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Vietnam Conflict
LBJ chose not to run for reelection Middle of the night updates, death tolls, opposition at home...
Involvemement Under Nixon <ul><li>“ Peace with honor” </li></ul><ul><li>Pledged to keep SV non-comm., but hard without war...
Vietnamization <ul><li>war & peace at same time </li></ul><ul><li>withdraw US troops & allow SV to take over </li></ul>
Nixon Doctrine <ul><ul><li>Limit US troops fighting in Asian wars </li></ul></ul>
1968-1972
Attacks in Laos <ul><li>Bombed along Ho Chi Minh Trail for 6 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>150,000 tons of bombs </li></ul>
<ul><li>Successful in reduced movement along the  </li></ul><ul><li>Trail, but not stopping it completely… </li></ul><ul><...
Attacks in Cambodia <ul><li>US into Cambodia to “secure troops leaving VN” </li></ul>
<ul><li>US college campuses in an uproar >>> </li></ul>
Kent State Massacre (5/2/1970) <ul><ul><li>Riots downtown after troops to Cambodia  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Gu...
Kent State Massacre (5/2/1970) <ul><li>Not violent at first – put flowers in rifles </li></ul><ul><li>People began to push...
 
Cooper-Church Amendment <ul><ul><li>No US troops outside of Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No air raids in Cambodia w/...
Impact on Cambodia <ul><li>100,000 peasants died; 2 million homeless </li></ul><ul><li>Right wing government in Cambodia s...
Impact on Cambodia
Impact on Cambodia <ul><li>Pol Pot was educated in France; admired Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = agrarian socialism </li...
<ul><li>led to one of bloodiest regimes in 20th century  </li></ul><ul><li>3 years  </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 million killed <...
Involvement under Nixon <ul><li>Vietnamization was FAILING </li></ul><ul><li>Secret peace talks in Paris 1971 and through ...
Withdrawal of US Troops <ul><li>Treaty of Paris  was signed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cease-fire signed (includes Laos & Cambo...
Withdrawal of US Troops <ul><li>Last group left >  1972 </li></ul><ul><li>NV didn’t break  </li></ul><ul><li>promise but  ...
Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Average age Vietnam soldier = 22 years, not 18  </li></ul><ul><li>20% of soldiers drafted, n...
 
 
The parade of Vietnam veterans down Broadway in Manhattan, 1985; 10 years after the war the American soldiers were finally...
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Vietnam conflict day 6

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Vietnam conflict day 6

  1. 1. Vietnam Conflict
  2. 2. LBJ chose not to run for reelection Middle of the night updates, death tolls, opposition at home...
  3. 3. Involvemement Under Nixon <ul><li>“ Peace with honor” </li></ul><ul><li>Pledged to keep SV non-comm., but hard without war </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vietnamization <ul><li>war & peace at same time </li></ul><ul><li>withdraw US troops & allow SV to take over </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nixon Doctrine <ul><ul><li>Limit US troops fighting in Asian wars </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 1968-1972
  7. 7. Attacks in Laos <ul><li>Bombed along Ho Chi Minh Trail for 6 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>150,000 tons of bombs </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Successful in reduced movement along the </li></ul><ul><li>Trail, but not stopping it completely… </li></ul><ul><li>… So, ARVN attempted to invade and FAILED </li></ul><ul><li>750,000 Laotians died </li></ul>
  9. 9. Attacks in Cambodia <ul><li>US into Cambodia to “secure troops leaving VN” </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>US college campuses in an uproar >>> </li></ul>
  11. 11. Kent State Massacre (5/2/1970) <ul><ul><li>Riots downtown after troops to Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Guard called in to campus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>student rxn: cleaned & peaceful protests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but…ROTC building set on fire </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Kent State Massacre (5/2/1970) <ul><li>Not violent at first – put flowers in rifles </li></ul><ul><li>People began to push against Guards </li></ul><ul><li>Guardsmen: tear gas 1 st , bayonets, 70 shots fired </li></ul><ul><li>4 students died; 1 paralyzed; 8 wounded </li></ul>
  13. 14. Cooper-Church Amendment <ul><ul><li>No US troops outside of Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No air raids in Cambodia w/o Congress approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landmark amendment in Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended executive privilege </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Impact on Cambodia <ul><li>100,000 peasants died; 2 million homeless </li></ul><ul><li>Right wing government in Cambodia supported by US </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodians blamed government for bombings by US… </li></ul><ul><li>… and began to support the Khmer Rouge (communists) led by Soloth Sar (Pol Pot) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Impact on Cambodia
  16. 17. Impact on Cambodia <ul><li>Pol Pot was educated in France; admired Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = agrarian socialism </li></ul><ul><li>Three groups he targeted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City Dwellers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(wealthy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (high officials) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated </li></ul></ul>The Killing Fields
  17. 18. <ul><li>led to one of bloodiest regimes in 20th century </li></ul><ul><li>3 years </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 million killed </li></ul>
  18. 19. Involvement under Nixon <ul><li>Vietnamization was FAILING </li></ul><ul><li>Secret peace talks in Paris 1971 and through 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Many offensive attacks by NV & bombs by US </li></ul><ul><li>Then, Nixon got caught up in Watergate Scandal </li></ul><ul><li>“ Secret” bombings now public </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon decided best course was to halt all action in SE Asia </li></ul>
  19. 20. Withdrawal of US Troops <ul><li>Treaty of Paris was signed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cease-fire signed (includes Laos & Cambodia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>released POWs from NV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council to form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for SV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US sent monetary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aid to SV </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Withdrawal of US Troops <ul><li>Last group left > 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>NV didn’t break </li></ul><ul><li>promise but </li></ul><ul><li>SV leader didn’t </li></ul><ul><li>follow through </li></ul><ul><li>NV launched final </li></ul><ul><li>offensive in 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>SV leader resigned; ARVN surrendered to NV </li></ul>
  21. 22. Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Average age Vietnam soldier = 22 years, not 18 </li></ul><ul><li>20% of soldiers drafted, not majority </li></ul><ul><li>Two famous pictures: </li></ul><ul><li>80% of Vietnam Veterans glad they served & reported they would serve again if they could go back in time </li></ul><ul><li>Most Vets = successful transition to civilian life </li></ul><ul><li>Most U.S. hold Vietnam Vets = high esteem </li></ul>
  22. 25. The parade of Vietnam veterans down Broadway in Manhattan, 1985; 10 years after the war the American soldiers were finally welcomed home. After their return from Vietnam, many veterans in the US were treated with disrespect. There were few adjustment and help programs available and the public was divided in its opinion. American veterans received only partial benefits in comparison to earlier campaign veterans, Vietnam veterans were also stereotyped as drug addicts, violence seekers etc. As general interest about the war grew due to the media attention and Hollywood movies such as Platoon and Full Metal Jacket, efforts at correcting some of the problems have been made. Belated parades and memorials have sought to patch up some of the ill feeling, but many US veterans still feel that there are many areas that still need improvement.

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