Class 7 Ap1 Muscles

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Class 7 Ap1 Muscles

  1. 1. Class 7 AP1 Muscles Muscles of the Leg
  2. 3. <ul><li>P: SPs of T7-L5, posterior sacrum, and the posterior iliac crest </li></ul><ul><li>D: Medial lip of bicipital groove of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Adducts the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>P: SPs of C7-T5 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Medial border of the scapula from the root of the spine of the scapula to the inferior angle of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Retracts (Adducts) the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates the scapula </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>O: Ribs 1-9 </li></ul><ul><li>I: Anterior surface of the entire medial border of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Protracts (abducts) the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Upwardly rotates the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>1. Elevates ribs #2-5 at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>1. Depresses ribs #9-12 at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>O: Pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>I: Spine, ribcage, and head </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the trunk, neck, and the head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk, neck, and head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Ipsilaterally rotates the trunk, neck, and head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>O: Pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>I: Spine and the head </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the trunk, neck, and head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk, neck, and head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Contralaterally rotates the trunk and the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumboscaral joint </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>P: 12 th rib and the TPs of L1-L4 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Posterior Iliac crest </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>P: Medial clavicle, sternum, and the costal cartilages of ribs 1-7 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>1. Adducts the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>2. Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>3. Flexes the arm at the shoulder joint (clavicular head) </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>P: Ribs 3-5 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Coracoid process of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Protracts (abducts) the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Depresses the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates ribs 3-5 at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Increases the volume of the Thoracic Cavity (inspiration) </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>P: Pubis </li></ul><ul><li>D: Xiphoid process and the cartilage of ribs 5-7 </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>P: Anterior iliac crest, pubic bone, and the abdominal aponeurosis </li></ul><ul><li>D: Lower 8 ribs (5-12) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Contralateral rotates the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joints </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>O: Inquinal ligament , iliac crest, and the thoracolumbar fascia </li></ul><ul><li>I: Lower three ribs (10-12) and the abdominal aponeurosis </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Ipsilaterally rotates the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joints </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Compresses the abdominal contents </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>P: Anterolateral lumbar spine </li></ul><ul><li>D: Lesser trochanter of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joints </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>P: Internal Ilium </li></ul><ul><li>D: Lesser trochanter of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joints </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>P: Posterior iliac crest, posterolateral sacrum, and the coccyx </li></ul><ul><li>D: Iliotibial band (ITB) and gluteal tuberosity of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Abducts the thigh at the hip joint (upper 1/3) </li></ul><ul><li>Adducts the thigh at the hip joint (lower 2/3) </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>P: External Ilium </li></ul><ul><li>D: Greater trochanter of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>Abducts the thigh at the hip joint (entire muscle) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint (anterior fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Medially rotates the thigh at the hip joint (anterior fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the thigh at the hip joint (posterior fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint (posterior fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint (posterior fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint (anterior fibers) </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>P: External Ilium </li></ul><ul><li>D: Greater trochanter of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>Abducts the thigh at the hip joint (entire muscle) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint (anterior fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Medially rotates the thigh at the hip joint (anterior fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the thigh at the hip joint (posterior fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint (posterior fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint (posterior fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint (anterior fibers) </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>P: Anterior sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>D: Greater trochanter of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>1. Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>P: Anterior Superior Iliac Spine </li></ul><ul><li>D: Iliotibial band (ITB) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Abducts the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Medially rotates the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>P: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) </li></ul><ul><li>D: Pes Anserine Tendon (at the proximal anteromedial tibia) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Abducts the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the leg at the knee joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>P: Anterior Inferior iliac spine (AIIS) </li></ul><ul><li>D: Tibial Tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the leg at the knee joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>P: Linea Aspera of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>D: Tibial tuberostiy </li></ul><ul><li>1. Extends the leg at the knee joint </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>P: Linea Aspera of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>D: Tibial tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>1. Extends the leg at the knee joint </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>P: Anterior shaft and the linea aspera of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>D: Tibial tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>1. Extends the leg at the knee joint </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>P: Pubis </li></ul><ul><li>D: Proximal posterior shaft of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>Adducts the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>P: Pubis </li></ul><ul><li>D: Linea aspera of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>Adducts the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>P: Pubis </li></ul><ul><li>D: Pes anserine tendon (at the proximal anteromedial tibia) </li></ul><ul><li>Adducts the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the leg at the knee joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>P: Pubis </li></ul><ul><li>D: Linea aspera of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>Adducts the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>P: Pubis and Ischium </li></ul><ul><li>D: Linea aspera of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>Adducts the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>P: Long head: Ischial tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>Short head: Linea aspera </li></ul><ul><li>D: Head of the fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the leg at the knee joint (entire muscle) </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the thigh at the hip joint (long head) </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint (long head) </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>P: Ischial tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>D: Pes Anserine tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the leg at the knee joint </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Poseteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>P: Ischial tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>D: Medial condyle of the tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the leg at the knee joint </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the thigh at the hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the hip joint </li></ul>
