REFENCES Diane Sainsbury, Gota Esping-Andersen, Jane Lewis, Barbara Hobson, Anita Nyberg, Anne Thoursie, Jill Rubery, Peter Moss, Siv Gustafsson, Janet Gornik, Duvander, Ferrarini, Maurizio Ferrera, Eriksson, ... Celia Amorós, Paloma Villota, María Pazos, ... ESTATISTICS AND SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS EUROSTAT, OECD, INE, Observatory on Equality and Employment, Estatistic Sweden, Center for Equality Advancement (Iceland), EC, ... International Review of Leave Policies, ... RESEARCH IN PROGRESS
CONCLUSIONS: Towards a new Gender contract? Direction of Public Policies Gender equality, a goal both in paid and non-paid work Effects of parental leave on the labor market Use of parental leave is influenced by social moral and patterns Regulation of parental leave influences men's behavior in terms of how it is used 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 .
Policy gender – neutral doesn't exist by now four types of political responses and/or legislative reforms in terms of Gender Regime (Sainsbury) Direction of Public Policies Conservative ( Family values policies ) Pragmatic, with gender blindness (Women-oriented policies) Aimed at gender equality ( Equal oportunity policies) Responsible for true equality CONCLUSIONS 1.
Carlos Ortin Carlos Ortin We need to balance Gender equality, a goal both in paid and non-paid work Dichotomy about 'free choice': having children and pursuing a career. Effect on demographic issues. Autonomous and economic independence for women working at part-time. Optical illusion? Returning to the employment at risk. Measures that are trapping women in gender division of labor CONCLUSIONS 2.
Source: EUROSTAT (2007) Effects of Maternity/Paternity on employment Women Men
Maternal employment rates compared to female employment rates
Source: EUROSTAT (2007) Part-time in Europe: women and men Women Men
Effect on the salary gap and on occupational segregation. Effects of parental leave on the labor market CONCLUSIONS 3. 4. Use of parental leave is influenced by social mores and patterns Social changes: familiar diversity, new masculinity, egalitarian attitudes 5. Regulation of parental leave influences men's behavior in terms of how it is used Non-transferable + Payment + length and flexibility
Joint (to share) Women (Non-transferabl Men (Non-transferable Length - WEEKS Source: Castro,C. 2008; Castro,C, Pazos,M. (2007)
Joint (to share) and transferable Leave, MEANS: - Women: More time as caregivers with the children; - Women: More time off labour market - Women: More risky for employers CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Individual Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Maternity and Paternity: equal and non-transferable </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of desincentives for women's employment </li></ul><ul><li>Public System of Childcare </li></ul><ul><li>Public Services for care </li></ul>RE QUI RE MENTS