Enzyme practice test

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Enzyme practice test

  1. 1. ENZYME PRACTICE TEST Push F5 and use the arrow keys to quiz yourself and check the answers
  2. 2. 1  Enzymes are what type of macromolecule?  Protein Question… do you know all four types of macromolecules?  Protein, lipid, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate 
  3. 3. 2  Starch and sugar (monosaccharides) are both examples of what type of macromolecule?  Carbohydrate
  4. 4. 3  How do we test for starch? What do the negative and positive results look like? We use iodine to test for starch  Negative = brown  Positive = purple 
  5. 5. 4  How do we test for sugars? What do the negative and positive results look like? We use Benedict’s Solution to test for starch  Negative = clear blue  Positive = cloudy and a color change 
  6. 6. 5  What monomers is a starch molecule made of?  Starch is made of many glucose molecules bonded together in a long chain
  7. 7. 6  What does the enzyme amylase do?  Amylase breaks a starch molecule up into the individual glucose monomers  See the next slide for a visual representation of this process
  8. 8. 7  If you were to leave starch in your mouth and mix with the amylase in your saliva, how would the food taste after 5 minutes? Why? The food would taste sweet  The amylase broke the bonds in the starch molecules, so after a few minutes all you’d be left with is glucose, which is a sugar   If this is totally blowing your mind, go back to the previous slide and think about it. Or try doing it yourself and see how it goes 
  9. 9. 8  If you were to put catalase into a beaker of starch solution, what would happen? WHY? Nothing would happen!  Enzymes are specific. Like a lock and a key, they only work on the reaction that includes substrates that fit their specific shape.  Catalase is only able to react with hydrogen peroxide- it has the wrong shape for starch  So, catalase is not able to break down starch molecuels 
  10. 10. 9  What is a catalyst? A catalyst is anything that speeds up a reaction  Enzymes are a type of catalyst  If something is said to be catalyzed, it means the reaction was sped up by something  For example, the hydrolysis of starch is catalyzed by the enzyme called amylase 
  11. 11. 10  Write the chemical formula for the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme catalase. Do it in words AND in chemical formulas Hydrogen Peroxide  Water + Oxygen  HO  HO + O 2 2 2 2 
  12. 12. 11  In a chemical reaction, what are the reactants?  Reactants are the things you start with in a chemical reaction  H2O2  H2O + O2
  13. 13. 12  In a chemical reaction, what are the products?  Reactants are the things you end up with in a chemical reaction  H2O2  H2O + O2
  14. 14. 13  In enzyme catalyzed reactions, reactants have a special name. What is the special name?  Substrates  In enzyme-catalyzed reactions, the word reactant and substrate means the same thing  H2O2  H2O + O2 In this case, the hydrogen peroxide can be called a substrate
  15. 15. 14  When a potato is dropped into hydrogen peroxide, bubbles start to form. What are those bubbles?  O2 or oxygen gas
  16. 16. 15  When a potato is dropped into hydrogen peroxide, bubbles start to form. What liquid would be leftover in the beaker if this reaction were to go to completion?  Water
  17. 17. 16  What does excessive heat do to an enzyme? Since enzymes are proteins, high temperatures cause the shape to change  When the shape changes, the enzyme doesn’t function correctly anymore 
  18. 18. 17  What is activation energy?  Activation energy is the amount of energy needed to get a reaction started
  19. 19. 18  How are enzymes able to speed up reactions? Enzymes lower the amount of activation energy needed to start a reaction  Don’t be fooled! Enzymes don’t provide energy or raw materials, they just provide a way for the reaction to take place that needs less activation energy. 
  20. 20. 19  After an enzyme releases the products of the reaction, what happens to the enzyme? Nothing!  Enzymes are like car keys- they can be used over and over again (for the same car) as long as they aren’t damaged  The enzyme keeps it same shape and doesn’t get used up, so it’s able to keep catalyzing the reaction 
  21. 21. 20  How would the starch and water solution perform on these tests? Why? It would test positive for starch and negative for sugars  Starch reacts with iodine so it tests positive for starch. But, the Benedict’s test doesn’t react to the glucose molecules because in starch, they’re all stuck together  Solution Starch and Water Positive (+) or Negative (-) for Starch Positive (+) or Negative (-) for Simple Sugars
  22. 22. 21  How would a solution of starch, water, and amylase perform on these tests? Why? It would test negative for starch and positive for sugars  The amylase breaks the bonds in the starch molecule, leaving only sugars. Therefore, it will no longer test positive for starch but the Benedict’s test will test positive for the sugars  Solution Starch Water and Amylase Positive (+) or Negative (-) for Starch Positive (+) or Negative (-) for Simple Sugars
  23. 23. 22  What molecule is this? This is a starch molecule  It is made up of many glucose molecules bonded together  I know those are glucose molecules because glucose has six carbons, and therefore it has six sides (hexagon) 
  24. 24. 23  When a student drops a piece of potato into a beaker of hydrogen peroxide, bubbles start to form. What was in the potato that made this happen?  The potato cells contain an enzyme called catalase.
  25. 25. 23  Is this graph indicative of how enzymes react to different pH levels or concentration levels? How do you know?  This is what happens in different pH levels. Low and high pH levels cause the shape of the enzyme to change, therefore it doesn’t work correctly anymore and the activity level goes down. 
  26. 26. 24  Is this graph indicative of how enzymes react to different temperatures or concentration levels? How do you know?  Different concentration levels Increasing the concentration causes the activity to go up at first. But once you reach a certain point, there are already enough helpers (enzyme molecules) to handle the substrates that are there 
  27. 27. 25  Is this graph indicative of how enzymes react to different temperatures or concentration levels? How do you know?  This is what happens in at different temperatures High temperatures cause the shape of the enzyme to change, therefore it doesn’t work correctly anymore and the activity level goes down. Low temperatures cause reactions to take place more slowly, whether there is an enzyme present or not  

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