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2. hyperemia and congestion; hemodynamic disorders

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2. hyperemia and congestion; hemodynamic disorders

  1. 1. Hemodynamic Disorders Hemodynamic Disorders  Edema  Edema  Hyperemia and Congestion  Hyperemia and Congestion  Hemorrhage  Hemorrhage  Hemostasis and Thrombosis  Hemostasis and Thrombosis  Embolism  Embolism  Infarction  Infarction  Shock  Shock 1 Dr. Krishna Tadepalli, MD, www.mletips.com
  2. 2. Definitions Definitions  Homeostasis  maintaining blood as a liquid  Homeostasis  maintaining blood as a liquid  Thrombosis Clotting at inappropriate sites  Thrombosis Clotting at inappropriate sites  Hemostasis  Clotting at appropriate site (site of  Hemostasis  Clotting at appropriate site (site of injury) injury)  Embolism migration of clots  Embolism migration of clots  Infarction obstruction of blood flow to tissues  Infarction obstruction of blood flow to tissues and leads to cell death and leads to cell death  Hemorrhage inability to clot after vascular  Hemorrhage inability to clot after vascular injury injury  Shock extensive hemorrhage can result in  Shock extensive hemorrhage can result in hypotension and death hypotension and death 2 Dr. Krishna Tadepalli, MD, www.mletips.com
  3. 3. Hyperemia and Congestion local increased volume of blood in a particular tissue (common in both) Hyperemia Congestion Active process passive process skeletal muscle during exercise or at sites of inflammation Generalized in cardiac failure arteriolar dilation Local- isolated venous out flow obstruction tissue is red blue-red color (cyanosis) due to increased tissue inflow resulting from impaired venous outflow 3 Dr. Krishna Tadepalli, MD, www.mletips.com
  4. 4. •• Hyperemia Hyperemia –– Usually physiologic rather than in pathologic (inflammatory) Usually physiologic rather than in pathologic (inflammatory) conditions conditions •• Congestion Congestion •• •• Causes Causes Consequences Consequences •• Tissue Hypoxia Degeneration  Scarring/Fibrosis ((Cardiac Tissue Hypoxia Degeneration  Scarring/Fibrosis Cardiac Cirrhosis in Liver) Cirrhosis in Liver) •• Capillary rupture  Focal small hemorrhages Hemosiderin Capillary rupture  Focal small hemorrhages Hemosiderin laden macrophages (Heart Failure Cells in Lung) laden macrophages (Heart Failure Cells in Lung) •• Organ systems involved = Lung, Liver Organ systems involved = Lung, Liver •• Lungs  Acute ((Engorged Pulmonary capillaries, alveolar Lungs  Acute Engorged Pulmonary capillaries, alveolar hemorrhages,) Chronic (thickened fibrous septa, Heart failure cells) hemorrhages,) Chronic (thickened fibrous septa, Heart failure cells) •• Liver  Acute (distended central hepatic veins, centrilobular Liver  Acute (distended central hepatic veins, centrilobular hepatocyte degeneration), Chronic ((Nut Meg liver, fibrosis – Cardiac hepatocyte degeneration), Chronic Nut Meg liver, fibrosis – Cardiac cirrhosis, centrilobular necrosis) cirrhosis, centrilobular necrosis) 4 Dr. Krishna Tadepalli, MD, www.mletips.com
  5. 5. Hyperemia and Congestion Hyperemia and Congestion 5 Dr. Krishna Tadepalli, MD, www.mletips.com
  6. 6. Liver - congestion Nutmeg centrilobular necrosis EQ Central vein 6 Dr. Krishna Tadepalli, MD, www.mletips.com
  7. 7. Liver - congestion Nutmeg centrilobular necrosis EQ Central vein 6 Dr. Krishna Tadepalli, MD, www.mletips.com

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