  38. 40. Tibialis Anterior <ul><li>P: Proximal anterior tibia </li></ul><ul><li>D: Medial foot </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Inverts the foot at the tarsal joints </li></ul>
  39. 43. Extensor Digitorum Longus <ul><li>P: Proximal anterior fibula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Dorsal surfaces of toes 2-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Extends toes 2-5 at the metatarsophalangeal joints and the interphalangeal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Everts the foot at the tarsal joint </li></ul>
  40. 46. Extensor Hallucis Longus <ul><li>P: Middle anterior fibula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Dorsal surface of the Big Toe </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the big toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul>
  41. 49. Fibularis Tertius <ul><li>Dorsiflexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Everts the foot at the tarsal joints </li></ul>
  42. 50. Fibularis Longus <ul><li>P: Proximal lateral fibula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Medial foot </li></ul><ul><li>Everts the foot at the tarsal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Plantarflexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul>
  43. 53. Fibularis Brevis <ul><li>P: Distal lateral fibula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Lateral foot </li></ul><ul><li>Everts the foot at the tarsal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Plantarflexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul>
  44. 56. Gastrocnemius <ul><li>P: Medial and lateral femoral condyles </li></ul><ul><li>D: Calcaneus via the calcaneal tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Plantarflexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the leg at the knee joint </li></ul>
  45. 59. Soleus <ul><li>P: Posterior Tibia and Fibula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Calcaneus via the calcaneal tendon </li></ul><ul><li>1. Plantarflexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul>
  46. 61. Plantaris <ul><li>Plantar flexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the leg at the knee joint </li></ul>
  47. 62. Tibialis Posterior <ul><li>Plantar flexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Inverts the foot at the tarsal joints </li></ul>
  48. 63. Flexor Digitorum Longus <ul><li>Flexes toes 2-5 at the metatarsophalangeal joint and the interphalangeal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Plantar flexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Inverts the foot at the tarsal joints </li></ul>
  49. 64. Flexor Hallicus Longus <ul><li>Flexes the big toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint and interphalangeal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Plantarflexes the foot at the ankle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Inverts the foot at the tarsal joints </li></ul>
  50. 65. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot: Dorsal Surface <ul><li>Extensor Digitorum Brevis </li></ul><ul><li>Extensor Hallicus Brevis </li></ul>
  51. 67. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot: Plantar Surface, Layer I <ul><li>Abductor Hallicis </li></ul><ul><li>Abductor Digiti Minimi Pedis </li></ul><ul><li>Flexor Digitorum Brevis </li></ul>
  52. 69. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot: Plantar Surface, Layer II <ul><li>Quadratus Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbricals Pedis </li></ul>
  53. 70. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot: Plantar Surface, Layer III <ul><li>Flexor Hallicus Brevis </li></ul><ul><li>Flexor Digiti Minimi Pedis </li></ul><ul><li>Adductor Hallucis </li></ul>
  54. 71. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot: Plantar Surface, Layer IV <ul><li>Plantar Interossei </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal Interossei Pedis </li></ul>
  55. 80. <ul><li>Have client supine </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand just lateral to the shaft of the tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to actively dorsiflex and invert the foot and feel for the contraction of the tibialis anterior </li></ul>
  56. 81. <ul><li>Have the client supine </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the dorsum of the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to the tendons actively extend toes 2-5 and feel for tensing of the extensor digitorum longus </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the extensor digitorum longus proximally as far as possible. The belly of this muscle can be palpated between the tibialis anterior and the fibularis longus </li></ul>
  57. 82. <ul><li>Have the client supine </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the dorsum of the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to actively extend the big toe and feel for the tensing of the tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the extensor hallucis longus proximally. It can be palpated superficially in the distal half of the leg between the tibialis anterior tendon and the extensor digitorum longus tendon </li></ul>
  58. 83. <ul><li>Have the client supine </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the proximal lateral leg just distal to the head of the fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to actively evert the foot and feel for contraction of the belly of the fibularis longus from the head of the fibula to the point where it becomes tendon halfway down the leg </li></ul><ul><li>Continue palpating the tendon distally. The distal tendon is superficial to the fibularis brevis muscle belly </li></ul><ul><li>Just proximal and posterior to the lateral malleolus, the tendon of the fibularis longus will be more superficial and posterior than the tendon of the fibularis brevis </li></ul>
  59. 84. <ul><li>Have the client supine </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the distal lateral leg </li></ul><ul><li>Ask client to actively evert the foot and feel for contraction of the fibularis brevis on either side of the tendon of the fibularis longus </li></ul><ul><li>Move distally to the lateral malleolus. The tendon of the fibularis brevis will be deeper and more anterior than the tendon of the fibularis longus </li></ul><ul><li>Distal to the lateral malleolus, the distal tendon of the fibularis brevis is easily palpable and usually visible all the way to its attachment onto the base of the 5 th metatarsal </li></ul>
  60. 85. <ul><li>Have the client prone with the leg extended at the knee joint </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the proximal posterior leg </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to actively plantarflex the foot at the ankle joint against resistance and feel for contraction of the muscle. It can be palpated all the way to its distal attachment </li></ul>
  61. 86. <ul><li>Have the client prone with the leg flexed at the knee joint </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the proximal posterior leg </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to actively plantarflex the foot at the ankle joint against mild resistance and feel for contraction of the soleus </li></ul><ul><li>The soleus is superficial on either side of the belly of the gastrocnemius, and you can palpate it deep to the gastrocnemius in the posterior leg </li></ul>

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