Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Makarajyothi 2015

981 views

Published on

Makarajyothi 2015. 13th edition of Theme based souvenir published in connection with the annual Makaravilakku festival of Tripunithura Thamaramkulangara Sree Dharmasastha Temple by Thamaramkulangara Ayyappa Seva Samithy. This years theme is Murals of Kerala Temples and Palaces

Published in: Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Makarajyothi 2015

  1. 1. heaÍõM bXMlfnkX akjaä akäf bfùiuX EqèùleChjX aobX Mem£ejX ùhCcecõuX hájÔeKõaclox aãe vflõX Mgíû haæÿjû lmõ ùhmaÿe Yibez Mem£e bmlf cevam YtlveL moevÌe mqbª Ytloãehje jìjìcue yeaue Meam£ lgYõX vace vcû ãmõ OvVéjfq cele hfle jgaùoeYfó©cû lX Mem£ejX DuX baÌ cuessboõX oãevfOfX Dvõoe MjCX vem£f lVacb MjCX cc lmxceox kejgCõ Yeabv jì jì cueùhaYe! anekbrjõX cuehtpõX mqbª jìekjX bfYgX heqbªlr uôoãevÌX Mem£ejX ùhCcecõuX bfùh htpõX bfMV bÌõX bfóÛg MXaYeû ùhfãX mglX ìfùh ùhmeovfjlX Mem£ejX ùhCcecõuX cècelXi icvX kejgCõecôl htjflX mqbª bfIxv ujX aobX Mem£ejX ùhCcecõuX DmxclxkganMVjX aobX Dmxclxßùlg bfveMvX DmxcofóØ ùhoelejX Mem£ejX ùhCcecõuX becX heoX ùhmejõ ùMflogjfl ujX oìfCX kgÂxpãflVe pevgvõeOeã beacljcfljYgpX aMóaYesi vfOeã hËelx heCfoVaãv ùhlfYëMcav MXKòaùk oOevû aoabe YtóeOfãg©û ùlfoMhlfvglû helghtqCÛùlãrMû -Xm-a-cw-Ip-f-ßc {io [¿Ω-imkvXm icWw... ]mXp ]q¿Æ-{X-boix {io ltc ax 3 ............................................................................................... ..........
