Erik Erikson Prepared by Kristel Rose B. Magluyan
Erik Homburger EriksonΨ Born on June 15, 1902 in Germany.Ψ His father, a Danish Protestant, and his mother, a Danish Jew,separated before he was born, and he grew up in the home of his mother andGerman Jewish step, father, Theodre Homburger, a pediatrician.Ψ In 1933, he immigrated to the United States.Ψ He worked at the Austen Riggs Center in Massachusetts andconducted research at Harvard, Yale and University of California.Ψ In 1950, he published his book Childhood and Society.
Ψ After Sigmund Freud’s death, Erikson elaborated and extended thestructure of psychoanalysis laid down by Freud.Ψ He added to Freud’s theory of infantile sexuality by concentrating onchildren’s development beyond puberty.“If everything goes back into childhood, then everything is somebody else’s fault and taking responsibility for oneself is undermined.”
Epigenetic Principle Ψ His epigenetic principle holds that development takes place insequential, clearly defined stages , and that each stage must be adequately resolved for a smooth flow of development.According to epigenetic model, if successful resolution of a particular stage does not occur, all subsequent stages reflect the failure in the form of physical, cognitive, social or emotional maladjustment.
The Psychosocial Theory of DevelopmentΨ Eight stages of the life cycle In his theory, he presented his conception of eight stages of egodevelopment across the life cycle. Each stage of development, are with theirrespective developmental tasks, which he termed as crises, which are neededto be resolved to attain growth and development of specific virtues.Ψ Crisis It refers no to a “threat of catastrophe, but to a turning point, acrucial period of increased vulnerability and heightened potential, andtherefore, the ontogenic source of generational strength andmaladjustment.”
Ψ virtues They are said to be the psychosocial strength that helps theindividual through the rest of the stages of development.Ψ A malignancy involves too little of the positive and too much of thenegative aspect of the task, and a maladaptation means too much of thepositive and too little of the negative.Ψ mutuality - interactions of generationΨ ritualization A playful and yet culturally patterned way of doing or experiencingsomething in the daily interplay of individuals.
The First Stage: Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to about 18 months old)Ψ Crisis: Trust Vs. MistrustΨ Significant relations: MotherΨ Psychosocial virtue: HopeΨ Maladjustment: Sensory DistortionΨ Malignancy: WithdrawalΨ Ritualization: Numinous Ritualization
The Second Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (About 18 months to about 3 years)Ψ Crisis: Autonomy Vs. Shame and DoubtΨ Significant relations: Parents/CaretakersΨ Psychosocial virtue: Willpower/DeterminationΨ Maladjustment: ImpulsivityΨ Malignancy: CompulsionΨ Ritualization: Judicious
The Third Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt (about 3 years to about 5 years)Ψ Crisis: Initiative Vs. GuiltΨ Significant relations: FamilyΨ Psychosocial virtue: PurposeΨ Maladjustment: RuthlessnessΨ Malignancy: InhibitionΨ Ritualization: Dramatic
The Fourth Stage: Industry vs.Inferiority (About 5 years to about 13 years)Ψ Crisis: Industry Vs. InferiorityΨ Significant relations: Neighborhood and SchoolΨ Psychosocial virtue: CompetenceΨ Maladjustment: Narrow VirtuosityΨ Malignancy: InertiaΨ Ritualization: Formal
The Fifth Stage: Identity vs. Role Confusion (about 13 to 21 years)Ψ Crisis: Identity Vs. Role ConfusionΨ Significant relations: Peer Groups/ Role ModelΨ Psychosocial virtue: FidelityΨ Maladjustment: FanaticismΨ Malignancy: RepudiationΨ Ritualization: Ideology
The Sixth Stage: Intimacy vs. Isolation (about 21 years to 40 years)Ψ Crisis: Intimacy Vs. IsolationΨ Significant relations: Partners, FriendsΨ Psychosocial virtue: LoveΨ Maladjustment: PromiscuityΨ Malignancy: ExclusionΨ Ritualization: Affiliative
The Seventh Stage: Generativity vs. Stagnation (about 40 years to about 60 years)Ψ Crisis: Generativity Vs. StagnationΨ Significant relations: Household, workmatesΨ Psychosocial virtue: CareΨ Maladjustment: OverextensionΨ Malignancy: RejectivityΨ Ritualization: Generational
The Eight Stage: Integrity vs. Despair (About 60 years to death) Ψ Crisis: Integrity Vs. DespairΨ Significant relations: Mankind or “My Kind”Ψ Psychosocial virtue: WisdomΨ Maladjustment: PresumptionΨ Malignancy: DisdainΨ Ritualization: Integral