Imc

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  • The Marketing Communications Mix This CTR relates to the material on pp. 422-423. Tools of The Marketing Communications Mix Advertising. Advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Advertising often utilizes mass media and may be adapted to take advantages of a given mediums strengths to convey information. Sales Promotion. Sales promotions consist of short-term incentives to encourage purchase of sales of a product or service. Limited time offers or dated coupons are common sales promotions. Public Relations. Public relations is an on-going process of building good relations with the various publics of the company. Key elements in the process are obtaining favorable publicity, building and projecting a good "corporate image," and designing an information support and response team to respond proactively to unfavorable rumors, stories, or events. Personal Selling. Personal selling describes the use of oral presentations in a conversation with one or more prospective buyers for the purposes of making a sale. Personal selling combines product information and benefits with the interpersonal dynamics of the sales person. Good interpersonal relationship skills and effective oral communication skills are needed for personal selling. Direct Marketing. Directed communications with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response.
  • Setting the Promotion Mix This CTR relates to the material on pp. 433-435. The Nature of Each Promotion Tool Advertising . Advertising’s public nature helps legitimize the product. It also allows marketers to repeat the message to a wide audience. Large-scale campaigns communicate something positive about the seller’s size, popularity, and success. Advertising is also very expressive and can make use of powerful symbols and sensory appeals. Its shortcoming include expense, one-way communication, being impersonal, and lack of control over situational reception. Personal Selling . Personal selling is the most effective promotion tool at certain stages in the buying process, especially in building preferences, convictions, and actions. The personal contact is two-way and allows adaptation to buyer reactions and the establishment of relationships. Personal selling is also the most expensive promotion tool and requires a long-term commitment to build an effective salesforce. Sales Promotion . Sales promotion includes coupons, contests, cents-off deals, premiums, rebates, and other techniques designed to elicit a quick response. Sales promotions usually influence the timing of a purchase rather than the decision to purchase. Public Relations . Public relations includes news stories, features, and reporting on company activities from objective and credible third-party sources. These events are perceived as more believable than company-controlled promotions. Difficulties include the lack of message content, format, and structure control over the public relations event. Further, public relations are generally under used by marketers both strategically and tactically. Direct Marketing. Direct marketing includes such things as direct mail, telemarketing, electronic marketing, online marketing, and others.
  • Factors in Developing Promotion Mix Strategies This CTR relates to the material on pp. 435-437. Factors in Setting the Promotion Mix Push or Pull Strategy. The promotion mix is also affected by the company's decision on either a push or pull strategy. Push strategies rely on personal selling and sales promotions to encourage intermediaries to take the product and promote, thus "pushing" it through the channel. Pull strategies rely on advertising and consumer promotions to build up demand in the target market of ultimate consumer whose behavior effectively "pulls" the product through the channel. Type of Market. The type market, consumer or industrial, varies the importance of the promotion tools available to marketers. Advertising weighs heavily in consumer markets whereas personal selling plays the greatest role in industrial markets. Buyer Readiness State. The buyer will be more receptive to some promotion tools than others depending upon their particular buyer readiness state. Advertising and public relations help create awareness and increase knowledge. Liking and preference are more affected by personal selling and advertising together. Conviction and purchase come first from advertising and then personal selling to close depending upon the kind of product being considered. Product Life Cycle Stage. The stage in the product life cycle also describes different appropriate promotion mix variations. Introduction utilizes advertising and public relations to build awareness and personal selling to facilitate motivate channel members to carry it. In growth, the need for personal selling diminishes. In maturity, personal selling helps differentiate it again in distribution. In decline, sales promotion may be the most emphasized of the promotion mix tools.
  • Imc

    1. 1. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 1 in Chapter 16 Designing andDesigning and Managing IntegratedManaging Integrated MarketingMarketing CommunicationsCommunications
    2. 2. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 2 in Chapter 16 ObjectivesObjectives  Learn the major steps in developing an effective integrated marketing communications program.  Understand the steps involved in developing an advertising program.  Learn how companies can exploit the marketing potential of sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and e-marketing.
