad for TypographyHomogeneous and Digital medianumerous copiesFixed points of view ENH REV RET OBSRenaissance Manuscripts Books as audio media Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.21/61
  23. 23. The Gutenberg Galaxy Birth of ‘authors’ Establishment of scientific methods Acceleration of nationalism Preparation for birth of moving image Establishment of difference between complete and incomplete materials Establishment of individualism Monotonization of mass culture : ⇒ Prepared the industrial society Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.22/61
  24. 24. Birth of ‘Authors’Identity of texts was not guaranteed before printing Each manuscript possibly had different usage of commas, plural/singular forms, etc.The invention of printing did away with many of thetechnical causes of anonymity, while at the sametime the movement of the Renaissance created newideas of literary fame and intellectual property. . . .Authorship before print was in a large degree thebuilding of a mosaic – M. McLuhan “THE GUTENBERG GALAXY” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.23/61
  25. 25. Establishment of Scientific MethodsScientific methods, i.e. Building up hypotheses and conducting experiments with consistent viewpoints, and Recording the achievements in the form of papers, so that others can reproduce the results or utilize them for economy of thought,were not possible before fixation of viewpoints andthe technology to make exact copies of the papersThe assembly line of movable types made possible aproduct that was uniform and as repeatable as ascientific experiment. – M. McLuhan “THE GUTENBERG GALAXY” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.24/61
  26. 26. Acceleration of NationalismBeginning of collective national consciousness Visualization and unification of ethnic languages Birth of mass media Propaganda with (moving) images. . . there is a mystery about nationalism. It neverexisted before the Renaissance, . . . The answer . . . isin the efficacy of the printed word in first visualizingthe vernacular and then creating that homogeneousmode of association which permits modern industry,markets, and the visual enjoyment of national status. – M. McLuhan “THE GUTENBERG GALAXY” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.25/61
  27. 27. Preparation for Birth of Moving Image. . . [Cinema] is a consistent series of static shots or“fixed points of view” in homogeneous relationship. – M. McLuhan “THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”. . . the image viewed by each audience isunmistakably the image caught by the eye of thecamera, regardless of the positions of their seats. . . – P. Virilio “GUERRE ET CINÉMA I” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.26/61
  28. 28. Separation of Complete and Incomplete MaterialsThe printed version is the complete one, clearlydistinguished from manuscripts being worked onBut in the days before the invention of printing thisdistinction would not by any means be so apparent.Nor could it be determined so easily by otherswhether any particular piece written in the deadauthor’s handwriting was of his own composition or acopy made by him of somebody else’s work. – M. McLuhan “THE GUTENBERG GALAXY” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.27/61
  29. 29. Establishment of IndividualismReading before printing was a group activityIt has transformed itself into a personal act Portable knowledge Equal accesses to knowledgeThe portability of the book, like that of theeasel-painting, added much to the new cult ofindividualism. – M. McLuhan “THE GUTENBERG GALAXY” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.28/61
  30. 30. Monotonization of Mass CultureTo make publishing a successful business, massprinting of popular and selling books was necessaryBirth of gate keepers Media decide the possibility for a specific information to be accessible Mechansim for information transfer with centric forces Popular information only can be wide-spread Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.29/61
  31. 31. Infiltration of Typographical CultureFor the first 50∼100 years, typography was regardedjust as a convenient technique For making manuscripts without handwriting Printed materials maintained the old format of manuscriptsUntil more than two centuries after printing nobodydiscovered how to maintain a single tone or attitudethroughout a prose composition. – M. McLuhan “THE GUTENBERG GALAXY” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.30/61
  32. 32. Today’s Agenda“LAWS OF MEDIA”“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”THE REVERSED GALAXY– Changes Caused by Digital MediaManaging CivilizationsSubject of Discussion and Assignment Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.31/61
  33. 33. THE REVERSED GALAXY – Changes Caused by Digital Media What are the impacts of digital media? Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.32/61
  34. 34. Tetrad for TypographyHomogeneous and Digital medianumerous copiesFixed points of view ENH REV RET OBSRenaissance Manuscripts Books as audio media Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.33/61
  35. 35. Let’s Draw a TetradDraw a tetrad for digital media Enhancement What does it enhance or intensify? Obsolescence What does it render obsolete or displace? Retrieval What does it retrieve that was previously obsolesced? Reversal What does it produce or become when pressed to an extreme?If it looks difficult, think of something concrete suchas blogs, Wikipedia or Twitter Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.34/61