  2. 2. t£{XKcnbmb Xr∏qWnØpdbn¬ {io [¿ΩimkvXmhv {][m {]XnjvTbmb t£{XamWv XmacwIpfßc {io [¿ΩimkvXm t£{Xw. Ipd®v q‰m≠pIƒ°v ap≥]v GXp ImeØpw hncn™v hnIkn®v n¬°p∂ Xmac∏q°sfs°m≠v nd™ncp∂ AXnatmlcamb Hcp Pemibw ChnsS D≠mbncp∂p. Cu Pemibw ÿnXn sNbvXncp∂ hf∏ns‚ DSaÿmbncp∂ samc°me abnse DÆn ºqXncn Xncpmhmb t£{XØnp kao]w HmØv ]Tn°p∂Xnmbn t]mhpIbp≠mbn. AhnsS HmØv ]Tn°p∂ ImeØv kao]Øv Xs∂ ÿnXn sNøp∂ N{ah´w {io [¿ΩimkvXm t£{XØn¬ N{ah´Ø∏s `Pn®pw tkhn®pw Pohn®p. Imew sN∂tXmSp IqSn At±lw hm¿≤IyklPamb Zo߃°v ASns∏SpIbpw Xncn®p kz¥w C√tØ°v aSßp∂Xns°pdn®v Nn¥n°mpw XpSßn. F∂m¬ N{ah´Ø∏tmSp≈ AXnc‰ `‡n nanØw `Khms Hcp tcw Z¿in°mXncn°pI km[yamb Imcya√t√m F∂ Nn¥bm¬ BIpeNnØmbn Ign™p hcsh Hcp Znhkw At±lw n{Zbnem≠t∏mƒ, kz]vØn¬ Z¿iap≠mbn. ""`´Xncn C√tØ°v aSßns°mƒI, AßbpsS IqsS Rm≥ F∂pw D≠mIpw. C√sØØn Akm[mcWabn Fs¥¶nepw Ap`hs∏SpIbmsW¶n¬ Fs‚ km∂n[yw AhnsS Ds≠∂v hnizkn®v Bcm[n®vsImƒI''. s]mSp∂s n{Z hn´v Fgpt∂‰ ºqXncn°v sX√pw kwibw D≠mbn√. N{ah´Ø∏s‚ `‡n hm’eyØn¬ Ba·mb hn{]t{ijvT≥ C√tØ°v aS°bm{X Bcw`n®p. C√sØØn, ta¬ {]Xn]mZn® Xmac°pfØn¬ Ipfn°p∂Xnmbn, Iønep≠mbncp∂ Hme°pS Icbn¬ h®v IpfØnte°ndßn. Ipfn Ign™v Icbv°v Ibdnb {_m“W≥ IpS FSp°phmmbn {ian®t∏mƒ, AXv AhnsS Dd®ncn°p∂Xmbn Ap`hs∏´p. `‡intcmaWn°v N{ah´Ø∏s‚ km∂n[yw AhnsS Z¿in°phm≥ km[n®p. H´pw sshImsX Xs∂ Ipf°cbn¬ Hcp XdsI´n, `Khms AhnsS {]XnjvTn®p. Hmeta™ Hcp {iotImhn¬ n¿Ωn°pIbpw ssZwZn ]qPmImcy߃ Bcw`n°pIbpw sNbvXp. At±lØns‚ Imetijw C√sØ A¥¿PßfmWv nthZyw A¿∏n®ncp∂Xv. Ime{ItaW ]qPmImcy߃ SØphm≥ C√sØ ImcWh¿°v km[n°mØXnm¬, Hcp Znhkw D®]qP°v tijw At±lw t£{XØns‚ Xmt°m¬ sNmΔc Xos∏´ almcmPmhns Gev∏n®p. [m¿ΩnI N{Ih¿Øn F∂dnbs∏´ncp∂ almcmPmhv `‡n]q¿Δw t£{Xw Gs‰Sp°pIbpw, ]pcp≤mcWØns‚ NpaXe F°metØbpw {]K¤mb X®pimkv{X⁄≥ Cu®chmcysc Gev∏n°pIbpw sNbvXp. sIm®n almcmPmhns‚ tcn´p≈ `cWØn≥ ]flktcmhcXochnlmcn...]flktcmhcXochnlmcn...]flktcmhcXochnlmcn...]flktcmhcXochnlmcn...]flktcmhcXochnlmcn... XmacwIpfßc {io [¿ΩimkvXm t£{Xw 5 ............................................................................................... ..........