    3. 3. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 3 in Chapter 16 Marketing CommunicationsMarketing Communications  Advertising  Sales Promotion  Public relations  Direct marketing  Personal selling Communications Platforms
    4. 4. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 4 in Chapter 16 The Marketing Communications Mix The Marketing Communications Mix AdvertisingAdvertising Personal SellingPersonal Selling Any Paid Form of Nonpersonal Presentation by an Identified Sponsor. Any Paid Form of Nonpersonal Presentation by an Identified Sponsor. Sales Promotion Short-term Incentives to Encourage Sales. Public Relations Building Good Relations with Various Publics by Obtaining Favorable Unpaid Publicity. Direct Marketing Direct Communications With Individuals to Obtain an Immediate Response. Personal Presentations by a Firm’s Sales Force.
    5. 5. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 5 in Chapter 16 Figure : Elements in theFigure : Elements in the Communication ProcessCommunication Process
    6. 6. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 6 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications  Identify target audience  Determine objectives of communication  Design the message  Select communication channels  Establish the budget  Select the marketing communications mix  Measure results  Manage the IMC process Steps in Marketing Communications Program Development
    7. 7. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 7 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications  Step 1: Identifying the target audience – Includes assessing the audience’s perceptions of the company, product, and competitors’ company/product image  Step 2: Cognitive, affective, and behavioral objectives may be set  Step 3: AIDA model guides message design
    8. 8. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 8 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications Message Design  Content  Structure  Format  Source  Message content decisions involve the selection of appeal, theme, idea, or USP  Types of appeals – Rational appeals – Emotional appeals – Moral appeals
    9. 9. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 9 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications Message Design  Content  Structure  Format  Source  One-sided vs. two-sided messages  Order of argument presentation
    10. 10. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 10 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications Message Design  Content  Structure  Format  Source  Message format decisions vary with the type of media, but may include: – Graphics, visuals – Headline, copy or script – Sound effects, voice qualities – Shape, scent, texture of package
    11. 11. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 11 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications Message Design  Content  Structure  Format  Source  Message source characteristics can influence attention and recall  Factors underlying perceptions of source credibility: – Expertise – Trustworthiness – Likability
    12. 12. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 12 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications  Step 4: Selecting Communication Channels – Personal communication channels Effectiveness derives from personalization and feedback Several methods of stimulating personal communication channels exist – Nonpersonal communication channels Influence derives from two-step flow-of- communication process
    13. 13. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 13 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications  Devoting extra effort to influential individuals or companies  Creating opinion leaders  Working through influential community members  Using influential people in testimonial advertising  Developing advertising with high “conversation value”  Use viral marketing  Developing word-of- mouth referral channels  Establishing an electronic forum Methods of Stimulating Personal Communication
    14. 14. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 14 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications  Step 5: Establishing the Marketing Communications Budget – Affordability method – Percentage-of-sales method – Competitive-parity method – Objective-and-task method  Step 6: Deciding on the Marketing Communications Mix
    15. 15. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 15 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications Communications Mix Selection Types of promotional tools Selection factors  Advertising  Sales promotion  Public relations and publicity  Direct marketing  Personal selling
    16. 16. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 16 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications Communications Mix Selection  Types of promotional tools  Selection factors  Consumer vs. business market  Stage of buyer readiness  Stage of product life cycle  Market rank
    17. 17. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 17 in Chapter 16 Developing Effective MarketingDeveloping Effective Marketing CommunicationsCommunications  Step 7: Measure Results – Recognition, recall, attitudes, behavioral responses  Step 8: Manage the Integrated Marketing Communications Process – Provides stronger message consistency and greater sales impact – Improves firms’ ability to reach right customers at right time with right message
