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The history and development of the wheelchair


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Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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The history and development of the wheelchair

  1. 1. Inquiry Questions? What is a wheelchair? Who uses wheelchairs? Is a wheelchair a machine? When were wheelchairs invented and by whom? Which came first the bike or the wheelchair? Are there different kinds of wheelchairs? What are wheelchairs used for other than transport? What is the latest in wheelchair innovation?
  2. 2. Definition of a wheelchair A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, designed to be areplacement for walking. The device comes invariations where it is propelled by motors or by theseated occupant turning the rear wheels by hand.Often there are handles behind the seat for someoneelse to do the pushing. Wheelchairs are used by peoplefor whom walking is difficult or impossible due toillness, injury, or disability.
  3. 3. Who uses wheelchairs? Elderly people who have weakened muscles or injuries. People who are born with disabilities. Adults and children who are dealing with injuries orillnesses.
  4. 4. Which simple machines can youfind on wheelchairs?
  5. 5. What kind of machine arewheelchairs? Most wheelchairs are complex machines that involveseveral simple machines. It involves a wheel and an axel, screws, levers, andsometimes pulleys. Simple machines are useful because they can make aphysical job easier by changing the magnitude or thedirection of the force exerted to do work. The wheelchair uses several simple machines to makethe job of moving a persons body easier.
  6. 6. When were the first parts of awheelchair invented? The chair- originally built by ancient Egyptians. It wasonly used for the elite. The wheel- was invented near 4000 B.C.The original wheeled vehicles looked like carts andwere pulled by animals.
  7. 7. When did the wheel and the chaircome together?
  8. 8.  Three centuries later in China; the Chinese used theirinvented wheelbarrow to move people as well as heavyobjects. A distinction between the two functions was not made foranother several hundred years, around 525 C.E. whenimages of wheeled chairs made specifically to carry peoplebegin to occur in Chinese art.[When did wheeled seats begin being usedfor transporting the disabled?
  9. 9. Guess which came first?
  10. 10. The “Bath” Chair Developed in Bath, England. Invented by John Dawson in 1783 It had 2 large rearwheels and one smallfront wheel.
  11. 11. The Bicycle 1790, de Sirvac introduced the “swiftwalker”, a woodenbicycle propelled by the user by pushing feet to theground. In 1865 cranks and pedalswere added and it wasre-named the “boneshaker” Like the wheelchair, the bikeis also propelled by user.
  12. 12. First Portable Wheelchairs Harry Jennings and his disabled friend HerbertEverest, both mechanical engineers, invented the firstlightweight, steel, collapsible wheelchair in 1933. The two saw the businesspotential of the invention andwent on to become the firstmass-manufacturers ofwheelchairs: Everestand Jennings. Their "x-brace“design is still in common use.
  13. 13. Power ChairsAn electric-powered wheelchair is a wheelchair that ismoved via the means of anelectric motor andnavigational controls,usually a small joystickmounted on the armrest,rather than manual power.
  14. 14. Wheelchair Sports Were originally introduced as a form of therapy in aRehab hospital in England.
  15. 15. All Terrain Wheelchairs All-terrain wheelchairs allow usersto enter the water and provide a bettermobility on beach sand and on uneventerrain, and even snow. The common adaptation among thedifferent designs is that they have extra-wide wheels or tires, toincrease stability on uneven or unsteady terrain. The wide tireson snow wheelchairs, for example, spread theweight of the chair user and the chair over awider surface, similar to how snowshoesperform the same purpose for someone onfoot, allowing the person to travel on topof the snow rather than sinking.
  16. 16. Latest invention: Smart Chairs A smart wheelchair is any motorized platform with achair designed to assist a user with a physical disabilitywhere an artificial control system replaces usercontrol. Its purpose is to reduce or eliminate the users task ofdriving a motorized wheelchair. Usually, a smartwheelchair is controlled by a computer, has a suite ofsensors and applies techniques in mobile robotics.
  17. 17. Inquiry Questions?
  18. 18. Thank You! Tonight tell a family member one fun fact aboutwheelchairs .