World History - The new imperialism


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World History - The new imperialism

  1. 1. The New Imperialism Building Overseas Empires
  2. 2. • Imperialism = a policy of conquering and ruling other lands Motives Driving New Imperialism
  3. 3. Motives Driving New Imperialism  Imperialism  Domination by one country of the political, cultural and economic life of another country  By the 1800’s Europe was very powerful economically and militarily and embarked on a path of aggressive expansion or “new imperialism” and brought many nations under their control
  4. 4. Motives Driving New Imperialism • Economic Interest – Industrial Revolution created needs and desires that required overseas expansion – Needed natural resources (steel, rubber, petroleum) – New markets of consumers to sell goods
  5. 5. Nations competed for overseas empires. Britain’s lead was challenged. • In the mid-1800s, Britain was the most powerful nation in the world. – It’s factories produced more good than those of any other country. – The British Navy guarded the oceans so that those goods could be shipped safely to ports around the globe. – British banks loaned the money needed to build factories, mines, and railroads worldwide. • By the late 1800s, however, Germany and the United States were challenging Britain’s economic leadership. • Faced with possible decline, Britain looked increasingly to its colonies for markets and resources. Motives Driving New Imperialism
  6. 6. Motives Driving New Imperialism • Political and Military Motives – Nations began to compete for overseas land and ruling a global empire increased a nations prestige around the world.
  7. 7. • Other countries followed Britain’s lead and came to see colonies as necessary for their economic well-being. – The French and Dutch expanded their holdings and by 1900 France had an empire second in size only to Britain’s. – Spain and Portugal attempted to build new empires in Africa. – Austria-Hungary moved into the Balkans. – Russia expanded into the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia. • Countries that had no colonies set out to acquire them. – Belgium, Italy, and Germany all took over lands in Africa (with Germany also taking an interest in East Asia & the Pacific islands). Motives Driving New Imperialism
  8. 8. Motives Driving New Imperialism • Two non-European countries, the United States and Japan, also became involved in overseas expansion during this period. – Both the U.S. and Japan were interested in East Asia. – The U.S. was also deeply tied to Latin America. • Increasingly, Europeans viewed an empire as a measure of national stature. • Thus, the race for colonies grew out of a strong sense of national pride as well as from economic competition.
  9. 9. Motives Driving New Imperialism • Humanitarian and Religious Goals – Missionaries and doctors felt they had an obligation to spread the blessings of western civilization to others including medicine, law and the Christian religion • Applying Social Darwinism – Imperial rulers used social Darwinism to justify expansion and said it was nature’s way of improving the human species
  10. 10. Motives Driving New Imperialism • Following the Industrial Revolution, Europeans regarded their new technology (weaponry, telegraphs, railroads etc.) as proof they were better than other peoples. • This attitude is a reflection of racism, the belief that one race is superior to others. • Europeans believed that they had the right and duty to bring the results of their progress to other countries What factors contributed to European imperialism in the 1800’s?
  11. 11. Spread of Western Imperialism • Weakness of non-Western States – European nations were growing stronger, while nations like Ottoman Middle East, Mughal India and Qing China were growing weak. – Wars among African people and the slave trade made the African countries weak • Western Advantages – Strong economies, well organized governments, powerful armies/navies, communication and good medical knowledge
  12. 12. Spread of Western Imperialism • Resisting Imperialism – Africans and Asians strongly resisted European rule although they did not have the same resources • Criticism at Home – Tool of the rich – Immoral – Democracy in the west but not promoting it around the world
  13. 13. Nations Competed for Empires • In the late 1800s, Europeans and Americans were eager to read about adventures in distant places. • Newspapers competed for readership by hiring reporters to search the globe for stories. – One of the most famous reporters of the day was Henry Stanley. • Stanley was hired in 1871 to find David Livingstone who had traveled deep into the heart of Africa and hadn’t been heard from in some years. • Ten months later, Stanley caught up with Livingstone and his account of their meeting made headlines around the world. Stanley became an instant celebrity.
  14. 14. Nations Competed for Empires • Novels and poetry also glorified Imperialism . – The most popular writer of the day was Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865- 1936). – Kipling appealed not only to his readers’ sense of adventure but also the their feelings of superiority. – He saw imperialism as a mission to “civilize non-Europeans” and urged his readers to: Take up the White Man’s Burden- Send forth the best ye breed- Go bind your sons to exile- To serve your captives’ need…
  15. 15. Forms of Imperial Rule • Indirect Rule – Practiced by French who sent officials and soldiers to administer their colonies – Goal was to impose French culture on the colonies • Direct Rule – Practiced by British who used local rulers to govern colonies – Encouraged children of local leaders to get educated in the West so that they would be a westernized generation
  16. 16. Forms of Imperial Rule • Sphere of Influence – Area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges • Protectorate – Local rulers were put in place but were expected to follow the rules of European advisors – Cost less to run than a colony
  17. 17. Impact of Imperialism • In answering the call of imperialism, Europeans altered the way of life on every continent.
  18. 18. European Imperialism