Drawing 1: Drawing Fundamentals Lectures
Prepared by: Instructor Kristinne Marie D. Claudio
The following drawing is one inch on a scale. As you can see, the inch is divided into
16ths, meaning there is 16 divisions. You can also problem solve that an inch can be
divided into 8ths, 4ths, and halves.
This picture shows all the drafting tools needed to perform quality standard technical
T-Square is used for squaring the paper
with the table, drawing horizontal lines, and
placing angles along the top edge of the T-
square for vertical, 30 deg., 45 deg., and 60
The drawing board is the surface the paper
needs to be squared upon.
The masking tape is used to tape all four
corners of the paper to the table.
45 deg. triangle is used to create 45 deg. lines and
30 deg. - 60 deg. triangle is used to create 30 deg., 60
deg., and vertical lines.
The scale is used to measure lines precisely. It has
different scales for different proportions. For a normal
ruler, find the scale that indicates a "16" for represents 16
divisions of an inch.
Dividers are another way of measuring by placing the
dividers along a scale to find a measurement and then placing the dividers on the paper.
The pencil is your drawing tool. Different shades of pencil lines represent different types of lines.
Protractor is used to find other angles which the triangles cannot.
The compass is used to create circles, arcs, and ellipses. To draw an arc, circle, and ellipses, the point of the
compass should be placed at a circles center; the pencil edge should be placed at the end of the radius.
The French curves are used to draw complicated curves.
The eraser is used to erase all unnecessary lines like guide lines and mistakes.
The erasing guide helps the drafter erase only lines that need to be erased - not accidentally erasing others.
The pencil pointer is sand paper to keep the pencil edge sharp.
The dusting brush is used to keep the paper and table clean of eraser debris.
Notice the angles on each corner of the triangles.
To begin drafting, the paper needs to be square with the
table. Place the T-square tight against the side of the
table. Place the bottom edge of the paper along the top
edge of the T-square. Make sure the bottom edge is
aligned with the top edge of the T-square. Tape the top
two corners of the paper down with masking tape. Move
the T-square away and tape the bottom two corners of
the paper. The paper is now square with the table. All
your vertical lines and horizontal lines will now be parallel
with the paper's edges.
Guide lines and construction lines are drawn very lightly. Construction lines are used to block in
drawings, while guide lines are used for lettering. They may be erased, if necessary, after they
have served their purpose.
Border lines are the heaviest line used in drafting. Just as the name suggests, border lines
represent the border created for the drawing.
Object lines or visible lines are used to outline the visible edges of the object being drawn. They
should be drawn so that the views stand out clearly on the drawing. All of the visible object lines
on the drawing should be the same darkness. Object lines are dark lines but a bit lighter than
Dimension lines are usually capped at each end with arrowheads and is placed between two
extension lines. The dimension line is a light line but a bit darker than construction lines.
Extension lines are the same darkness as dimension lines. It extends the dimension beyond the
outline of the view so that the dimension can be read easily.
Hidden lines are used to show the hidden features of the object. It is drawn the same darkness
as a object line and is composed of short lines approximately 1/8 in. long separated by spaces
approximately 1/16 in.
Center lines are used to indicate the center of symmetrical objects. It is a dark line which is a bit
lighter than a object line composed of alternate long (3/4 in.) and short (1/8 in.) dashes.
Cutting plane is line as a object line. It is used to indicate where the sectional view will be taken.
Section lines are used when drawing the inside features of an object. They indicate material cut
by the cutting-plane line, and also indicate the general classification of the materials. The lines
are dark but a bit lighter than object lines.
- Drafting Fundamentals fifth edition by Cecil Jensen
- Technical Drawing seventh edition by Giesecke, Mithchell, Spencer Hill and Dygdon
- Walker, J. R., Exploring Drafting. Tinley Park, Illinois: Goodheart-Willcox. 1996.
- Internet; Technical Draw Wikipedia