    18. 18. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 18 in Chapter 16 Developing and Managing theDeveloping and Managing the Advertising CampaignAdvertising Campaign The Five Ms of Advertising  Mission  Money  Message  Media  Measurement  Objectives can be classified by aim: – Inform – Persuade – Remind – Reinforce
    19. 19. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 19 in Chapter 16 Developing and Managing theDeveloping and Managing the Advertising CampaignAdvertising Campaign  Factors considered when budget-setting: – Stage of product life cycle – Market share and consumer base – Competition and clutter – Advertising frequency – Product substitutability The Five Ms of Advertising  Mission  Money  Message  Media  Measurement
    20. 20. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 20 in Chapter 16 Developing and Managing theDeveloping and Managing the Advertising CampaignAdvertising Campaign  Factors considered when choosing the advertising message: – Message generation – Message evaluation and selection – Message execution – Social responsibility review The Five Ms of Advertising  Mission  Money  Message  Media  Measurement
    21. 21. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 21 in Chapter 16 Developing and Managing theDeveloping and Managing the Advertising CampaignAdvertising Campaign  Developing media strategy involves: – Deciding on reach, frequency, and impact – Selecting media and vehicles – Determining media timing – Deciding on geographical media allocation The Five Ms of Advertising  Mission  Money  Message  Media  Measurement
    22. 22. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 22 in Chapter 16 Developing and Managing theDeveloping and Managing the Advertising CampaignAdvertising Campaign  Newspapers  Television  Direct mail  Radio  Magazines  Outdoor  Yellow pages  Newsletters  Brochures  Telephone  Internet Major Media Types
    23. 23. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 23 in Chapter 16 Developing and Managing theDeveloping and Managing the Advertising CampaignAdvertising Campaign  Deciding on Media Categories – Target audience’s media habits, nature of the product and message, cost  Media Timing Decisions – Macroscheduling vs. microscheduling – Continuity, concentration, flighting, and pulsing scheduling options  Deciding on Geographical Allocation
    24. 24. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 24 in Chapter 16 Developing and Managing theDeveloping and Managing the Advertising CampaignAdvertising Campaign  Evaluating advertising effectiveness – Communication- effect research – Sales-effect research The Five Ms of Advertising  Mission  Money  Message  Media  Measurement
    25. 25. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 25 in Chapter 16 Sales PromotionSales Promotion  Sales promotions are short-term incentives designed to stimulate purchase among consumers or trade  Purpose of sales promotion – Attract new triers or brand switchers – Reward loyal customers – Increase repurchase rates
    26. 26. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 26 in Chapter 16 Three Targeted Groups ofThree Targeted Groups of Sales PromotionsSales Promotions  Consumer Promotion: Targeting end users.  Trade promotion: Targeting Intermediaries.  Sales-force Promotion: Targeting Sales-force.
    27. 27. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 27 in Chapter 16 Sales PromotionSales Promotion  Establish objectives  Select consumer- promotion tools  Select trade-promotion tools  Select business- and sales force promotion tools  Develop the program  Pretest the program Steps in Sales Promotion Program Development  Implement and evaluate the program
    28. 28. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 28 in Chapter 16 Sales PromotionSales Promotion  Samples  Coupons  Cash refunds (rebates)  Premiums  Prizes (contests, sweepstakes, games)  Patronage awards  Free trials  Product warranties  Tie-in promotions  Cross-promotions  Point-of-purchase displays and demonstrations Major Consumer-Promotion Tools
    29. 29. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 29 in Chapter 16 Public RelationsPublic Relations  Public relations activities promote or protect the image of a firm or product  Public relations functions: – Press relations – Product publicity – Corporate communications – Lobbying – Counseling
    30. 30. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 30 in Chapter 16 Public RelationsPublic Relations  Marketing Public Relations (MPR) – Plays an important role in New product launches Repositioning of mature brand Building interest in product category Influencing specific target groups Defending products with public problems Building the corporate image  Three Major MPR Decisions
    31. 31. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 31 in Chapter 16 Public RelationsPublic Relations  Publications  Events  Sponsorships  News  Speeches  Public-service activities  Identity media Major Public Relations Tools
    32. 32. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 32 in Chapter 16 Direct MarketingDirect Marketing  Direct marketing uses consumer-direct channels to reach and deliver offerings to consumers without intermediaries.  Direct marketing is growing and offers consumers key benefits.  Firms are recognizing the importance of integrated direct marketing efforts.
