In order to better serve the Muslim Arab American population as a therapist you need a basic understanding of the Islamic Faith.
Ethnocentrism is the form of oppression that Muslim Arab Americans are most likely to experience.Education can be used to combat ethnocentrism.
Islam is second to Christianity in world-wide following.Like Christianity and Judaism, Islam is a monotheistic religion.They accept and believe in all Biblical prophets and consider Christ to have been a prophet of God.They believe that Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was the last prophet God placed on earth.
The Islamic holy book is called the Koran, just like the Christian holy book is called the Bible.The Koran was originally written in Arabic in the 7th century. The words in it were dictated to the prophet Muhammad by an angel from God.
A mosque is the name of the building where Muslims meet to worship, just like a church is the building where Christians worship.
There are five pillars, or main beliefs, of Islam (show slide.) Each pillar must be practices by Muslims at least once during their lifetime.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QK1mZs0kCvITraditionally, Muslims pray five times a day facing towards Mecca (a holy city located in Western Saudi Arabia). On the next slide you will witness the Call to Prayer. There are english subtitles so that you can follow along.
http://www.inmagine.com/ge001/ge001767-photoThese people look Arabic, But are they Muslim?
The words “Arab” and “Muslim” are not interchangeable. Most Arab Americans are NOT Muslim
Two-thirds of all Muslims in America are U.S. immigrants and their descendents, so it’s important to keep in mind when working with Muslim clients that they may be from an immigrant population.
Many Muslim Americans are not of Arab descent.
As we all know, one of the largest stereotypes against muslim-arab-americans comes from the tragic day of September 11 2011. However, as you can see on the next slide… Of the terrorists that the United States have to worry about, only 6% are Islamic Extremist.
Many Muslim immigrants are from countries where professional counseling does not exist. Instead they would normally seek help and personal advice from the community elders or within their family. Therefore, seeking outside help can be a difficult step for a Muslim immigrant.Just like not all Christians practice the same version of Christianity (there are Catholics and Methodists, etc), not all Muslim practice the same version of Islam (slow slide with definitions of Sunni, Shiite, Druze.) When counseling Muslim Arab American clients, it is important to ascertain how important their spirituality is to them. Just like many Christians in America may not attend church each week, not all clients who identify themselves as Muslim may follow all the stereotypical muslim beliefs.
It’s important for therapists to right away help establish what their role as a counselor is and what the role is not. Please click on the link shown here to watch how the therapist approached her muslim client when they first meet. Then click your mouse for the next slide.
http://www.pbs.org/weta/crossroads/about/show_muslim_americans.htmlMen take care of everything outside the house, and which includes earning a living. If a man loses his job, but his wife has a job, that can become a huge issue because he is not fulfilling his role.Women take care of everything inside the house, which includes child rearing, food preparation, and maintenance of social relationships. The most important function that women perform is teaching the faith and culture to children. They act as the family’s primary educational agent.
Please click on the link shown here to watch a Muslim Arab American family and their conflicted views with their family. When you are done watching the clip, please click on the slide to continue the slideshow presentation.
Did you know that each of these people shown here are Muslim Americans?
The following three slides show definitions that a therapist may need to know when providing counseling services for Muslim Arab Americans.
References are to follow.
This Slideshow has both Video and Audio Clips.<br />Please Turn ON Your Volume. <br />Thank You!<br />
Muslim – Arab Americans<br />By Kristin Breza and Jenna Enomoto<br />
Everything you need to know to: <br />Counsel <br />Muslim Arab Americans<br />“In order to treat clients effectively, counselors must have a level of multicultural competency. Cultural Competence is the ability to use skills, behaviors, or interventions to respectfully provide services to individuals through the appropriate systems, agencies and organizations.” (Schwarzbaum& Thomas, 2008, p.9-10)<br />
Conceptual Framework: Oppression: Ethnocentrism<br />“Ethnocentrism is the belief that one ethnic or religious group is superior to others” while other groups are inferior, resulting in oppression (Schwarzbaum & Thomas, 2008, p.26, emphasis added).<br />Image retrieved from www.zazzle.com<br />
Muslim vs. Christian <br />A Muslim is a person who practices the religion of Islam, just like a Christian practices Christianity.<br />Islam vs. Christianity<br />Islam is the religion that a Muslim follows, just like Christianity is the religion a Christian follows. <br />
The Koran<br />A belief in an ordered universe in which patterns have been established by God (Allah)<br />The view that Human pride or arrogance is a cardinal sin<br />The notion that disobedience to, or disbelief in, God is sinful<br />A belief in the Last Day (when the world will come to an end and a final judgment will either save or condemn to hell)<br />A belief that the essence of human endeavor is a moral struggle<br />(Schwarzbaum & Thomas, 2008, p. 232)<br />
Denver Mosque<br />Image retrieved from http://free-photos.biz/photographs/food/vegetables/315810_mosque_of_the_el_jebel_shrine.php<br />1770 Sherman St. Denver, CO<br />
