In what context (at what time and in what place) did Edwards deliver this sermon? Who would have represented Edwards' &quot;ideal&quot; audience? What message does Edwards convey in this passage? What reactions do Edwards' carefully crafted images attempt to evoke? Did Edwards employ vocabulary with which are you unfamiliar? If so, use a dictionary to look up any unfamiliar terms.
Thousands would come to hear him speak Converted slaves and Native Americans Religious skeptics such as Franklin even gave in to him
English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory. Hobbes is remembered today for his work on political philosophy, although he contributed to a diverse array of fields, including history, geometry, physics of gases, theology, ethics, general philosophy, and political science. Nonetheless Hobbes's account of human nature as self-interested cooperation has proved to be an enduring theory in the field of philosophical anthropology. no government, illegitimate government, or legitimate government with less than full political power Men in a state of nature, that is a state without civil government, are in a war of all against all in which life is hardly worth living. The way out of this desperate state is to make a social contract and establish the state to keep peace and order. Because of his view of how nasty life is without the state, Hobbes subscribes to a very authoritarian version of the social contract.
wikipedia was an English philosopher. Locke is considered the first of the British Empiricists, but is equally important to social contract theory. His ideas had enormous influence on the development of epistemology and political philosophy, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers, classical republicans, and contributors to liberal theory. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. This influence is reflected in the American Declaration of Independence. Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin for modern conceptions of identity and &quot;the self&quot;, figuring prominently in the later works of philosophers such as David Hume, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Immanuel Kant. Locke was the first philosopher to define the self through a continuity of &quot;consciousness.&quot; He also postulated that the mind was a &quot;blank slate&quot; or &quot;tabula rasa&quot;; that is, contrary to Cartesian or Christian philosophy, Locke maintained that people are born without innate ideas. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/ Much of Locke's work is characterized by opposition to authoritarianism. This opposition is both on the level of the individual person and on the level of institutions such as government and church. For the individual, Locke wants each of us to use reason to search after truth rather than simply accept the opinion of authorities or be subject to superstition. He wants us to proportion assent to propositions to the evidence for them. On the level of institutions it becomes important to distinguish the legitimate from the illegitimate functions of institutions and to make the corresponding distinction for the uses of force by these institutions. The positive side of Locke's anti-authoritarianism is that he believes that using reason to try to grasp the truth, and determining the legitimate functions of institutions will optimize human flourishing for the individual and society both in respect to its material and spiritual welfare. This in turn, amounts to following natural law and the fulfillment of the divine purpose for humanity.
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/#TwoTreGov Two Treatises Of Government The Second Treatise of Government provides Locke's positive theory of government - he explicitly says that he must do this ”lest men fall into the dangerous belief that all government in the world is merely the product of force and violence.“ Locke's account involves several devices which were common in seventeenth and eighteenth century political philosophy — natural rights theory and the social contract. Natural rights are those rights which we are supposed to have as human beings before ever government comes into being. We might suppose, that like other animals, we have a natural right to struggle for our survival. Locke will argue that we have a right to the means to survive. When Locke comes to explain how government comes into being, he uses the idea that people agree that their condition in the state of nature is unsatisfactory, and so agree to transfer some of their rights to a central government, while retaining others. This is the theory of the social contract. These radical natural right theories influenced the ideologies of the American and French revolutions. So we have rights to life, liberty, health and property - influence on Revolutions. These are natural rights, that is they are rights that we have in a state of nature before the introduction of civil government, and all people have these rights equally. the law of nature is revealed by reason .
George Washington and Virginia militia started it – French defeated them at first battle at Fort Necessity in Pennsylvania Ended in 1763 with signing of Treaty of Paris British assume colonists should pay more of the burden – start taxing, but still a lot less than British citizens pay.
