Digestion

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i ain't the one who made this but hope it helps (credits to my classmates in SLSU Lucban) *hi

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Digestion

  1. 1. Animal andHuman Digestion 2006-2007
  2. 2. Digestive System – Objectives Describe and understand the basic functions of the primary components of the digestive system. Compare the functions and locations of the digestive organs in man and animals. Differentiate between and identify digestive systems of man and animals.
  3. 3. Digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large, complex organic molecules into smaller components that can be used by the body. Molecules need to be small enough to diffuse across plasma membranes.
  4. 4. HUMAN DIGESTION
  5. 5. Four Components of Digestion Ingestion – this is the consumption of or taking in of nutrients. Digestion – the chemical breakdown of large organic molecules into smaller components by enzymes. Absorption – the transport or delivery of digested nutrients to body tissues. Egestion – the elimination of food waste materials from the body.
  6. 6. Ingestion  Food enters the human digestive tract through the mouth or oral cavity.  Humans are considered chunk feeders because they consume chunks of food that are then mechanically broken down.
  7. 7. Mouth Teeth mechanically break down food into small pieces. Tongue mixes food with saliva (contains amylase, which helps break down starch).
  8. 8. Mouth Epiglottis is a flap-like structure at the back of the throat that closes over the trachea preventing food from entering it.
  9. 9. Esophagus Approximately 10” long Functions include:1. Secrete mucus2. Moves food from the throat to the stomach using muscle movement called peristalsis If acid from the stomach gets in here that’s heartburn.
  10. 10.  Esophagus: muscular tube that connects mouth to stomach – Peristaltic waves send feed down the esophagus, (muscle contractions). – Reverse Peristalsis = blowing chunks – The cardia, located at the end of the esophagus prevents feed in the stomach from coming back into the esophagus. ( non- ruminants only)
  11. 11. Stomach J-shaped muscular bag that stores the food you eat, breaks it down into tiny pieces. Mixes food with digestive juices that contain enzymes to break down proteins and lipids. Acid in the stomach kills bacteria. Food found in the stomach is called chyme. 12
  12. 12. Small Intestine Small intestines are roughly 7 meters long Lining of intestine walls has finger-like projections called villi, to increase surface area. The villi are covered in microvilli which further increases surface area for absorption. 13
  13. 13. Small Intestine Nutrients from the food pass into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls. Absorbs: – 80% ingested water – Vitamins – Minerals – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Lipids * Secretes digestive enzymes 14
  14. 14. Large Intestine About 5 feet long Accepts what small intestines don’t absorb Rectum (short term storage which holds feces before it is expelled).
  15. 15. Large Intestine Functions – Bacterial digestion • Ferment carbohydrat es • Protein breakdown – Absorbs more water – Concentrate wastes
  16. 16. Accessory Organs Not part of the path of food, but play a critical role. Include: Liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
  17. 17. Liver Directly affects digestion by producing bile – Bile helps digest fat • filters out toxins and waste including drugs and alcohol 18
  18. 18. Gall Bladder Stores bile from the liver, releases it into the small intestine. Fatty diets can cause gallstones
  19. 19. Pancreas Produces digestive enzymes to digest fats, carbohydrates and proteins Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin
  20. 20. Understanding the Digestive Systems Ruminants  Non-ruminants
  21. 21. A RUMINANT ANIMAL Has four distinctive compartments in its stomach, which swallows its food essentially unchewed, regurgitates, and chews it thoroughly and reswallows it again. Examples include cattle, sheep, goats, deer, rhinos, and elk.
  22. 22. Rumination (regurgitation) After rumen if full, it lies down to ruminate (chew its cud) Cattle spend from 5-7 hours ruminating, broken up into 6-8 periods Regurgitation is the process of forcing the feed back into the mouth for chewing Done through a series of muscular contractions and pressure in the rumen and reticulum
  23. 23. A NONRUMINANT ANIMAL Has a single compartment in its stomach, which swallows its food after chewing and does not regurgitate its food. Examples include pigs, humans, bears, and dogs.
  24. 24. Nonruminant Digestion  food is swallowed directly into the single stomach compartment  it is mixed with digestive juices
  25. 25. What do animals need to live? Animals make energy using: – food food – oxygen Animals build bodies using: – food for raw materials ATP • amino acids, sugars, O 2 fats, nucleotides mitochondria – ATP energy for synthesis
  26. 26. How do animals get their food? filter feeding living in your food fluid feeding bulk feeding
  27. 27. Getting & Using Food Ingest – taking in food Digest – mechanical digestion • breaking up food into smaller pieces intracellular – chemical digestion digestion • breaking down food into molecules small enough to be absorbed into cells • enzymes Absorb – absorb nutrients across cell membranes • diffusion • active transport Eliminate – undigested material passes out of body extracellular digestion
  28. 28. Different diets; different bodies Adaptations of herbivore vs. carnivore – teeth – length of digestive system – number & size of stomachs
  29. 29. Teeth Carnivore – sharp ripping teeth – “canines” Herbivore – wide grinding teeth – molars Omnivore – both kinds of teeth
  30. 30.  Herbivores & Length of digestive omnivores system – long digestive systems – harder to digest cellulose (cell walls) • bacteria in intestines help Carnivores appendix – short digestive systems – protein easier to digest than cellulose
  31. 31. Fun Facts• HOW LONG ARE YOUR INTESTINES? Atleast 25 feet in an adult. Be glad youre not afull-grown horse -- their coiled-up intestinesare 89 feet long!• Food drying up and hanging out in thelarge intestine can last 18 hours to 2 days!• In your lifetime, your digestive system mayhandle about 50 tons!!
  32. 32. Write the name of each colored organ: Green: Red: Pink: Brown: Purple: Green: Yellow:
  33. 33. How’d you do? Green: Esophagus Red: Stomach Pink: Small Intestine Brown: Large Intestine Purple: Liver Green: Gall Bladder Yellow: Pancreas Great Job!

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