Properties of Matter
Matter is anything that has mass and
takes up space.
Matter can be hard, soft, rough or
smooth, round, square, hot or cold.
It can be small enough to fit in your
pocket or as large as the Earth.
States of Matter
There are three states of matter:
1. Solid (Ice)
2. Liquid (Water)
3. Gas (Water Vapor)
Some properties of matter, such as size or
amount, are true only for a given sample
For example, a piece of ice can be as
small as an ice cube or as large as a
glacier. The substance is still ice.
Some properties are true for a particular
kind of substance no matter what the
sample size. These properties are called
characteristic properties. (For
example, all diamonds have the same
Since characteristic properties for a given
substance never change, they can be
used to identify unknown matter.
The temperature at which a liquid boils is
called its boiling point.
Boiling point is an example of a
characteristic property of a substance.
Boiling points can be an excellent way to
tell one liquid from another.
The temperature at which a solid melts is
called its melting point.
Because a solid substance melts at one
temperature only, melting point is another
What are two examples of characteristic
1. Boiling Point
2. Melting Point
Changes in Matter
Changes in the state of matter, such as
boiling or melting are examples of
There are two types of changes in matter:
1. Physical changes
2. Chemical changes
Physical changes change the form of a
substance, but does not change what the
substance is. (The pop can is still a pop
can, just crushed and the ice is water
even when its solid.
In chemical changes, one or more
substances combine or break apart to
form new substances. (Heating sugar and
turning into caramel)
When the process is complete, the
original sugar particle no longer exists
The ability of a substance to undergo a
specific chemical change is another
example of a characteristic property.
This property is called the chemical
activity of the substance.
Types of Matter
Matter can be classified into two general
2. Pure Substances (elements and
A mixture consists of two or more
substances that are mixed together but
not chemically combined.
In a mixture the individual substances
keep their separate properties.
Scientists often classify mixtures by how
well they are mixed together.
In mixtures like ocean water (salt water)
the parts have been blended so well
together that they appear to be a single
This type of mixture is called a solution.
A pure substance is made of only one
kind of matter and has definite properties.
Examples of pure substances are
sugar, salt, iron, aluminum and copper.
Every piece of a pure substance is always
the same no matter what the form.
Some pure substances called elements
cannot be broken down into other
substances by any chemical means.
Individually or in combination, the
elements form every object in the world!
Elements combine in different ways to
form a huge variety of compounds.
A compound is a pure substance formed
from chemical combinations of two or
more different elements.
An example of a compound is water .
Just as symbols are used to represent
elements, formulas are used to represent
The properties of compounds are always
different from the properties of the
elements that formed them.
Using the information you just
gathered, answer the following questions:
1. List the three principal states of matter
and give two examples of each
2. What is the difference between a
physical change and a chemical
3. What is meant by a characteristic
property of a substance?