  3. 3. Iogn¬ Span‰w tZhkzw Bbn ssZwZn Imcy߃ SØnbncp∂Xv. F∂m¬ tIcfkwÿmw cq]nIrXambtXmSpIqSn, tZhkzØnp≈ hcpamw ]cnanXamhpIbpw, t£{XØnse ]qPmImcy߃°v ho≠pw {i≤IpdbpIbpw sNbvXp. Cu ImeL´ØnemWv t£{X]cnkchmknIƒ t£{XØns‚ D∂aw mSns‚ sFizcyw BsW∂v a nem°n, t£{XSØn∏nmbn XmacwIpfßc Aø∏ tkhm kanXn F∂ t]cn¬ Hcp kwLS cq]oIcn®Xv. tIcf Ducm◊ tZhkzØns‚ Iognep≈ Cu t£{XØnse SØn∏v NpaXe Aø∏ tkhm kanXnbn¬ n£n]vXamWv. Ign™ Acq‰m≠mbn {]h¿Øn®p hcp∂ Aø∏ tkhm kanXn nch[n {]h¿Ø߃ t£{XØn¬ SØn hcp∂p. [zP{]XnjvT, S∏pc n¿ΩmWw, {iotImhnepw Np‰ºehpw sNtºme tabpI, Du´p]pc n¿ΩWw XpSßnb ]e _rlZv ]≤XnIfpw `Khms‚ Ap{KlØmepw `‡PßfpsS n¿tem`amb klIcWØmepw ]q¿ØoIcn°phm≥ km[n®p. Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc t£{X-Ønse apJy-{]-XnjvT {io [¿Ω-im-kvXm-hn-t‚-Xm-Wv. Chn-SpsØ tZhs N{a-h-´-Ø-∏-mbpw `‡-P--߃ Bcm-[n-®p-h-cp-∂p. he-Xp- I-c-Øn¬ Aar-X-I-e-i-hp-ambn IpSn-sIm-f-fp∂ {io[¿Ω- im-kvXmhv Xs‚ `‡-cpsS GX-`n-em-jhpw km[n-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-hm≥ Xøm-dmbn Ccn-°p-I-bm-Wv. I∂n-aq-e-bn¬ KW-]Xn `K-hmpw sXs° Xncp-ap-‰Øp≈ t£{X-Øn¬ `{Z-Imfn tZhnbpw `‡-P--߃°v Ap-{K-l-߃ ¬Ip-hm-mbn hmW-cp-fp-∂p. IqSmsX mK-cm-Pm-hv, {_“-c-£kv F∂o D]-tZ-h-∑m-tcbpw ChnsS {]Xn-jvTn-°-s∏´n´p≠v. tIcfØnse {]ikvXamb ]qtcm’hßfn¬ XmacwIpfßc aIchnf°p’hØnv {]tXyI ÿmap≠v. {io ]q¿Æ{Xbois‚ {]PIƒ°v tafkwkv°mcw c‡Øn¬ Aen™p tN¿∂n´p≈XmWv. hr›ntIm’hhpw AXntmSp_‘n®p≈ AXn{]ikvXamb Fgp∂≈n∏pIfpw tafßfpw BkzZn°phm≥ mSns‚ mm`mKØv n∂pw BkzmZI¿ {io ]q¿Æ{Xboi k∂n[nbn¬ FØnt®cp∂p. Cu D’hkwkv°mcw NphSp]nSn®mWv XmacwIpfßc t£{XØnse B≠ptXmdpap≈ aIchnf°p’hhpw Nn´s∏SpØnbncn°p∂Xv. F√m h¿jhpw aIcw H∂nv XmacwIpfßc t£{XØn¬ Actßdp∂ taf{Xbw Npcpßnb Imeßfn¬ Xs∂ {]ikvXnbm¿÷n ®Xn¬ kanXn°v NmcnXm¿∞yap≠v. `Khms‚ Fgp∂≈n∏pIƒ cmPIobamhWw F∂p≈t∏mƒ AIºSnbmIp∂ hmZytaf߃°v Xnabpw imkv{XobXbpw ]q¿Æambpw D≠mIWw. Cu e£yamWv `Khm≥ {io ]q¿Æ{Xbois‚bpw {io [¿ΩimkvXmhns‚bpw Ap{KlØm¬ XmacwIpfßcbn¬ Actßdp∂Xv. D’htØmSp_‘n®v Hcp {]tXyI hnjbw am{Xw ssIImcyw sNbvXv {]kn≤oIcn°mdp≈ F∂ kvacWnIbpw BkzmZIhrμØns‚ {]iwk ]nSn®p]‰p∂p. “£bØn¬ n∂pw {XmWw sNøp∂Xv” (miØn¬ n∂pw