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Tesol 2010: Reimagining Differentiated Instruction for Language Objectives


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Slides from the 2010 TESOL

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Tesol 2010: Reimagining Differentiated Instruction for Language Objectives

  1. 1. Imagining Differentiated Instruction with Language Objectives in Mind Kristen M. Lindahl University of Utah TESOL 2010
  2. 2. Session Overview <ul><li>Differentiation for Adolescent ELLs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiered Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAFT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Math </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Differentiating for ELLs <ul><li>Differentiated instruction goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To address learner variance in classrooms; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide challenge, success, and fit for today’s diverse learners (Tomlinson, 2001). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adolescent ELLs will vary by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L1 Literacy; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic content-area knowledge, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic status, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether the student is foreign-born, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family situation and personal experiences. (Short & Fitzsimmons, 2007). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Differentiating for ELLs <ul><li>To provide ELLs with maximum access to core curricula , educators can differentiate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the content of lessons, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the process by which the teacher presents the new information, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the products created by students, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the learning environment . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Curriculum standards dictate what must be taught; differentiated instruction can be the way in which to teach it (Tomlinson, 2001). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Differentiation & the Adolescent Brain <ul><li>Differentiation responds to adolescents’ developmental needs by providing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal connection; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate intellectual challenge; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional engagement; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposeful social interaction; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitive development; and a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive learning environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Crawford, 2008). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Differentiation & Language Development <ul><li>An essential piece for ELLs that needs to be addressed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attaining content AND language objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Areas of academic language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading comprehension, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing Process, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional/Formulaic Language, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Study, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar & Conventions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008; Lindahl & Watkins, 2007) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cubing <ul><li>Students use & share their thinking in relation to a topic, subject, or unit of study. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers (or students!) make a list of six directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Each direction is relevant to the information gained from the text or other materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Students (independently or in teams) roll a die. </li></ul><ul><li>They follow the direction that corresponds with the number rolled. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cubing Example <ul><li>Earth Science Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Objectives: Students will be able to distinguish between physical and chemical properties (and changes) of various substances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Objective: Students will be able to describe physical and chemical properties by speaking and writing during “cube” activities. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cubing Example <ul><li>HOTS Cube: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Illustrate one of the physical changes you saw during our labs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Define “chemical change.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Use lab equipment to demonstrate a chemical change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Create and plan your own experiment that would allow us to see a physical or chemical change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Compare 3 substances based on their physical and chemical properties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Argue for or against the following statement. Use 3 facts to support your argument. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Chemical changes do not affect the physical properties of substances.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Implementing Cubing <ul><li>Assign a certain number of tasks to be completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider multiple intelligences cubes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual/Spatial: Draw it… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical/Mathematical: Solve it.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic: Demonstrate or role play it… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalist: Find examples of it in the real world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical: Write a song or rap about it… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal/Linguistic: Tell a story with it as the main character… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal/Intrapersonal: Tell a partner about it…or…write a personal journal entry about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construct a class set of cubes, color code them by readiness, interest, or learner profile. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tiered Activities <ul><li>Students work with the same essential idea and use the same key skills . </li></ul><ul><li>Focus at different levels of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>complexity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abstractness, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>open-endedness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routes of access at varying degrees of difficulty make it more likely that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each student comes away with skills & understanding; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each student is appropriately challenged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Tomlinson, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Tiered Activities <ul><li>Select the concepts and skills that will be the focus of the activity for ALL students. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about your students’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>range of skills, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language proficiency, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formal assessment scores, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reading ability, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>background information, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interests, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning profile. </li></ul></ul>Tomlinson, 2001
