Korean conflict the fighting

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Korean conflict the fighting

  1. 1. Korean Conflict 1950-1953 The Fighting
  2. 2. <ul><li>A. The North Invades the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NK captures Seoul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NK pushes southward towards Pusan Peninsula (overtakes 90% of SK) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><ul><li>UN/SK prepares an offensive strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. MacArthur Clears the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hammer & Anvil OR vice-grip strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lands behind enemy at Inch’on & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pushes South </li></ul></ul>
  4. 7. <ul><ul><li>UN/SK recaptures Seoul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now what? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contained… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… but should </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they try for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>liberation? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>UN/SK pursue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roll-back policy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>C. The South Enters the North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UN/SK capture Pyongyang </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D. Chinese Involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese threatened to enter if… </li></ul></ul>
  7. 11. <ul><ul><li>Chinese infiltrated NK lines & captured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in Soviet troops too </li></ul></ul>
  8. 12. Bloody Ridge, after capture by NK on September 5, 1951 2,700 American & SK casualties and approx. 15,000 NK casualties. Heartbreak Ridge followed Bloody Ridge & claimed 3,700 American & French casualties and approx. 25,000 North Koreans and Chinese. (U.S. Army photo.)
  9. 13. <ul><ul><li>UN/SK pushed back and lost Seoul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Containment or Roll-back?… (again) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 16. <ul><li>E. MacArthur is Demoted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MacArthur: Bomb Southern China! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truman: NO! </li></ul></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>For what (4) reasons did MacArthur give for wanting to bomb Southern China? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlocking global issues… domino effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal “interest” -- How could the U.S. stop Communism in Korea but ignore it in China? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No ground troops – save American lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other military leaders supported his ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ no substitute for victory” – No appeasement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why was Truman opposed to the idea? </li></ul>
  12. 19. IMMEDIATE RELEASE April 10, 1951 ORDER TO GENERAL MACARTHUR FROM THE PRESIDENT I deeply regret that it becomes my duty as President and Commander in Chief of the United States military forces to replace you as Supreme Commander, Allied Powers; Commander in Chief, United Nations Command; Commander in Chief, Far East; and Commanding General, U.S. Army, Far East. You will turn over your commands, effective at once, to Lt. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway. You are authorized to have issued such orders as are necessary to complete desired travel to such place as you select. My reasons for your replacement will be made public concurrently with the delivery to you of the foregoing order, and are contained in the next following message.
  13. 20. IMMEDIATE RELEASE April 10, 1951 STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT With deep regret I have concluded that General of the Army Douglas MacArthur is unable to give his wholehearted support to the policies of the United States Government and of the United Nations in matters pertaining to his official duties. In view of the specific responsibilities imposed upon me by the Constitution of the United States and the added responsibility which has been entrusted to me by the United Nations, I have decided that I must make a change of command in the Far East. I have, therefore, relieved General MacArthur of his commands and have designated Lt. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway as his successor. Full and vigorous debate on matters of national policy is a vital element in the constitutional system of our free democracy . It is fundamental, however, that military commanders must be governed by the policies and directives issued to them in the manner provided by our laws and Constitution. In time of crisis, this consideration is particularly compelling. General MacArthur's place in history as one of our greatest commanders is fully established. The nation owes him a debt of gratitude for the distinguished and exceptional service which he has rendered his country in posts of great responsibility. For that reason I repeat my regret at the necessity for the action I feel compelled to take in his case.
  14. 22. Japan embargo Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan NATO Attacked for Comm. in China
  15. 23. <ul><li>F. Outcome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matthew Ridgeway > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. commander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN/SK regained land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to 38 th parallel again </li></ul></ul>

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