c£n°p∂Xv) t£{Xw F∂ A¿∞amWv {ioi¶cmNmcy¿ `KhXv KoX° v cNn® `mjyØn¬ ¬Inbn´p≈Xv. XmacwIpfßc {io [¿ΩimkvXm t£{Xw Cu A¿∞sØ ]q¿Æam°p∂p. Cu t£{XØnse tZhs Adn™v Bcm[n°p∂h¿°v k¿Δ sFizcyßfpw {IaØn¬ h∂ptNcp∂p. ap∂qdp sIm√Øntesd ]g°ap≈Xpw `‡intcmaWnbpw Nn{XIemn]pWpamb tamc°me `´Xncn Bcm[n®pt]m∂Xpamb XmacwIpfßc {io [¿ΩimkvXmhns‚ ssNXyw mƒ°pmƒ Cu tZisaßpw hym]n®psImt≠bncn°p∂p. inhXØzhpw hnjvWpXØzhpw HØptNcp∂ H∂mWv lcnlc]p{Xs∂ k¶ev]w. Cu tZiØv F√m IpSpw_ßfnepw sFizcyhpw kº¬kar≤nbpw nd®psIm≠v B{inXh’emb `Khm≥ {io [¿ΩimkvXmhv hncmPn°p∂p. F√mw `Khm≥ {io [¿ΩimkvXmhns‚bpw {io ]q¿Æ{Xbois‚bpw Xr∏mZ]flßfn¬ ka¿∏n®v sIm≠v AyYm icWw mkvXn Xztah icWw aa ! XkvamXv ImcpWy `mth c£ c£ alm{]t`m!! 7 ............................................................................................... ..........
  4. 4. kzman icWw Xma-cwIp-f-ßc {io [¿ΩimkvXm t£{X-Ønse Cu h¿jsØ Xncp- hp-’-h-tØm-S-p-_-‘n®v {]Im-iw sNøp∂ ""t£{X-ß-fnse Npa¿®n- {X-Ie'' F∂ hnj-b-Øn¬ F∂ t]tcm-Sp-IqSnb kvac- Wn-Ibv°v k¿Δ-aw-K-f-ßfpw D≠m-Is´ F∂v {io[¿ΩimkvXm-hn-tmSv {]m¿∞n-®p-sIm-≈p-∂p. t£{X-ß-fnse Npa¿®n-{X-ß-sf-°p-dn®pw AXns‚ ssZho-Ihpw Iem-]-c-hp-amb {]m[m-y-sØ-°p-dn®pw km[m-cW P- ߃°pw `‡-P--߃°pw Adn-hpw, hnizm-khpw, `‡nbpw D≠m-°p- hmpw Cu kvac-WnI D]-I-cn-bv°p-am-dm-I-s´-sb∂v Biw-kn-°p-∂-tXm- sSm∏w D’-h-Øns‚ I¿Ω-ßfpw BtLmjßfpw ]q¿Δm-[nIw awK-f-am- bn-Øo-cp-hm≥ {io [¿ΩimkvXm-hns‚ Ap-{Klw F√m-h¿°pw D≠m- Is´ F∂v {]m¿∞n-®p -sIm-≈p-∂p. X{¥n ]pen-b-∂q¿ kp{_-“-Wy≥ ºq-Xn-cn-∏mSv 9 ............................................................................................... .......... kp{_-“-Wy≥ ºq-Xn-cn-∏mSv ]pen-b-∂q¿ a Fcq¿ ]n. Hm. Xr∏q-Wn-Øpd 682301 t^m¨: 0484 2780370 Xr∏q-Wn-Øpd 18-˛12-˛2014
  5. 5. Ac-q-‰m-≠n-te-sd-bmbn Xma-cwIpfßc {io [¿ΩimkvXm t£{X-Ønse nXy-n-Zm--N-S-ß-fp-Ifpw D’-hmZnImcy-ßfpw S-Øn-h-cp-∂Xv Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc Aø∏ tkhm -k-anXn (TASS) F∂ `‡P kwL-S--bm-Wv. `K-hm≥ {io [¿ΩimkvXm-hns‚ Ap-{K- l-Ømepw kan-XnbpsS ap≥Ime ]pWy-{]-h¿Øn-I-fpsS ]n≥_-e-Ømepw Cu t£{X-Øns‚ JymXn mƒ°p-mƒ h¿≤n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. t£{X ssNXyw IqSp-X¬ t{]mPz-e-am-°p-hm≥ th≠ [mcmfw I¿Ω-߃ Aø-∏ -tkhm kanXn Ign™ Ac-q-‰m-≠mbn Nn´-tbmSpw t£{X-]m-c-º-cy-߃°v Du∂¬ ¬Inbpw sNbvXp-h-cp-∂p. Ch-sb√mw ]q¿Æ-hn-P-b-Øn¬ FØn-bv°p-hm≥ `‡-P--ß-fpsS n¿tem-`- amb kl-I-c-W-߃ kan-Xn°p e-`n-®n-´p-≠v. [zP-{]-XnjvT, S-∏pc n¿Ωm-Ww, t£{X--ho-I-c-Ww, Du´p-]pc n¿Ωm-Ww, AjvS-_-‘-I-e-iw, hn]pe-amb BNm-cm-p-jvTm--ß-tfm-Sp-IqSn `K-h-Xn°v hr›n- I-am-k-Øn¬ S-Øp∂ If-sa-gpØpw ]m´pw, Zo]-°mgvN, Ign-™-h¿jw Bcw-`n® k¿∏-_-en, D’-h-_- en XpS-ßn-b NS-ßp-Iƒ CØ-c-Øn-ep≈ I¿Ω-ß-fn¬ Nne-Xp-am-{Xw. t£{Xm-Nm-c-߃ IrXy-ambn ]men°-s∏-Sp-∂-h-tbm-sSm∏w t£{Xkwkv°mcw ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n-°p- hmpw AXp-hgn F√m cwK-ß-fnepw ]m¿iz-h¬°-cn-°-s∏´ `mc-Xo-b-kw-kv°m-csØ ]p-cp-÷o-hn-∏n®v kaq-lsØ H∂msI Cu kwkv°m-c-Øns‚ D]m-k-I-cm°n am‰p-∂-Xn-p≈ Hcp NmeI i‡n-bmbn amdp-hmpw Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc Aø∏tkhm kanXn {i≤n-®p-h-cp-∂p. `mc-Xob kwkv°m-cØnv C∂v ka-kvX-ta-J-e-I-fnepw aqey-Nyp-Xn kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂p. A]-I-S-I-c-amb Cu Ah-ÿbv°v am‰w-h-cp-Øp-hm≥ ΩpsS t£{Xk¶¬∏-Øn-p-am-{Xsa Ignbq F∂v kanXn hniz-kn-°p-∂p. IɪÉÉiÉ jÉɪÉiÉä <ÊiÉ IÉäjÉ:! F∂mWv ]WvUnX aXw. AXm-bXv £b-Øn¬ n∂pw {XmWw sNøp-∂- Xv As√-¶n¬ c£n-°p-∂Xv t£{Xw F∂mWv CXns‚ A¿∞w. hy‡n, IpSpw-_w, cmjv{Sw F∂o Xe-ßsf {Kln-®n-cn-°p∂ imco-cnc, am-kn-I, Bflo-b, kmaq-lnI £b-ß-fn¬ n∂pw sΩ c£n-°p- hm≥ th≠ thZnIfmbn t£{X-߃ amtd-≠-Xp-≠v F∂v R߃ Icp-Xp-∂p. AXp-sIm-≠mWv tZi-Ønv ssNX-y- h¿≤--hp≠m-Ip-hm≥ t£{XssNXyw h¿≤n-°-W-sa∂v ]d-bp-∂-Xv. ΩpsS t£{X-Øn¬ kanXn kwL-Sn-∏n-®p-h-cp∂ cmam-bW amkm-N-cWw, hnhn[ hnj-b-ß-fn¬ D≈ ]T ]≤-Xn-Iƒ, `mK-h-X-k-]vXm-lw, ]pcm-W-]m-cm-b-W-߃ F∂n-h-bpsS t{]c-I-i-‡nbpw CXmWv. IqSmsX t£{X-I-e-Isf ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-mbn t£{X hmZy-I-em-tI{μhpw kanXn S-Øn-h-cp-∂p. Cu {]h¿Øn-I-fpsS KpW-t`m-‡m-°m-fmbn `‡-P--߃ amd-W-sa∂v A`y¿∞n-°p-∂p. kaql a- nse Bflobt_m[w Db¿ØpI hgn Pohn-X-Øns‚ hnhn[ Xe-ß-fn¬ jvS-s∏-´p- sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ ka-{KX