Chapter 1-Tish Raguse


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Chapter 1-Tish Raguse

  1. 1. Chapter One: Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards<br />By: TishRaguse<br />
  2. 2. Critical Legislature in Special Education<br />
  3. 3. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)<br /><ul><li>Emphasized access to general education for ALL students
  4. 4. PL 94-142: gave funding to states for special education (specifically to develop, expand, and improve their programs</li></ul>Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE): schools must provide services to children with special needs<br />Appropriate evaluation before a student can receive services<br />Individualized Education Program (IEP): summarizes a specific learning program that is individualized for each student<br />Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): requires students to be educated as much as possible in the general education classroom<br />Parents and students participate in making key decisions for that student<br />
  5. 5. Section 504<br /><ul><li>Provides special services to students whose disability substantially limits major life activities
  6. 6. Provides services to students who do not fit into one of IDEA’s 13 disability categories, but who still have special needs</li></li></ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)<br />Provides civil rights to all Americans who are disabled (not just students)<br />Examples of these rights include employment, public accommodations, transportation, and more. <br />
  7. 7. No Child Left Behind (NCLB)<br />Holds schools accountable for its students<br />Students are tested on state standards<br />Schools are evaluated on Annual Yearly Progress (AYP)<br />Parents and students can choose to switch to a different school if not satisfied with their current schools progress<br />Stresses the importance of reading and scientifically based education<br />Pushes to have all teachers highly qualified<br />
  8. 8. Key Elements in Schools Today<br />
  9. 9. Standards Based Education<br />All schools must teach content using the state standards as their goals<br />States have standards in all core subjects (language arts, math, social studies, science)<br />Some states have standards in health, art, and foreign languages<br />Student Accountability: measured by the state wide tests<br />
  10. 10. Inclusion<br />Inclusion refers to students with disabilities being included in the general education classroom<br />This means being physically, emotionally, and socially included in the general education classroom.<br />
  11. 11. Response to Intervention (RTI)<br />Used to provide early intervention to children who need it<br />3 Tiers: moving up means providing stronger interventions<br />
  12. 12. Universal Design for Learning (UDL)<br />Attempts to provide individual needs to students without drawing attention to the student<br />Proactive approach<br />Curricula is created to meet the needs of all students, including those with special needs<br />Utilizes new technologies<br />All students are challenged appropriately<br />Flexible methods and assessments<br />
  13. 13. Differentiated Instruction<br />Curricula is developed that utilizes different strategies so that students with different abilities and needs can learn<br />Goal is to “maximize each students growth and individual success”<br />
  14. 14. Evidence-Based Practice<br />Refers to using techniques and strategies in teaching that have been tested and proven effective in the classroom<br />
  15. 15. Diversity Considerations<br />Diversity representation in the classroom can be represented through culture, ethnicities, home setting, ELL students, economic status, sexual orientation, cognitive abilities, behaviors, and physical characteristics.<br />Teachers need to understand that each student has their own needs and be able to address these needs<br />