Is a demersal fish found in tropical-subtropical andIs a demersal fish found in tropical-subtropical andtemperate areas, ranging from shallow coastal waters totemperate areas, ranging from shallow coastal waters toconsiderable depthsconsiderable depths ((continental slopecontinental slope).).Many species are associated with coral reef areas whereasfew may enter rivers and brackishwaters during thejuvenile phase.Snappers are medium (300 – 600 mm) to large (> 600Snappers are medium (300 – 600 mm) to large (> 600mm) fishes with some species reaching total lengths wellmm) fishes with some species reaching total lengths wellover 1m.over 1m.
Common Names: Mangrove Red Snapper,Red Snapper, River snapperDistribution:West Bengal,Chilka Lake,Ponnani Estuary,Andaman & Nicobar Islands,Maharashtra,Tamil Nadu,KarnatakaLutjanus argentimaculatusL. argentimaculatus is distinguished from the L. boharby its longer snout,truncate tail and more bronze togreenish coloration.•Juveniles have a series of about eight whitish barscrossing sides and 1 or 2 blue lines across cheek.Commercially important fish(sport fish,ornamental fish & aquaculture)
Lutjanus gibbusCommon NamesHumpback Snapper, Humpback red snapperDistribution:Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Andaman & NicobarIslands, KeralaCommercially important fish(sport fish & aquariumfish)•Mouth somewhat oblique.•The fins are red or frequently brown to blackish.• The soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins have narrow whitemargins.Juveniles with a large, round, black spot at the base ofthe caudal fin.
Common Name:John’s snapperDistribution:Goa,Gujarat,Ayiramthengu;Kerala,Andaman & Nicobar Islands,Maharashtra,Tamil Nadu•A large black blotch above the lateral line below theanterior dorsal-fin rays.•Center of each scale often with a reddish-brown spot,giving an overall appearance of series of horizontal lineson side of body.A single species visiting freshwaterLutjanus johniiCommercially important fish(sport fish &aquaculture)
Lutjanus rivulatusCommon Names: Blubberlip snapper,Speckled Snapper•Mouth oblique.•10 Dorsal spines, 15-16 Dorsal soft rays; 3 Anal spines,8 Anal soft rays.Juveniles with a series of 3 to 8 brown bars on sides anda chalky-white spot, with a broad blackish margin,present below anterior soft dorsal ray. Large adults brownish to grey with small white spotsand fine striations on the head.Distribution: Chennai, Arabian Sea, Karnataka, Kerala,West BengalCommercially important fish(sport fish,aquaculture& excellent foodfish)
Lutjanus fulviflammaThe scale rows on its back rise obliquely above thelateral line.•A series of six or seven horizontal yellow stripes runs onthe side, mainly below the lateral line.•The belly, most of the caudal peduncle, and fins areyellowish.• A prominent black spot is on the lateral line below thefirst few soft dorsal fin rays.Common Names: Blackspot snapper,Dory snapperCommercially important fish(sport fish & aquariumfish)
Typical perch-like fishes,Typical perch-like fishes, moderately elongate tomoderately elongate todeepbodied,compressed.deepbodied,compressed.Body is covered with ctenoid scales. Anterior part ofBody is covered with ctenoid scales. Anterior part ofthe head (snout & preorbital area) is without scales.the head (snout & preorbital area) is without scales.Mouth is terminal & protrusible.Teeth is present onMouth is terminal & protrusible.Teeth is present onvomer and palatines.vomer and palatines. preopercle serrate.preopercle serrate.Dorsal fin is continuous with 10 to 12 spines and 10 toDorsal fin is continuous with 10 to 12 spines and 10 to17 soft rays.Anal fin with 3 spines and 7 to 11 soft rays.17 soft rays.Anal fin with 3 spines and 7 to 11 soft rays.Pelvic fin with 1 spine and 5 soft rays, set further backPelvic fin with 1 spine and 5 soft rays, set further backthan the pectoral fin bases.than the pectoral fin bases.Caudal fin is truncate to deeply forked.Caudal fin is truncate to deeply forked.24 vertebrae(10+14).24 vertebrae(10+14). Lateral line is complete, straight or curved.Lateral line is complete, straight or curved..
most diagnostic feature of the fish, especially whenmost diagnostic feature of the fish, especially whenalive or fresh from the water.alive or fresh from the water.isis highly variable, mainly from yellow through red tohighly variable, mainly from yellow through red toblue, often with blotches, lines or other patterns.blue, often with blotches, lines or other patterns.Snappers are active predatorsopportunistic carnivores that feed at night on avariety of items (crustaceans,fishes, cuttlefish andworms).Larger, deep-bodied snappers are equipped with largecanine teeth for seizing and holding the prey.
Reasons for migration search of food & spawning.Migrations and aggregations related to spawning arereported for species of the subfamilies Lutjaninae andParadicichtyinae from both sides of the Atlantic and theIndo-Pacific oceans.Medium sized schooling species do not migrate or formspawning aggregations.Large and solitary species migrate and form aggregationsduring the spawning season.
Snappers are dioecious and gonochoristic organisms.Sexual differentiation remains constant throughouttheir life span.Lutjanids are batch spawners with individual femalesspawning several times during the year.Spawning behaviour occurs every night, over a periodof one month from mid May to mid June with watertemperatures ranging from 24 to 26°C.On average, lutjanids reach their maturity at about43 to 51 % of the maximum total length, with malesmaturing at a slightly smaller size than females.
Bottom trawls,nets,hooks,spears,handlines , longlines and traps.
According to CMFRI Annual Report 2006 – 07,landings of groupers and snappers were an estimated5443 t and showed an increase of 24% compared toprevious year.CMFRI Annual Report of the year 2007- 08Lethrinids formed 9,288 t forming 31.8% of perchlandings followed by lutjanids 2,111t (7.2 %) andgroupers 2,285 t (7.8%).
According to CMFRI Annual Report 2008- 09,specimens of 26 species of the family Lutjanidae werecollected from the different landing centres usingdifferent gears.In Mumbai, the catch of Lutjanus johnii was quiteunusual for purse-seines. The landing showed an increase from 34,212 t in 2008 to44,175 t in 2009.Lethrinids formed 38.7% of perch production followedby threadfin breams (18.7%),snappers, 3217 t (7.3%) andgroupers (3.3%).
According to CMFRI Annual Report 2009-10, a total of31 species of fishes of the family Lutjanidae werecollected from the selected landing centers by differentgears.In 2010 the production of perches is about 27%. That isonly 1% increase is obtained.2010-11
2011-12During 2011-12 the production of perches is about 28%from which snapper give production of,7286t (3%).
Decreases in natural populations of snappers can beincreased bydeveloping techniques for reproducing them incaptivity, either for fishery enhancementORfor commercial cultivation.
Snapperfish are of high commercial value form a sizeable part of the catches.Most species are marketed fresh;sometimes they are frozen or dry-salted.The flesh is delicious in taste &used as food.Some species of Lutjanus popular aquarium fishes.popular aquarium fishes. used as sport fishes.used as sport fishes. Snack of redsnapper
SnappersSnappers are a family of perciform fish,are a family of perciform fish, LutjanidaeLutjanidae,,mainly marine, but with some members inhabitingmainly marine, but with some members inhabitingestuaries.estuaries.TheyThey form a sizeable part of the catches and exportedform a sizeable part of the catches and exportedto different parts of the world.to different parts of the world.The aggregative behaviour and reef based distributionmake lutjanids particularly vulnerable to exploitation.