• ART is creative human skill.
• ART is communication about the self and the
• sight - the Visual Arts
• sound - Music,
• words - the Literary Arts, and/or
• actions (Dance and Drama).
• ART can be a combination of all of these.
• ART explores media, which is the materials,
• images, words and actions used.
• ART explores messages, subjects and objects,
themes and issues.
LINES and Size
• Size refers to variations in the proportions of objects, lines or
shapes. There is a variation of sizes in objects either real or
• Line is defined as a mark that spans a distance between two
points (or the path of a moving point), taking any form along
the way. As an art element, line pertains to the use of various
marks, outlines and implied lines in artwork and design, most
often used to define shape in two-dimensional work. Implied
line is the path that the viewer's eye takes as it follows
shapes, colors, and form along a path, but may not be
continuous or physically connected, such as the line created
by a dancer's arms, torso, and legs when performing an
ART WORK SAMPLE FOR LINE and SIZE
ARTWORK came from: http://wildspiritwolf.deviantart.com/
• The texture is the quality of a surface or the
way any work of art is represented. Lines and
shading can be used to create different
textures as well. For example, if one is
portraying certain fabrics, one needs to give
the feeling of the right texture so that it
closely resembles what the artist is trying to
convey. It can be implied or real. What you
can feel with your sense of touch.
ART WORK SAMPLE FOR TEXTURE
ARTWORK came from: http://t-a-g-g-e-r.deviantart.com
• Form may be created by the forming of two or
more shapes or as three-dimensional shape
(cube, pyramid, sphere, cylinder, etc.). It may
be enhanced by tone, texture and color. Form
is considered three-dimensional showing
height, width and depth. Examples of these
are sculpture, theatre play and figurines.
• Space is the area provided for a particular
purpose. Space includes the background,
foreground and middle ground. Space refers to
the distances or areas around, between or within
components of a piece.
• Two types of space
• Positive space refers to the space of a shape
representing the subject matter.
• Negative space refers to the space around and
between the subject matter. Space is also defined
as the distance between identifiable points or
planes in a work of art.
• Shape pertains to the use of areas in two
dimensional space that can be defined by
edges, setting one flat specific space apart
from another. Shapes can be geometric (e.g.:
square, circle, hexagon, etc.) or organic (such
as the shape of a puddle, blob, leaf,
boomerang, etc.) Shapes are defined by other
elements of art: Space, Line, Texture, Value,
COLOR and TONE
• Color pertains to the use of hue in artwork and design.
Defined as primary colors (red, yellow, blue) which cannot be
mixed in pigment from other hues, secondary colors (green,
orange, violet) which are directly mixed from combinations of
primary colors. Further combinations of primary and
secondary colors create tertiary (and more) hues. Tint and
Shade are references to adding variations in Value
• Value, or tone, refers to the use of light and dark, shade and
highlight, in an artwork. Some people also refer the lightness
and darkness in an artwork as tints(light) and shades(dark).
Black-and-white photography depends entirely on value to
define its subjects. Value is directly related to contrast.
Artwork came from Watercolor Composition:
• COMPOSITION is involved with UNITY, how the elements of
the artwork go together to form a oneness, a wholeness,
which satisfies the eye.
• COMPOSITION is about the way an artist composes or
combines the elements of the work to give clarity and order
to their ideas. Composition is about the way our eyes are
guided around the artwork.
Sample of Layout with Proper
Composition of Elements
Artwork came from:
• UNITY is the sense of ONENESS, of things belonging together
and making up a coherent whole.
• Artists do this by repeating elements, overlapping shapes and
directing the eye of the viewer around the work from one
similar element to the next or along a line or shape
• The eye is directed by the principles of design and
composition so that the artwork has UNITY.
Sample of Artwork with Unity
Van Gogh was concerned with the unity of his
• BALANCE is the control of the elements in attracting attention.
This attention must be evenly or unevenly spread over the
area to make sure interest in kept up, all the way through the
art work, without being static or chaotic.
• BALANCE can be symmetrical or asymmetrical
• BALANCE can create movement, tension or calmness.
Two Types of Balance
Formal Balance & Informal Balance
Left and right sides Left and right sides
are the same. contain elements
Contrast and Emphasis
• CONTRAST means pictorial elements that stand out because
they are not alike eg. squares and circles and triangles. Red,
yellow and blue contrast as they are so dissimilar.
• CONTRAST can be made by putting objects together that do
not normally “go” together and therefore make each other
stand out more, than they would separately.
• EMPHASIS is When special importance or significance is
placed on or imparted to something...Stress given to a
syllable, word, or phrase.
• This principle is known as “The Attention Getter”
Sample Artwork with Harmony and
Artwork came from: http://cataclysm-
Contrast Applied for Logo Designs
david bernie contrast obscura Design
Ways to show emphasis & contrast:
small print Bold Print
Italics Bright Colors
• PROPORTION is about realistic relationship or ratio. As an
illustration, the ideal human proportion is eight heads high
and the shoulders are two heads wide so artists can change
these relationships or proportions for dramatic or comic effect
or to emphasize a feature or quality. In cartoons the head and
hands are emphasized by enlarging then beyond realistic
Proportion Applied in Figures
Artwork came from
Proportion Applied in Print Ads
Artwork came from operadevil69.deviantart.com
REPETITION and RHYTHM
• REPETITION can be in the form of RADIATION where the
repeated elements spread out from a central point.
• REPETITION may be in the form of GRADATION where the
repeated elements slowly become smaller or larger.
• RHYTHM is about the rate the eye moves throughout the
work of art. This is usually because the eye moves, jumps or
slides from one similar element to another in a way similar to
Repetition Applied to this
Artwork to Produce
Repetition Applied to this
Artwork to Produce
• DOMINANCE helps to create UNITY as the eye is attracted to a
key point then led around the image by pictorial elements.
• DOMINANCE can be created by contrasting pictorial elements
such as line, shape, tone, texture, direction, size or colour.
• DOMINANCE and BALANCE work together to bring out UNITY.
• HARMONY can create feelings, similar elements can seem
calm and pleasing eg. Blues and greens, rectangles and
squares or groups of organic shapes, while contrasting
elements create energy, vitality, tension or anger eg. triangles
with circles and squares
Artwork with Harmony
Artwork came from: thelittlechimpsociety.com
• VARIETY gives an artwork interest and vitality, as the
elements are repeated with enough change or difference to
enhance each other.
• VARIETY, contrast and harmony work together to give unity.
Sample of Art with
Artwork came from: