The Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Establishing a System of Government </li></ul>
The Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Written by the 2 nd  Continental Congress and ratified in 1777 </li></ul><ul><li>13 ...
Article I <ul><li>The Stile of this Confederacy shall be &quot;The United States of America&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>(form...
Article II <ul><li>Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right...
Article III <ul><li>The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their com...
What is a  “ confederation ” ? A loose alliance of sovereign states
Government in the Confederation <ul><li>One branch – legislature (unicameral, not bicameral) </li></ul><ul><li>One vote pe...
<ul><li>“ The states during this period (1783-1787) were held together by a rope of sand. ”  George Washington </li></ul>
<ul><li>Northwest Ordinance (1787): created single Northwest Territory out of lands north of the Ohio River. Created pathw...
Weaknesses <ul><li>no national executive </li></ul><ul><li>no national courts </li></ul><ul><li>national government could ...
Shay ’ s Rebellion <ul><li>Post-war depression 1784-1787 </li></ul><ul><li>outstanding debt in Confederation from war </li...
<ul><li>“ So long as any individual state has power to defeat the measures of the other twelve, our pretended union is but...
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Articles of Confederation Lecture

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  • “ In a confederation, the individual political units, States in this case, maintain their sovereignty (in other words, each is its own nation), but they join together in a coordinated way to deal with certain issues, such as security. This independence of each political unit is seen as both the main advantage and main disadvantage of a confederation. To put it into perspective, many confederations have been tried throughout world history, but none survive today. ”
  • 1787 Creation of the Northwest Territory – first organized territory of the US out of region south of Great Lakes and north and west of the Ohio River and east of Mississippi Established precedent by which the US would expand westward by the admission of new states and not expansion of existing states Prohibited slavery in the territory – establisehd Ohio River as boundary between free and slave territory in between Appalachians and Mississippi Many states were trying to claim the territory beforehand; lingering British presence too until War of 1812 Jefferson proposed creating new states – 17 roughly rectangular states and suggested names for the states – adopted as the Land Ordinance of 1784 – established the example that would be basis for NW Ordinance Established precedent for lands to be administered by central government temporarily Mandate for statehood with pop. Of 60,000. first state created was Ohio in 1803 – remained was then named Indiana Territory – other four states were Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and 1/3 of Minnesota Created civil govt in the territory under direct jurisdiction of Congress – appointed Territorial Governor with 3 year term; Territorial Secretary with 4 year term, 3 judges with no limit; pop. Of 5,000 free male inhabitants could then form general assembly for legislature Natural Rights provisions foreshadowed Bill of Rights – in Ordinance of 1787 – legal and property rights, religious tolerance, encouragement of schools, habeas corpus, bans on excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment, trial by jury, ban on ex post facto laws Supposed to ban slavery, but much slavery continued until almost the Civil War Article VI required fugitive slaves retunred – gave slave owners more power min. 60,000 for statehood; freedom of religion, right to trial by jury, prohibited slavery ran into problems with Indians see p. 136 for diagram of Ordinance of 1785
  • made formal requests for troops and taxes - states could refuse president was presideing officer at sessions of Congress each state had single vote; at least 9 had to approve measures 1781-1789 - lacked power to deal with interstate issues or enforce will British forces remained in frontier posts along Great Lakes; states put tariffs on each other
  • war bonds were sold during war that needed to be repaid; owed money to soldiers; debts abroad no power to tax, received 1/6 of money it asked for from states states increased taxes, but farmers thought this unfair
  • Articles of Confederation Lecture

    1. 1. The Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Establishing a System of Government </li></ul>
    2. 2. The Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Written by the 2 nd Continental Congress and ratified in 1777 </li></ul><ul><li>13 Articles – the first constitution of the U.S. – outlines how the government will function. </li></ul><ul><li>Fearful of the new government becoming tyrannical – why? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Article I <ul><li>The Stile of this Confederacy shall be &quot;The United States of America&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>(formally names the confederation) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Article II <ul><li>Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled. </li></ul><ul><li>(each state is a free and sovereign state, and any power not granted the federal government is reserved for the States) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Article III <ul><li>The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever. </li></ul><ul><li>(establishes a common defense pact, much like present-day NATO) </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is a “ confederation ” ? A loose alliance of sovereign states
    7. 7. Government in the Confederation <ul><li>One branch – legislature (unicameral, not bicameral) </li></ul><ul><li>One vote per state </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 majority needd to pass laws </li></ul><ul><li>Unanimous vote needed to pass amendments (a change or addition to the Articles of Confederation) </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>“ The states during this period (1783-1787) were held together by a rope of sand. ” George Washington </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Northwest Ordinance (1787): created single Northwest Territory out of lands north of the Ohio River. Created pathway for statehood. </li></ul><ul><li>Precedent set for future westward expansion – new states would be formed rather than other states gaining more land. </li></ul><ul><li>Still did not earn much money for the government though. </li></ul>Success
    10. 10. Weaknesses <ul><li>no national executive </li></ul><ul><li>no national courts </li></ul><ul><li>national government could not collect taxes </li></ul><ul><li>national government could not raise an army </li></ul><ul><li>national government could not regulate trade </li></ul>
    11. 11. Shay ’ s Rebellion <ul><li>Post-war depression 1784-1787 </li></ul><ul><li>outstanding debt in Confederation from war </li></ul><ul><li>1786: Daniel Shays leads uprising in Massachusetts - dispersed in January 1787. </li></ul><ul><li>Helped movement to new national constitution </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>“ So long as any individual state has power to defeat the measures of the other twelve, our pretended union is but a name, our confederation, a cobweb. ” - Noah Webster, in Sketches of American Policy (1786) </li></ul>

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