hos≠-Sp-°p-I-sb-∂-XmWv D’-hmZn BtLm-j-ß-fpsS apJy-e£yw. 2015-˛se aI-c-hn-f-°m-tLm-j-Øn-tm-S-p-_-‘n®v {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p∂ bpsS CXn-hr-Ø-amb t£{X Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ Cu Bi-b-hp-ambn tbmPn-®p-t]m-Ip∂p. ]pcmWIYm `mK-ß-fpsS tIhew Nn{Xo-I-cWw am{X-a√ Npa¿Nn-{X-߃. [ym-Øns‚ Zriym-hn-jv°m-c-ß-fm-W-h. thtZm-]-n-j-Xv X-Xz-ß-fpsS {]Xo-I-ßfpamW-h. AXn-m¬ `mc-Xo-b-kw-kv°m-c-Øns‚ ka-{K-Xm-Z¿i--ambn Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ amdp-∂p. kvac-Wn-I-bnse D≈S°w Cu Hcp Ah-t_m-[-Øn-tebv°v sΩ sIm≠p-t]mIpw F∂-Xn¬ kan-Xn°v kwi-b-an-√. `K-hXv ssNXy h¿≤--hn-mbn Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc Aø∏tkhm kan-Xn sNbvXp-h-cp∂ F√m Imcy-ß-fp-sSbpw hnP-b-Ønmbn `‡-P--ß-fpsS {]m¿∞-bpw n¿tem-`-amb kl-I-c-W-ßfpw XpS¿∂pw D≠m-I-W-sa∂v Aø-∏-m-a-t[-b-Øn¬ A`y¿∞n-°p-∂p. F√m-h¿°pw `K-hm≥ {io ]q¿Æ-{X-bo-ipw {io [¿Ω-im-kvXmhpw Bbq-cm-tcmKykuJy-߃ ¬In Ap-{K-ln-°s´ F∂v {]m¿∞n-°p-∂p. ic-W-tLm-j-tØm-sS, s{]m^. ]n. Fkv. tim`≥ {]kn-U‚ v XmacwIpfßc Aø∏ tkhmkanXn Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc, Xr∏q-Wn-Øp-d-˛682301 BapJw 10 Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc aI-c-hn-f-°m-tLmj kvac-WnI 2015.......... ..................................................................
  6. 6. XmacwIpfßc Aø∏ tkhmkanXn Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc, Xr∏q-Wn-Øp-d-˛682301 aI-c-tPym-Xn-bn-eq-sS... 11 ............................................................................................... .......... {io ]q¿Æ-{X-boim Inbq `K-hmt ]e-P∑w ChnsS Pn-°m≥ n≥ aXn-e-I-sØ∂pw D’-h-]m-bkw aXn-h-cp-thmfw pI-cm≥! D’-h-{`m-¥s‚ Cu IhnXmiI-e-amWv GsXmcp Xr∏q-Wn-Øp-d-°m-c-s‚bpw a- n¬. CXns Dƒs°m-≠mWv Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc tZi-hm-kn-Ifpw D’-hm-tLm-jsØ kao-]n-°p-∂-Xv. k¿Δm-`o-jvS-h-c-{]- Z-m-bI-mb Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc {io [¿Ω-im-kvXm-hns‚ Xncp-hp-’hw Hcn°¬ IqSn kam-K-X-am-hp-I-bm-Wv. t£{X-ssN-Xyw tZi-Øns‚ ssNXyw F∂v