  36. 36. The Gutenberg Galaxy Birth of ‘authors’ Establishment of scientific methods Acceleration of nationalism Preparation for birth of moving image Establishment of difference between complete and incomplete materials Establishment of individualism Monotonization of mass culture : ⇒ Prepared the industrial society Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.35/61
  37. 37. The Reversed Gutenberg Galaxy Death of “authors” Reconsidering scientific methods Acceleration of Earth-scale view Everyone becomes a film director Indistinguishable complete and incomplete materials Promotion of collaboration Diversification of cultural phenomena : ⇒ Prepared what comes next to the industrial society Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.36/61
  38. 38. History of Social Changes Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  39. 39. History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago) Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  40. 40. History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago) Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to agricultural society Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  41. 41. History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago) Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to agricultural societyIndustrialization (18∼19th century) Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  42. 42. History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago) Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to agricultural societyIndustrialization (18∼19th century) Transition from agricultural to industrial society Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  43. 43. History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago) Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to agricultural societyIndustrialization (18∼19th century) Transition from agricultural to industrial societyUpcoming shift (21st century) Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  44. 44. History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago) Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to agricultural societyIndustrialization (18∼19th century) Transition from agricultural to industrial societyUpcoming shift (21st century) Industrial society will terminate before your retirement Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  45. 45. History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago) Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to agricultural societyIndustrialization (18∼19th century) Transition from agricultural to industrial societyUpcoming shift (21st century) Industrial society will terminate before your retirement Transition from industrial to ??? society Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  46. 46. History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago) Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to agricultural societyIndustrialization (18∼19th century) Transition from agricultural to industrial societyUpcoming shift (21st century) Industrial society will terminate before your retirement Transition from industrial to creative society? Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  47. 47. History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago) Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to agricultural societyIndustrialization (18∼19th century) Transition from agricultural to industrial societyUpcoming shift (21st century) Industrial society will terminate before your retirement Transition from industrial to creative society? ↑ Sorry, type mismatch Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  48. 48. History of Social ChangesAgriculturalization (more than 15,000 years ago) Transition from hunting/collecting/fishing to agricultural societyIndustrialization (18∼19th century) Transition from agricultural to industrial societyUpcoming shift (21st century) Industrial society will terminate before your retirement Transition from industrial to creative society? ↑ Sorry, type mismatchChanges in how we share knowledge prepare forsocietal changesBut we need to take a look at this from energy pointof view Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.37/61
  49. 49. Peak Oil/Coal/Uranium. . . Peak Oil The point in time when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline (Wikipedia) After that, economy must slow down We have already entered the era of peak oil Moreover, all major energy sourceshttp://www.theoildrum.com/node/5177 will reach their production peak by the end of the first half of this century Civilizations as we know today will terminate before you retire Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.38/61
  50. 50. A Big Picture — of Human Civilizations Sun is the dominant source of energy in the atmosphere of Earth Solar Energy Mostly oil as its stock in the 20th cent. Heat Human makes Humanosphere humanosphere on Earth, utilizing the redirected energy flow Redirection of As results, heat and Energy Flow waste are producedNatural Reproduction Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.39/61
  51. 51. A Big Picture — of Human Civilizations Sun is the dominant source of energy in the atmosphere of Earth Solar Energy Mostly oil as its stock in the 20th cent. Heat Human makes Humanosphere humanosphere on Earth, utilizing the redirected energy flow Redirection of As results, heat and Energy Flow waste are produced We control energy flow to GenerateNatural Reproduction generate information flow Information Flow Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.39/61