Islamic Religion: The Five Pillars<br />The foundation for Muslim life.<br />Faith or belief of Oneness of God and the finality of the profithood of Mohammed<br />Establishment of the daily prayers<br />Concern for and alms giving to the needy<br />Self purification through fasting<br />The pilgrimage to Mecca for those who are able(Mecca, also known as Makkah: a city in Western Saudi Arabia; birthplace of Mohammed)<br />http://www.islam101.com/dawah/pillars.html<br />
Removing Stereotypes<br />Imageretrieved from http://www.inmagine.com/ge001/ge001767-photo<br />Image retrieved from http://www.arabpsychology.com/<br />Image retrieved from http://www.arabpsychology.com/<br />
Most Arab Americans are NOT Muslim<br />Only 1 in 4 of every Arab American is Muslim<br />http://0-ctiv.alexanderstreet.com.bianca.penlib.du.edu/view/537768<br />
Most Muslims in America are Immigrate to the United States<br />http://pewresearch.org/pubs/483/muslim-americans<br />
Less Than 50% of Muslims in America are NOT of Arab decent<br />http://pewresearch.org/pubs/483/muslim-americans<br />
Only 6%<br />Image retrieved from http://www.islam101.com/dawah/pillars.html<br />
Counseling Muslim Arab-Americans<br />Image retrieved from http://www.zawaj.com/siddiqua/2002/4-1-2002.html<br />Professional counseling roles need to be established early on in order to initiate trust of Muslim persons who have immigrated the United States.<br />
CounselingMuslim Arab-Americans<br />Establishing Relationship of the Therapist:<br />http://0-ctiv.alexanderstreet.com.bianca.penlib.du.edu/Playlists/353704<br />Boundaries are important: Watch how the therapist approaches her Muslim client (who is an immigrant from Bangladesh). <br />
Counseling Muslim Arab-American Couples<br />The roles for men and women are generally clearly defined and can be at odds with modern American values. <br />
Counseling Muslim Arab-American Couples<br />Different Versions of Islamic Practice<br />http://0-ctiv.alexanderstreet.com.bianca.penlib.du.edu/Playlists/353704<br />Equality of a female and male roles in a marriage is interpreted differently depending on what each person practices. This can develop intense conflict between a married couple.<br />
I am a Muslim American.<br /> Mohamed Ali (Boxer) <br />Dr. Oz (talk show host)<br />Iman (model)<br /> Jermaine Jackson <br /> (Michael’s brother)<br />Dave Chappell (comedian)<br />
What does it mean?<br />Muslim: a follower of the religion of Islam. (Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 2010)<br />Islam: the religious faith of Muslims, based on the words and religious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Koran, the basic principle in which complete submission to a unique and personal god, Allah. (Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 2010)<br />Arab: a member of Semitic people inhabiting Arabia and other countries of the Middle East; a member of any Arabic speaking people. (Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 2010)<br />Taliban: a fundamentalist Islamic army. (Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 2010)<br />
What does it mean? Cont.<br />Koran (or Qu’ran): the sacred text of Islam, divided into 114 chapters,or suras: revered as the word of god dictated to Mohammed by the archangel Gabriel, and accepted as the foundation of Islamic law, religion, culture and politics. (Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 2010)<br />Allah: the Muslim name for god; the one supreme being. (Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 2010)<br />Ali: fourth caliph of Islam, considered the first caliph by the Shiites: cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed. (Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 2010)<br />Caliph: a spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession from Mohammed. (Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 2010)<br />
What does it mean? Cont.<br />Sunni: a member of one of the two greatest religious divisions of Islam, regarding the first four caliphs as legitimate successors of Mohammed and stressing the importance of Sunna as followed as a basis for law. Majority of all muslims today. (Schwarzbaum & Thomas, 2008, p. 232)<br />Shi’a (She-uh): a member of one of the two greatest religious divisions of Islam which regards Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, as the legitimate successor of Muhammad, and disregards the three caliphs who proceed him. (Schwarzbaum & Thomas, 2008, p. 232)<br />Druze: a member of a religious group that broke off from traditional Islam and incorporates elements of Christianity and Judaism. (Schwarzbaum & Thomas, 2008, p. 232)<br />
Thank you for watching our slide show about counseling <br />Muslim Arab Americans.<br />
Further Resources for your Personal Interest<br />Muslim Student Association - http://www.msanational.org/<br />PBS Website - http://www.pbs.org/weta/crossroads/about/show_muslim_americans.html<br />Statistical Data on Muslims in America - http://pewresearch.org/pubs/483/muslim-americans<br />Muslim American Society - http://www.masnet.org/main/<br />
References<br />Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. (2010). Learning about Islam. Retrieved from http://www.al-islam.org/about/resources/glossary.html<br />Ibrahim, F. A. (n.d.). Counseling Muslims in a western context. [Video.] Hanover, MA: Microtraining Associates.<br />Pew Research Center. (22 May 2007). Muslim Americans: Middle class and mostly mainstream. [PDF document]. Retrieved from http://pewresearch.org/assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf<br />Schwarzbaum, S. & Thomas, A. (2008). Dimensions of multicultural counseling: A life story approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.<br />