Layers of-earth

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Layers of-earth

  1. 1. Layers of the Earth Crust Mantle Outer Core Inner Core
  2. 2. Crust •Avg. thickness- 35 km •2 kinds 1. Continental 20-90 km thick; known as sial; contains older rock, primarily granite; less dense than oceanic crust 2. Oceanic 5-10 km thick; known as sima; younger rock, primarily basalt; more dense crust
  3. 3. Crust Cont. •All life exists in the crust of the Earth. •Approximately 90 different elements are found in the crust, but 5 make up 90% of the crust- oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, & calcium •Sodium, potassium, & magnesium are the most common elements in the remaining 10%
  4. 4. Mantle Earth’s mantle contains 80% of Earth’s volume & 67% of Earth’s mass. Common elements found in the mantle are: silicon, oxygen, aluminum, iron, & magnesium. The mantle consists of solid rock, except for the asthenosphere. Density increases in the mantle as depth increases
  5. 5. Layers of the Mantle The mantle is divided into 3 sections. 1. Lithosphere- consists of the uppermost part of the mantle (rigid rock) & the crust. Average thickness is 100 km. - Moho’s discontinuity- boundary separating crust from mantle; discovered in 1909 using seismic data; found approximately 30 km from Earth’s surface
  6. 6. Layers of the Mantle cont. 2. Asthenosphere- 100-250 km deep; more fluid layer, but not liquid 3. Mesosphere- lowest layer; rigid rock; 660-2900 km deep -temperature increases with depth, as does density
  7. 7. Core Diameter of the total core is 6960 km = to approximately the diameter of Mars The core is 1/6 of Earth’s volume & 1/3 of its total mass
  8. 8. Outer Core •Approximately 2270 km thick •Temperature approximately 4000- 5000º Celsius •Liquid; very dense molten iron & nickel •Believed to create Earth’s magnetic field; similar to the magnetic field around a magnet
  9. 9. Inner Core •Temperature is about 5000º Celsius •Believed to be solid; very dense iron & nickel •Remains solid due to immense pressure (may be 2 million times stronger than normal pressure exerted on Earth’s surface); molecules can not spread out & become liquid

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