  52. 52. A Big Picture — of Human Civilizations Sun is the dominant source of energy in the atmosphere of Earth Solar Energy Mostly oil as its stock in the 20th cent. Heat Human makes Humanosphere humanosphere on Earth, utilizing the redirected energy flow Redirection of As results, heat and Energy Flow waste are produced Control We control energy flow to GenerateNatural Reproduction generate information flow Information Flow That information flow controls energy flow, causing every problem Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.39/61
  53. 53. Today’s Agenda“LAWS OF MEDIA”“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”THE REVERSED GALAXY– Changes Caused by Digital MediaManaging CivilizationsSubject of Discussion and Assignment Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.40/61
  54. 54. Managing CivilizationsTo share a viewpoint NEO IN WONDERLAND — A Tale of Money That Changed Our Future Reading Drucker from a Viewpoint of a Manager of Human CivilizationsAs an introduction to the theme Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.41/61
  55. 55. NEO IN WONDERLAND A sci-fi monetary fantasy Existence of technology to change monetary economy completely P2P money that is consistent with material/energy circulation on Earth Free English translation http://grsj.jp/neo.pdf (CC-BY-SA 3.0) Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.42/61
  56. 56. Why Science Fiction?SF (science fiction) is A literary or cinematic genre in which fantasy, typically based on speculative scientific discoveries or developments, environmental changes, . . ., forms part of the plot or background. — American HeritageFictions with existing technology are just real Ex. A medical drama such as “ER”In a sci-fi story, unknown technology creates a drama Ex1 . Nanomachine medication Ex2 . Autopsy ImagingDesigning new media and cast them into a society= Living a near-future science fiction for real Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.43/61
  57. 57. Reading Drucker from a Viewpoint of a Manager of Human Civilizations P.F. Drucker, “Management: Tasks Responsibilities Practices” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.44/61
  58. 58. Motivation Reading “If a female student manager of a high school baseball team read Drucker’s “Management”” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.45/61
  59. 59. Motivation Reading “If a female student manager of a high school baseball team read Drucker’s “Management”” Made people realize that the book can be applied to any organization Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.45/61
  60. 60. Motivation Reading “If a female student manager of a high school baseball team read Drucker’s “Management”” Made people realize that the book can be applied to any organization This art of management must be applicable to the whole civilization! Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.45/61
  61. 61. To read Drucker from a viewpoint of managing civilizationsBusiness, Enterprise → CivilizationEntrepreneurship → Our ResearchSociety → EarthEconomy → Circulation of Energy and Materials Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.46/61
  62. 62. Drucker says (on Purpose of Business)To know what a business is, we have to start with itspurposeIts purpose must lie outside of the business itselfIn fact, it must lie in society, since businessenterprise is an organ of societyThere is only one valid definition of businesspurpose: to create a customer Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.47/61
  63. 63. Drucker says (on Customers and Definition of Business)“Who is the customer?” is the first and the crucialquestion in defining business purpose and businessmissionIt is not an easy, let alone an obvious questionHow it is answered determines, in large measure,how the business defines itself Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.48/61
  64. 64. Drucker says (on Customers and Definition of Business)“Who is the customer?” is the first and the crucialquestion in defining business purpose and businessmissionIt is not an easy, let alone an obvious questionHow it is answered determines, in large measure,how the business defines itselfThe customer of a civilization is Nature, and for themost part Biosphere Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.48/61
  65. 65. Drucker says (on Customers and Definition of Business)“Who is the customer?” is the first and the crucialquestion in defining business purpose and businessmissionIt is not an easy, let alone an obvious questionHow it is answered determines, in large measure,how the business defines itselfThe customer of a civilization is Nature, and for themost part BiosphereTo be productive is, for example, to maintain andenhance Biodiversity Services that Nature provides for human (annually US$33T) worth nearly double of the world’s GDP altogether Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.48/61
  66. 66. Drucker says (on Two Functions of Business)There will always be, one can assume, a need forsome sellingBut the aim of marketing is to make sellingsuperfluousThe aim of marketing is to know and understand thecustomer so well that the product or service fits himand sells itselfThe second function of a business is,. . ., innovation Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.49/61
