Vietnam conflict day 3 4


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Vietnam conflict day 3 4

  1. 1. Vietnam Conflict
  2. 2. Involvement under Johnson <ul><li>&quot;I won't send American boys to do the fighting for Asian troops.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t want to be 1st pres. to lose a war </li></ul><ul><li>Increased troops to 27,000 in 1964 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Involvement under LBJ <ul><li>Believed S. rebellion caused by North </li></ul><ul><li>NV sending troops into S. through </li></ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh Trail b/c couldn’t cross 17 th parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Approved Operation Menu – </li></ul><ul><li>top secret raids against North = </li></ul><ul><li>bomb Trail in Laos & Cambodia </li></ul>
  4. 5. Video – 8 minutes <ul><li>Gulf of Tonkin Incident & </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Gulf of Tonkin Incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August 2, 1964 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USS Maddox attacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NV “ it was spying” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LBJ said 2 nd attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> occurred 2 days later for no reason… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… but never really happened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to Gulf of Tonkin Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- war powers to president until… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- only 2 dissenting votes in Congress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Used G. of T. to </li></ul><ul><li>escalate US </li></ul><ul><li>involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Rolling </li></ul><ul><li>Thunder – dropped </li></ul><ul><li>bombs on NV </li></ul><ul><li>Used more bombs in </li></ul><ul><li>four years than </li></ul><ul><li>combined total </li></ul><ul><li>dropped by Allied & </li></ul><ul><li>Axis in all WWII </li></ul>
  7. 8. Elephant Grass Huey General Westmoreland
  8. 10. Involvement under LBJ General Westmoreland’s policy of Attrition… Led to Search and Destroy missions: “clearing & securing operations” End of 1965: 80,000 troops
  9. 11. Phuc sustained third-degree burns to half her body and was not expected to live. But thanks to assistance from South Vietnamese photographer Nick Ut , and after surviving a 14-month hospital stay and 17 operations, she became an outspoken peace activist . - Wikipedia &quot;Napalm is the most terrible pain you can imagine,&quot; said Kim Phuc , known from a famous Vietnam War photograph. &quot;Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. Napalm generates temperatures of 800 to 1,200 degrees Celsius.&quot; 1972 Used in 1965 Napalm – 2 substances mixed with gasoline to gel SV attack – NOT US attack
  10. 12. Involvement under LBJ <ul><li>1967 ground war reached stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>US increased </li></ul><ul><li>air raids </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in many civilian casualties </li></ul><ul><li>Led to revulsion in US & abroad (China & SU) </li></ul>
  11. 13. Video <ul><li>Tet Offensive </li></ul>
  12. 14. Tet Offensive 1968 Jan. 31 st TET = Vietnamese New Year VC hit every major SV city almost simultaneously
  13. 15. First, Khe Sanh was attacked… Followed by Hue…
  14. 16. <ul><li>Considered longest & bloodiest battle of war </li></ul><ul><li>Over 3000 civilians killed by VC & NVA </li></ul><ul><li>US estimates approx. 8000 VC & NVA killed </li></ul><ul><li>40% of city destroyed in 26 days; 90% homeless </li></ul>Referred to as the Massacre at Hue
  15. 17. … Took 8 weeks to get all VC & NVA out… Saigon captured for 8 hours…
  16. 19. “ The United States won the battle, but lost the war for public opinion.” - HIST155/Briefings.htm Both sides claimed victory…
  17. 20. DA NANG HUE
  18. 22. Feb. 1, 1968--during Tet Offensive--General Nguyen Ngoc Loan, director of SV’s national police force, executed a Viet Cong prisoner on streets of Saigon.
  19. 23. After Tet, Westmoreland reassured America: “Victory was near” Start of 1969: 543,000
  20. 24. America divided: been told this since 1955 Then, they learned of the My Lai Massacre…
  21. 25. My Lai Massacre <ul><li>March 16, 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>In the Son My District (known VC area) 10-14,000 ppl </li></ul><ul><li>Charlie Company (150 ppl) under Capt. Medina </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. William Calley (50 ppl) </li></ul><ul><li>Lost 50 ppl in 2 mos. up to massacre </li></ul><ul><li>Search and destroy ordered in My Lai </li></ul><ul><li>2 objectives: revenge & body count </li></ul>
  22. 27. Lt. William Calley Hugh Thompson W/ him: Lawrence Colburn, Glenn Andreotta, and Ron Ridenhour
  23. 28. Found: 3 rifles, 10 hand grenades Reading from Hugh Thompson
  24. 29. <ul><li>CALLEY </li></ul><ul><li>1969 court martialed </li></ul><ul><li>109 counts of murder </li></ul><ul><li>Guilty of 33 </li></ul><ul><li>Dishonorable discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Life in prison </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced to 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Pardoned in 1974 </li></ul>
  25. 30. WELCOME to the Mandatory Draft
  26. 32. December 1, 1969 <ul><li>Males born btwn 1/1/44 and 12/31/50 </li></ul><ul><li>366 capsules pulled from glass jar & assigned an </li></ul><ul><li>RSN beginning with number 1 </li></ul><ul><li>radio, TV, film </li></ul><ul><li>low number = greater chance of being drafted </li></ul>Selective Service System History and Records.htm Affected 18 – 26 year olds
  27. 33. Draft Exemptions And Deferments <ul><li>Student Deferment </li></ul><ul><li>But if you drop out, expelled or fail out… </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hardship Deferment </li></ul><ul><li>3. Health Deferment </li></ul><ul><li>4. Occupational Deferment </li></ul><ul><li>Ministers, Teachers, Elected officials, Farmers </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conscientious Objectors </li></ul><ul><li> *Draft Dodgers… </li></ul><ul><li> Went to Canada, Mexico, Sweden, Am. “Underground” </li></ul>
  28. 35. The Anti-War Movement Arises