  13. 13. Tiered Activities <ul><li>Create an activity that is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interesting, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher-order cognitively, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meets content and language objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place your activity on a “ladder.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top rung =highest level of skill & complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low rung =lowest level of skill & complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Clone” your activity on different levels. Consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials from basic to advanced; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leveled texts and books; materials in the L1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of expression from familiar to unfamiliar; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience from personal experience to removed from personal experience ( Tomlinson, 2001). </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Tiered Activity Example <ul><li>Social Studies Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content: Students will be able to identify key events in the Tiananmen Square Incident by conducting research in pairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language: Students will be able to defend their perspective on the TS incident by forming questions and/or writing their own accounts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity (adapted from Crawford, 2008 ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With your research partner, read the different accounts of the TS Incident on the following websites… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Teacher provides the websites) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Tiered Activity Example <ul><li>Level One (Beginning-Intermediate ELLs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose one of the accounts and record the series of events on a time line diagram. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss why you think the account represents this person’s point of view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write this person a letter containing 3 questions you want to ask him or her. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level Two (Advanced ELLs and grade-level students) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a Venn Diagram to compare 2 different accounts of the incident. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss why you think the accounts represent each person’s point of view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretend you are a reporter covering the event for your local newspaper and write an article. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Tiered Activity Example <ul><li>Level Three (Advanced learners) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a Venn Diagram to compare 2 different accounts of the incident. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss why you think the accounts represent each person’s point of view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretend you are a Chinese, French, or American reporter covering the event for a national newspaper. Write an article that explains your cultural and/or political perspective. Use facts to justify your point of view (Adapted from Crawford, 2008; p. 19). </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>R: Role (Who is the writer; what is the role of the writer?) </li></ul><ul><li>A: Audience (To whom are you writing?) </li></ul><ul><li>F: Format (In what format should the writing be?) </li></ul><ul><li>T: Topic (What are you writing about?) </li></ul>RAFT
  18. 18. RAFT <ul><li>Provides students opportunities to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on perspective writing; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>share what they know in an unusual way about the content they have learned; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>think creatively. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Role Definition Matrix Personality: Who am I? What are some aspects of my character? Attitude: What are my feelings, beliefs, ideas & concerns? Information: What do I know that I need to share in my writing? Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  20. 20. RAFT Examples English Science Social Studies Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Problems with his generals Advice Column Dear Abby Abraham Lincoln Dred Scott Decision Appeal Speech U.S. Supreme Court Lawyer Combinations to avoid Instructional Manual Chemical Company Chemist Effects of smoking Complaint Cigarettes Lungs What I learned during the trip Telephone Conversation Tom Sawyer Huck Finn Use in Sentences Job Description Middle school students Comma TOPIC FORMAT AUDIENCE ROLE
  21. 21. RAFT Example <ul><li>Algebra I Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content: Students will be able to classify numbers as rational or irrational. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language : Students will be able to explain the relationship between a number and the set (rational or irrational) to which it belongs in writing. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. RAFT Example Defining the relationship Love letter Whole Number Square Root Prove you belong to the set Petition Set of Rational Numbers Repeating Decimal “ I’m feeling irrational” Conversation Therapist Pi Topic Format Audience Role
  23. 23. To the governor and legislature of Rational Number Land: Hello. My name is (point one-two-six repeating) and I recently purchased a home in RNL (Rational Number Land). I have run into a few problems though. It appears that my citizenship in RNL is not well defined. I was not born in RNL as were many of my fraction friends, but have since applied for citizenship under the name (fourteen one hundred and elevenths). This name change I assure you is perfectly legal as that it does not change my overall value. But this I fear is the problem. Many are not willing to accept that 1.26 r and 14/111 are the same number. Many of the less educated fractions think that I am irrational because my name is infinite when written out completely. My numerologist assures me that through a simple procedure, I can be turned permanently into a fraction, thus being more presentable to fellow Rationals. I think the public needs to enact laws that extend the definition of rational numbers to include repeating decimals like myself. I enclose a copy of the recommended procedure by Dr. 0.2 (Zero Point Two). You probably know him as Dr. One Fifth. The bad thing is that my insurance will not cover the procedure because they deem it to be unnecessary. You know what, they are right; it is not necessary. Please consider my petition for equality and frame a law that will allow me to prove, with ease, my citizenship in RNL. Besides, I don’t think that I should suffer because of the lack of intelligence of some Rationals. Thank You, Point OneTwoSix Repeating RAFT Example Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  24. 24. References <ul><li>Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Crawford, G.B. (2008). Differentiation for the adolescent learner: Accommodating brain development, language, literacy and special needs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model. Boston: Pearson. </li></ul><ul><li>Lindahl, K. & Watkins, N. (2007). The Language Objective Menu . In E. Swan & M. Christison. (2008). Concept-oriented reading instruction for English language learners: Creating engaged readers through integrated curriculum and coherent instruction. Training Materials, unpublished manuscript. </li></ul><ul><li>Short, D. & Fitzsimmons, S. (2007). Double the work: Challenges and solutions to acquiring language and academic literacy for adolescent English Language Learners—A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, D.C.: Alliance for Excellent Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms (2 nd edition). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). </li></ul><ul><li>Tomlinson, C.A. (2003). Fulfilling the promise of the differentiated classroom: Strategies and tools for responsive teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). </li></ul>