  67. 67. Drucker says (on Two Functions of Business)There will always be, one can assume, a need forsome sellingBut the aim of marketing is to make sellingsuperfluousThe aim of marketing is to know and understand thecustomer so well that the product or service fits himand sells itself Selling → Development Marketing → Natural Science To sell → Utilization of resources (bring human apparatus into Nature) Ex. Use parachute instead of reverse the engine if there’s atmosphereThe second function of a business is,. . ., innovation Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.49/61
  68. 68. Drucker says (on Innovation)Innovation is not science or technology, but valueInnovation is not something that takes place insidean organization but is a change outsideThe measure of innovation is impact on theenvironment Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.50/61
  69. 69. Drucker says (on Innovation)Innovation is not science or technology, but valueInnovation is not something that takes place insidean organization but is a change outsideThe measure of innovation is impact on theenvironmentInnovation of civilization is a change outside (=Earthly environment) To think positively of our influences over Nature Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.50/61
  70. 70. Drucker says (on Survival of Business)The social dimension is a survival dimensionAn enterprise exists in society and the economyWithin an institution one always tends to assume thatthe institution exists by itself in a vacuum And managers inevitably look at their business from the insideBut the business enterprise is a creature of societyand the economySociety or the economy can put any business out ofexistence overnight Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.51/61
  71. 71. Drucker says (on Strategic Planning)Another, even more compelling, reason whyforecasting is not strategic planning is thatforecasting attempts to find the most probable courseof events or, at best, a range of probabilitiesBut the entrepreneurial problem is the unique eventthat will change the possibilities Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.52/61
  72. 72. Drucker says (on Structures)Strategy –that is, the answers to the questions,“What is our business? What should it be? What willit be?” determines the purpose of structureAnswering those questions determines the keyactivities in a given business or service institutionEffective structure is the design that makes these keyactivities capable of functioning and of performance Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.53/61
  73. 73. Structure with Earth Scale Operating System Present Near Future Human Users Human Economy Applications Human Economy Financial System OS Earth-Scale OS Benefits Marketing andExploitation in Return Innovation Poor People, Nature, Life Forms and Children Earth and Biodiversity Hardware Earth and Biodiversity Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.54/61
  74. 74. Today’s Agenda“LAWS OF MEDIA”“THE GUTENBERG GALAXY”THE REVERSED GALAXY– Changes Caused by Digital MediaManaging CivilizationsSubject of Discussion and Assignment Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.55/61
  75. 75. Subject of DiscussionNetwork gift economy from Bruce Sterling’s “Maneki Neko” “We computer cops have names for your kind of people. Digital panarchies. [snip]. . .You’re a tax evader! You’re living through kickbacks! And bribes! And influence peddling! And all kinds of corrupt off-thebooks transactions! [snip] Well, your network gift economy is undermining the lawful, government approved, regulated economy!” “Well,” Tsuyoshi said gently, “maybe my economy is better than your economy.” Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.56/61
  76. 76. Maneki Neko“Maneki Neko” is one of many gift economy networks Terminal devices direct people for mutual aids Sometimes, direction is made to help non-members Members know one another with common gestures In the case of “Maneki Neko”, a catpaw gestureAn assistant federal prosecutor from Providence,Rhode Island, USA bagged hardware from asoftware pirate Attacks began by “Maneki Neko” whose network was partially damaged by the act But it turns out to be another direction for a meeting Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.57/61
  77. 77. Further Settings for the Sake of DiscussionHow did the gift economy started? A group of freesoftware including A.I. was cast into the open global sensor network environment The A.I. network began to use human beings as actuators for optimization by the metrics of happiness The group of freesoftware has been maintained by volunteers The first author was an anonymous programmer Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.58/61
  78. 78. Assignment for Everyone1. Draw a media tetrad for the network gift economy Just enumerate items for ENH, RET, OBS and REV2. Enumerate who (or what organizations) wouldreact from what points of view if the network gifteconomy is cast into our society At least 3 instances3. Assuming that the U.S. congress will hold a publichearing on the matter of handling network gifteconomy (surficially on the matter of a missing assistant federal prosecutor ofRhode Island), enumerate with reasons 3 parties thecongress would call as witnesses Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.59/61
  79. 79. How to SubmitSend an e-mail message to ks91@sfc.wide.ad.jpSubject: media managementWrite your name, student # and your answers in themail body (no attachments necessary) Be concise!Deadline: Wednesday, October 27, 2010, 03:00 JST Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.60/61
  80. 80. See you on Wednesday! Introduction to Media Management: Practical Mediology 1 – p.61/61

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