    33. 33. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 33 in Chapter 16 Setting the PromotionSetting the Promotion MixMix Setting the PromotionSetting the Promotion MixMix Nature of Each Promotion Tool Advertising Reaches Many Buyers, ExpressiveImpersonal Advertising Reaches Many Buyers, ExpressiveImpersonal Personal Selling Personal Interaction, Builds Relationships Costly Personal Selling Personal Interaction, Builds Relationships Costly Sales Promotion Provides Strong Incentives to BuyShort-Lived Sales Promotion Provides Strong Incentives to BuyShort-Lived Public Relations Believable, Effective, EconomicalUnderused by Many Companies Public Relations Believable, Effective, EconomicalUnderused by Many Companies Direct Marketing Nonpublic, Immediate, Customized,Interactive Direct Marketing Nonpublic, Immediate, Customized,Interactive
    34. 34. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 34 in Chapter 16 Factors in Developing Promotion MixFactors in Developing Promotion Mix StrategiesStrategies Factors in Developing Promotion MixFactors in Developing Promotion Mix StrategiesStrategies • Push Strategy - “Pushing” the Product Through Distribution Channels to Final Consumers. • Pull Strategy - Producer Directs It’s Marketing Activities Toward Final Consumers to Induce Them to Buy the Product. Type of Product/ Market Buyer/ Readiness Stage Product Life- Cycle Stage
    35. 35. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 35 in Chapter 16 Changing Face of MarketingChanging Face of Marketing CommunicationsCommunications Changing Face of MarketingChanging Face of Marketing CommunicationsCommunications Marketers Have Shifted Away From Mass Marketing Less Broadcasting Marketers Have Shifted Away From Mass Marketing Less Broadcasting New Marketing Communications RealitiesNew Marketing Communications Realities Improvements in Information Technology Has Led to Segmented Marketing More Narrowcasting Improvements in Information Technology Has Led to Segmented Marketing More Narrowcasting
    36. 36. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 36 in Chapter 16 Integrated MarketingIntegrated Marketing CommunicationsCommunications Integrated MarketingIntegrated Marketing CommunicationsCommunications Company Carefully Integrates and Coordinates Its Many Communication Channels to Deliver a Clear, Consistent, Compelling Message. AdvertisingAdvertising Personal Selling Personal Selling Public Relations Public Relations Sales Promotion Sales Promotion Direct Marketing Direct Marketing PackagingPackaging Event Marketing Event Marketing Message
    37. 37. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 37 in Chapter 16 Promotion/Communications MixPromotion/Communications Mix  Factors in setting the Marketing Communications Mix – Type of Product Market  Advertising’s role in business markets: – Advertising can provide an introduction to the company and its products – If the product embodies new features, advertising can explain them – Reminder advertising is more economical than sales calls – Buyer-Readiness Stage – Product Life-Cycle Stage
    38. 38. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 38 in Chapter 16 Direct MarketingDirect Marketing  Face-to-face selling  Direct mail  Catalog marketing  Telemarketing  Direct-response TV marketing  Kiosk marketing  E-marketing Major Direct Marketing Tools
    39. 39. ©2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. To accompany A Framework for Marketing Management, 2nd Edition Slide 39 in Chapter 16 Direct MarketingDirect Marketing  Steps in Developing a Direct-Mail Campaign: – Step 1: Set objectives – Step 2: Identify target markets – Step 3: Define the offer – Step 4: Test the elements – Step 5: Measure results

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