1.5 ROLE OF INTERNATIONALORGANISATIONS & AGREEMENTS
Besides National Development,how else can LDCs develop? Through the help of International Organisations and Agreements What is the difference between an International Organisations and Agreements?
Match the term with its correct definition.International • Different countries comeAgreements together to work towards alleviating uneven development.InternationalOrganisation • Countries in international organisation meet regularly to discuss and agree on some strategies.
World Bank. Asian Development Bank.United Nations1. INTERNATIONALORGANISATIONS
Asian Development Bank(ADB)• Established in 1966• 67 members (48 within Asia, 19 outside) – Regional: Malaysia, Singapore, Japan, New Zealand, Japan, Indonesia, China, Cambodia, Afghanistan, etc – Non-regional: Austria, Italy, Germany, France, Canada• Main goal: – Poverty reduction in Asia & Pacific (has two- third of the world’s poor)
Its five strategic priorities are:1.Catalyzing investment from the private sector2.Strengthening inclusiveness3.Promoting regional cooperation & integration4.Encouraging effective environmental management5.Improving governance & preventing corruption
• Supports activities ranging from agriculture and natural resources to energy, finance, social infrastructure, and transport and communications• Assist in building infrastructure – roads, airports, power plants, and water and sanitation facilities• Build the foundation for commerce and economic growth• Making essential services accessible to the poor.
ADB Policies• Provides aid to its 67 member countries through: – monetary loans – technical assistance• Good governance needed in recipient country to make good use of loans and assistance provided by ADB. – Accountability, participation, predictability, & transparency
• Millions of dollars were lent to LDCs such as Bangladesh to support economic growth.• Examples: – In 1994, ADB provided financial & technical help to Bangladesh in the Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge Project, aimed at improving the transport infrastructure – US$71.8m loan package to Cambodia helps improve secondary education.
SuccessJamuna Multipurpose Bridge Project• Connect less developed northwestern region to more developed eastern region – more trade• Remove existing traffic congestion due to heavy reliance on water transport. – better SOL• Allow farmers in northwest to transport and sell their produce to commercial centre of Dhaka & port of Chittagong. – more income
World Bank• 185 member countries• Mission: 1. Alleviate poverty in LDCs. 2. Build climate for investment, jobs and sustainable economic growth 3. Invest and empower poor people to participate in development.
WB Policies• Provides financial and technical aid to help LDCs develop economically & socially• Provide loans to LDCs at low or no interests• Improver sanitation & water supply• Finance immunisation & vaccination programmes
Success Kecamantan Development Programme (KDP) started in 1998• Between 1998-2006, > US$890 million (credits & loans) were supplied to KDP• Benefited over 34 000 villages across Indonesia• Money grants are given directly to villagers to pay for their own development• E.g. Construction of underground wells with high-capacity pumps & a network of pipes – Access to clean & reliable water supply – better health – Water for irrigation – better economic means
Limitations1. LDCs usually spend most of their earnings repaying the interest of their loans.2. Aid end up in the hands of corrupted government officials or invested in military equipment to fund civil war.3. Rich gets richer, poor remain poor.• E.g. Many African nations are still poor/ even poorer (per capita incomes of <US$500) after receiving many years of international aid.• E.g. In 2003, Ethiopia’s per capita income was US$94 despite having received US$1 billion in aid between 1982 and 1985. 90% spent on military development
United Nations• 192 member countries• Established since 24 October 1945• Some areas of focus: 1. Social development 2. Sustainable development 3. International trade 4. Advancement of women 5. Governance
UN Policies• World Food Programme (WFP) is the worlds largest international food aid organization for both emergency relief and development.• UN Childrens Fund (UNICEF) is the lead UN organization working for the long-term survival, protection and development of children.• UN provided more than $38.2 billion in development loans in year 2008 to nearly 100 developing countries.
Limitations• Overall progress has been too slow for most of the UN Millenium targets to be met by 2015.• Many arguments over who should finance the UN efforts.• E.g. Between 1960s to 1980s, UN ran up debts nearly totaling $1 billion.
2. INTERNATIONALAGREEMENTS- UN MILLENNIUM PROJECT- UN CONVENTION ON LAW OF THE SEA
United Nations MillenniumDevelopment Project (UNMDG) GOALS 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development
Success• Reduced no. of people living on <US$1 a day by 25 million.• Reduced hunger in more than 30 countries by at least 25%.• All LDCs has improved in provision of primary education. E.g. >90% child enrollment in primary school achieved in countries in Latin America & Caribbean, Southeast Asia, East Asia & Northern Africa.• Proportion of population with access to safe drinking water increased from 71% in 1999 to 79% in 2002.
Limitations1. Slow progress in improving sanitation in LDCs – At the current rate of progress, 2.4 billion people worldwide will still not get proper sanitation facilities by 2015.2. Little progress in promoting gender equality and empowering women. E.g. diseases such as AIDS & malaria are still on the rise.
3. Development is still unequal in different developing regions• Uneven development between countries: – LDCS with fast rate of development: Latin America & Caribbean, East Asia, SEA, Northern Africa – LDCS with little development, increase poverty: Sub- Saharan• Uneven development within the country: China – High GDP per capita (US$608-US$781) in urban cities along coastal region (i.e. Shanghai, Beijing) – Low GDP per capita (<US$300) in central & interior China
UN Convention on Law of theSea (UNCLOS) Previous Situation • DCs: Large fishing boats have expensive & advanced equipment spot fish underwater easily • LDCs: Poor fishermen in small boats with low technology are at a disadvantage • Depletion of fish stocks in popular fishing grounds • Pollution from waste released from ships & oil tankers • threatened coastal resorts & ocean resources
UNCLOS Policy• Est. 1982 by > 160 countries• Coastal states have the exclusive rights to use resources (like fish & oil) in the waters within 321.86 km (200 nautical miles) from their shore.• Area termed as Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) prevents fishermen from other countries from fishing in the waters of other countries prevent overfishing.
Success• Beneficial for coastal LDCs• E.g. EEZ protected poor fishermen from large fishing boats in DCs as they could no longer fish in Peru’s seas without permission.
Limitations• ___________ countries (no access to any water body) such as ___________ in South America do not benefit from it.• As the ocean resources are ___________ for all no ___________ to maintain the sea for future use overfishing = Tragedy of the Commons