a- n-em-°n-bmWv Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc Aø∏ tkhm kan- Xn-bpsS {]h¿Ø--߃. Aßn-s-bmWv t£{Xm-Nm-c-߃°pw Ap-jvSm--߃°pw {]m[myw ¬In, t£{Xm-¥-co-£-Ønp Ap-tbm-Py-amb coXn-bn¬ `‡nck{]Zm--amb Iem-]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ Dƒs∏- SpØnbpamWv Cu Xncp-hp-’hw {Iao-I-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. sImSn-tb‰v mƒ apX¬ F√m Znh-khpw hnf-°m- Nm-cw, c≠mw Znhkw D’-h-_-en, XpS¿∂p≈ Znh-k-ß-fn¬ cmhnse ioth-en, tZi-hm-kn-Isf tcn¬ I≠v nd-]d kzoI-cn®v Ap-{K-ln-°p-hm≥ `K-hms‚ ]d-bvs°-gp-∂-≈n-∏v, hninjvS {Zhy-ß-fm¬ A`n-tj- I-߃ XpS-ßnb NS-ßp-Iƒ D’-h-Øns‚ `mK-amWv. Ign™ c≠p-]-Xn-‰m-t≠m-f-ambn aI-c-hn-f°v Znhkw S∂p-h-cp∂ taf-{X-bw, hmZy-I-em-kzm-Z-I¿°v Ahm-Ny-amb Ap-`q-Xnsb {]Zmw sNøp-∂p. AXnv Zriy-`w-Kn-tb-Ip-hm≥ k¿Δm-e-¶m-c-`q-jn-X-cmbn ]©-K-P-ho-c-∑mcpw! `K-hm≥ Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc {io [¿Ω-im-kvXm-hns‚ Cu Fgp-∂-≈n-∏p-Iƒ XnI®pw cmP-Iobam-Wv. aI-c-hn-f°v mƒ am{Xw aq∂p-tcw S-°p∂ Fgp-∂-≈n-∏p-Ifpw ]©m-cn, ]m≠n-ta-f- ßfpw, ]©-hm-Zyhpw tcn¬ Bkz-Zn-t°-≠-Xp-X-s∂. Ign™ 12 h¿j-ß-fmbn {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®p-h-cp∂ kvac-Wn-I-bn-eqsS AXn hn⁄m-- {]-Z-ambn hnhn[ hnj-b-ßsf {Kln-°p-hm≥ km[n®p F∂-Xn¬ R߃°v Nmcn-Xm¿∞y-ap-≠v. Cu h¿jw n›-bn-®n-cn-°p∂ hnjbw ""tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-Ie''bmWv. ImWp∂ Npa¿Nn-{X-Øns‚ A¿∞]q¿Æ-amb hni-Zo-I-c-W-߃sIm≠v kºp-jvS-amWv Cu h¿jsØ kvac-Wn-I. q‰m-≠p-I-fmbn kwc-£n-°-s∏-´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xpw, kwc-£n-°-s∏-Sm-Ø-Xp-amb A-h[n Aaq-ey-Nn-{X-I-em-k-ºØv ΩpsS Cu tIc-f-Øn¬ D≠v. Imem-Im-e-ß-fm-bp≈ Nn{X-Im-c-∑m-cpsS `‡n-`m-h--Isf ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n- ®n-cp∂ t£{X- Np-a-cp-Iƒ ap°v Aywh∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Cu Ah-k-c-ØnemWv aI-c-tPymXn, "Npa¿Nn-{X-Ie' F∂ hnj-bsØ Bkv]-Z-am°n Hcp kvac-WnI {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-∂-Xv. ap≥h¿j-ß- fnset]mse CXpw kmam-y-P--߃°v A¿∞-h¿Øm-hp-sa∂v Bflm¿∞-ambn hniz-kn-°p-∂p. Cu D’-h-Øns‚ S-Øn-∏nv th≠-Xmb klmb