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  1. 1. JAINISM A RELIGION OF NONVIOLENCE & AUSTERITY Presented By: <ul><li>Kritika Goyal (19061) </li></ul>
  2. 2. ORIGIN: <ul><li>Jainism is a syncretistic religion, which contains many elements similar to Hinduism and Buddhism . The world's almost 4 million Jains are almost entirely located in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in 6 th century B.C. by Vardhaman Mahavira who was the 24 th Tirthankara or the religious guru of Jains in ancient East India. </li></ul><ul><li>The name “ jain ” derives from Sanskrit word “ ji ” which means “ to conquer ”. It aims at the victory of jain followers over body passions and senses . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Digambar and Shwetambar traditions: <ul><li>The Jain Dharma is divided into two major sects, Digambar and Shwetambar . </li></ul><ul><li>Digambar monks do not wear clothes because ‘dig’ means ‘disha’ i.e. the direction and they believe the directions (dishayein) are their clothes . </li></ul><ul><li>Shwetambar monks wear white clothes because ‘shwet’ means ‘white’. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Principle <ul><li>&quot; Samyakdarshangyancharitrani Mokshmargasya &quot; is the fundamental principle of Jainism. </li></ul><ul><li>It means: &quot; True Perception, True/Right Knowledge and True/Right Conduct &quot; is the path to attain Moksha. </li></ul>
  5. 5. BELIEFS <ul><li>At the heart of right conduct for Jains lie the five great vows: </li></ul><ul><li>Nonviolence (Ahimsa) not to cause harm to any living being. </li></ul><ul><li>Truthfulness (Satya) to speak the harmless truth only. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-stealing (Achaurya/Asteya) not to take anything not properly given. </li></ul><ul><li>Chastity (Brahmacharya) not to indulge in sensual pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-possession/Non-attachment (Aparigraha) complete detachment from people, places, and material things. </li></ul>
  6. 6. PRAYER <ul><li>Namo Arihantanam: I bow to the arithantas - the ever-perfect spiritual victors </li></ul><ul><li>Namo Siddhanam: I bow to the siddhas - the liberated souls </li></ul><ul><li>Namo Ayariyanam: I bow to acharyas - the leaders of the jain order </li></ul><ul><li>Namo Uvajjayanam: I bow to upadhyayas - the learned preceptors </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Eso Panch Namukkaro: This five-fold salutation </li></ul><ul><li>Savva Pavappanasano: Destroys all sins </li></ul><ul><li>Mangalanam Cha Savvesim: And amongst all auspicious things </li></ul><ul><li>Padhamam Havai Mangalam : Is the most auspicious one </li></ul>
  8. 8. JAIN PHILOSOPHY <ul><li>Primarily Jainism assumes that the universe is </li></ul><ul><li>without a beginning or an end, being everlasting </li></ul><ul><li>and eternal . The wheel of time incessantly revolves </li></ul><ul><li>like a pendulum. In the first half circle it revolves </li></ul><ul><li>from the descending to the ascending stage </li></ul><ul><li>where human prosperity, happiness, and life span </li></ul><ul><li>increases and in the second half circle it revolves </li></ul><ul><li>from the ascending stage to the descending stage where prosperity, happiness, and life span decreases </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>There exist six fundamental entities in the universe, which are eternal but continuously undergo countless changes. During the changes nothing is lost or destroyed. Everything is recycled into another form. </li></ul><ul><li>The six universal substances are: </li></ul>Non Living Substance Kal or Samay Time Non Living Substance Akasa Space Non Living Substance Adharma Medium of Rest Non Living Substance Dharma Medium of Motion Non Living Substance Pudgal Matter Living Substance Jiva Soul or Consciousness
  10. 10. <ul><li>The nine tattvas are the single most important subject of Jain philosophy. It deals with the theory of karma, which provides the basis for the path of liberation (moksha). </li></ul><ul><li>The Nine Principles (Tattvas) are: </li></ul>Total liberation from karma Moksha Exhaustion of the accumulated karma Nirjara Stoppage of the influx of karma Samvava Sin Papa Virtue Punya Bondage of karma Bandha Cause of the influx of karma Asrava Non-living substances Ajiva Soul or living being (Consciousness) Jiva
  11. 11. <ul><li>Jains are recommended to pass through four stages during their lifetime: </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmacharya-ashrama : the life of a student. </li></ul><ul><li>Gruhasth-ashrama : family life </li></ul><ul><li>Vanaprasth-ashrama : family and social services </li></ul><ul><li>Sanyast-ashrama: life as a monk, a period of renunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. Jain Symbols <ul><li>OM (Aum) </li></ul>Om is a religious symbol. In Jainism it means wholeness of Panch Parmeshthi. Om is Aum in Sanskrit. This Aum of Sanskrit is made up of five alphabets - a + a + ā + u + m = Aum    'a' stands for Arihant 'a' stands for  Ashariri 'ā' stands for  Acharya 'u' stands for  Upadhyay ’m' stands for  Muni
  13. 13. The Jain Flag: Jin-Shaasan Flag has Five colours: White, Red, Orange, Green and Dark Blue (or Black). White represents Arihant Red represents Siddha Orange represents Acharya Green represents Upadhyay Dark Blue (Black) represents Sadhu In the centre of the flag is the Swastik . Swastik represents the four states of existence of life. Respect for Jain Flag is respect for Panch-Parmeshthi . Respect for  Panch-Parmeshthi destroys the sorrow of the four states of existence and finally guides us to our sweet home of infinite bliss and pleasure.
  14. 14. Thank You ( MicchamiDukkadam ) For your serious and patient listening