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Speech and Language Disorders

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Speech and Language Disorders

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Speech and Language Disorders

  1. 1. Speech and Language disorder By: Kristine Joy Sangalang
  2. 2. Communication disorders Speech Disorders Language Disorders Hearing Disorder s
  3. 3. Speech disorder Any deviation in the condition of breathing and voice producing mechanisms including the integrity of mouth and oral cavity can cause speech disorders. There are speech related problems that cause ineffective communication like problems in voice, articulation and fluency.
  4. 4. 1. Voice Disorder
  5. 5. 2. Articulation Disorder  Errors in the formation of speech sounds.  Four basic errors in articulation  Omission (see for seen)  Substitution (wip for lip, train for crane, doze for those)  Distortion (talt for salt, sleep for zleep)  Addition of extra sounds (Buhrown for brown)
  6. 6. 3. Fluency Disorders  Interrupt the natural, smooth flow of speech with inappropriate pauses, hesitations, or repetitions. It is characterized by unnatural variations in speed, stress and pauses.  Examples are Cluttering and Stuttering.
  7. 7. Language disorders Abnormal acquisition, comprehension or expression of spoken or written language. Individuals with language disorders frequently have problems in sentence processing and retrieving information from short to long term memory. It is present when there is a disruption in the usual rate and sequence of the milestones in language development.
  8. 8. Language delay  Implies that a child is slow to develop linguistic skills but may acquire them in the same sequence as normal children.
  9. 9. Factors that contribute to language disorders in children:  Cognitive limitations or mental retardation  Environmental deprivation  Hearing Impairments  Emotional deprivation or behavioral disorders  Structural abnormalities of the speech mechanism
  10. 10. Classifications of language disorder  Form Problems – cover phonology or morphology and syntax problems that range from difficulty of decoding spoken language, abnormal use of prefixes to abnormal structure of words and wrong uses of tenses.  Content Problems-Include semantic disorders manifested in poor vocabulary development, inappropriate use of words and poor comprehension of meaning of words.  Use or pragmatic Problems- inability to comprehend or use language in context or conversation on various situations.
  11. 11. Examples of language disorders  Central auditory processing disorder – problem in processing sounds attributed to hearing loss or intellectual capacity.  Aphasia – language disorder that results from damage to parts of brain responsible for language.  Apraxia- also known as verbal apraxia or dyspraxia is a condition where the child has trouble saying what he or she wants to say correctly and consistently.  Dysarthria – the weakening of the muscles of the mouth, face and respiratory system affects the production of oral language.
  12. 12. Speech and Language Disorders that result from Hearing Impairment  Deafness restricts the perception of the sound elements of a language and other sounds in the environment with or without hearing aid.  Persons who are deaf or hard of hearing manifests speech and language disorders.  Deaf person can develop their communication skills manually through sign language and arbitrary gestures and movements, or orally through speech reading and auditory training, these adaptation cannot approximate normal speech and language development.
  13. 13. Etiology of Speech and Language Disorders  Functional causes – Environmental stress or organic in the case of cleft palate  Congenital causes – Disorder is present at birth or acquired after birth during infancy, early childhood and in the later years.  Causes are also traced to brain damage, ADHD, learning disabilities, autism, schizophrenia, cerebral palsy, vocal cord injury.  Injury, accidents and trauma can result in childhood aphasia or loss of language functions.
  14. 14. Incidence and Prevalence  In the US approximately 20% of children receiving special education services are with speech and language disorders.  5 % of school aged children tend to have speech and language disorders  3% has voice disorders and stuttering.  2 % - 3 % has articulation disorders.

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