50-75% of males in america could vote; only 20% in England All led to distinctive sense of American identity – personal independence, public virtue, suspicion of concentrated power – republican identity
Took place in fall 1774 Meeting of delegates from 12 colonies to discuss what to do after the Intolerable Acts John Adams, Samuel Adams from Massachusetts John Jay from New York George Washington and Patrick Henry from Virginia They demanded the repeal of the Intolerable Acts Called for the training of militias Called for new boycotts against British goods Would meet again in May 1775 if demands were not met
Revolution Causes 2011
Causes of the American Revolution
<ul><li>Mercantilism </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of the Great Awakening </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>The French and Indian War </li></ul><ul><li>Social Differences between England and colonists </li></ul>
Mercantilism <ul><li>One nation could only achieve wealth at the expense of another </li></ul><ul><li>Export as much as possible, import as little as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies are there for the good of the Mother Country </li></ul><ul><li>American colonists smuggle goods – “salutary neglect” </li></ul>
The Great Awakening <ul><li>A series of emotional religous revivals that spread across the American colonies in the late 1730s and 1740s </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction against growing formality in the churches. </li></ul><ul><li>Splintering of American Protestantism – new congregations </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual message that God works directly through people, not churches or institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction against the Enlightenment </li></ul>
Jonathan Edwards <ul><li>Yale minister – believed people becoming too concerned with worldly goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke with fury and conviction </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” – bleak outlook </li></ul><ul><li>fear of divine punishment to bring his audiences to repentance. </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ Oh sinner! Consider the fearful danger you are in: ‘tis a great furnace of wrath, a wide and bottomless pit, full of the fire of wrath, that you are held over in the hand of that God, whose wrath is provoked and incensed as much against you as against many of the damned in hell: you hang by a slender thread, with the flames of divine wrath flashing about it, and ready every moment to singe it, and burn it asunder; and you have no interest in any mediator, and nothing to lay hold of to save yourself, nothing to keep off the flames of wrath, nothing of your own, nothing that you ever have done, nothing that you can do, to induce God to spare you one moment.” </li></ul>
George Whitefield <ul><li>Minister from England who toured American colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Actor by training </li></ul><ul><li>Gave very emotional sermons </li></ul>
What was the significance of the Great Awakening? First experience shared by all people across the colonies – more American identity Broke down social barriers New faiths were more democratic – message of greater equality
Thomas Hobbes <ul><li>State of Nature </li></ul><ul><li>“ No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short .” (Leviathan) </li></ul>(1588 - 1679)
John Locke <ul><li>” The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges everyone: and reason which is that law, teaches all mankind who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions…“ (II, 6) </li></ul>(1632 - 1704)
Social Contract Theory <ul><li>2nd Treatise of Government </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>“ Life, liberty, health, property”…sound familiar? </li></ul>
How do you see these principles play out in the creation of the US?
<ul><li>Known as the Seven Years’ War in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>French and Indians v. colonists and British </li></ul><ul><li>France lost Canada and all territory east of Mississippi except New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists find major differences between them and the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists started moving west – resulted in Proclamation of 1763 </li></ul><ul><li>British debt almost doubles because of war in colonies </li></ul>
Shared Colonial Characteristics <ul><li>no titled aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>ownership of property – widely distributed </li></ul><ul><li>ethnic and religious diversity </li></ul><ul><li>broad eligibility to vote </li></ul><ul><li>relative absence of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>lack of deference to authority </li></ul>
Events Leading to Revolution <ul><li>Colonial protests of the taxes – Sons and Daughters of Liberty, Liberty trees and effigies </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Resolves </li></ul><ul><li>Boston Massacre </li></ul><ul><li>Boston Tea Party </li></ul><ul><li>Intolerable Acts </li></ul>
Protest! <ul><li>Virginia Resolves - Patrick Henry - May 1765 </li></ul><ul><li>Summer 1765 - mobs throughout cities </li></ul><ul><li>Boston - Sons of Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Repeal of the Stamp Act, Pass Declaratory Act: “ in all cases whatsoever ” 1766 </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Americans protest the Stamp Act? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Delegates except from Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>What did they accomplish? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted Intolerable Acts repealed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Militia training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New boycotts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting in May 1775 if needed </li></ul></ul>