kl-I-c-W-߃ ¬In-h-cp∂ F√m √-h-cmb `‡-P--߃°pw A`yp-Z-b-Imw-£n-Iƒ°pw, Atlm-cm{Xw {]b-Xvn-°p∂ kanXn {]h¿Ø- I¿°pw Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc {io [¿Ω-im-kvXm-hns‚bpw {io ]q¿Æ-{X-bo-i-s‚bpw Ap-{K-l-߃ D≠m-I- s´-sb∂v {]m¿∞n-®p-sIm-≠v, ic-W-tLm-j-tØm-sS, Xma-cw-Ip-f-ßc Aø∏ tkhm kanXn {]h¿Ø-I¿°p-th≠n lcn Fkv. I¨ho-¿, aI-c-hn-f-°m-tLmjIΩn‰n
  7. 7. tIc-fob t£{X-ß-fnse Nph¿Nn-{X-߃ ˛ tUm. Fw. -Pn. iin-`q-j¨ 15 t£{X Npa¿Nn-{X-Øns‚ ]cn-Wmaw ˛ s{]m^. hnP-b-Ip-amc tatm≥ 23 Nn{X-I-ebv°v Hcp BapJw ˛ Sn.- hn. am[-h-hm-cn-b¿ 29 `mc-Xob Nn{X-I-em-]m-c-º-cyhpw tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-I-ebpw ˛ sI. bp. IrjvW-Ip-am¿ 35 tIc-f-Ønse Nph¿ Nn{X-˛-{]-Xn-a, Ah-X-cW inev]-ß-fpw, -hm-kvXphpw ÿe-˛-X-em-hn-jvI-c-W-ß-fpsS Hcp Xmc-Xay ]Tw ˛ kn. -]n. ioXƒ 49 aΩn-bq¿ IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b¿ ˛ Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bpsS D]m-k-I≥ ˛ Fw. fn≥ _m_p 55 Ifn-tbmK kvac-W-bp-W¿Øpw IY-I-fn-®p-h¿®n-{X-߃ ˛ tUm. hnn. F. 63 Xmfn-tbme Nn{X-ßfpw Nn{X cmam-b-Whpw ˛ B¿. tKm]m-e-Ir-jvW≥ 71 h¿Æ {]]-©-Øn¬ apßnb sIm®p-ssh-IpWvTw ˛ inh-Zmkv h¿Ω 81 ImbI¬]w Igns™Øp∂ Xpdhq¿ almt£{XØnse Npa¿Nn{X߃ ˛ kmPp XpcpØn¬ 87 Npa¿ Nn-{X-Ie ˛ sI.- B¿. _m_p 97 `mcX∏pgtbmcsØ Npa¿®n{X߃ ˛ Fkv. cmtPμp 107 apg-∏n-e-ßmSv Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ ˛ tUm. F. Sn. taml≥ cmPv 111 hc-th¬∏v ˛ sI. sI. tKm]m-e-Ir-jvW≥ 117 tIc-fob Npa¿Nn{X h¿Æ-ßfpw h¿Æ k¶-ev]-ßfpw ˛ APn-X≥ ]pXp-a 119 D¨ao-ew ˛ Fkv. Hma--°p-´≥ 125 Nn{X-I-e-bpsS {KŸ-]p-cmWw ˛ sI.- bp. IrjvW-Ip-am¿ 133 tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bpsS thm-∞mw ˛ ]{Xm-[n-]-k-anXn 137 Nn{Xhpw Nn{X-Im-cpw ˛ DÆokv Fw. aWn BNmcn 139 [ym-t«m-I-ßfpw Nn{X-ßfpw ˛ sI.- bp. IrjvW-Ip-am¿ 143 D≈-S°w ............................................................................................... .......... 13
  8. 8. tIc-fob t£{X-ß-fnse Nph¿Nn-{X-߃ tUm. Fw. -Pn. iin-`q-j¨ Ahn-On-∂-amb Nn{X-I-em-]m-c-ºcyw Ah-Im- i-s∏-Sm-hp∂ Npcp°w Nne mSp-I-fn-sem-∂mWv tIc-fw. tZhm-e-b-߃, sIm´m-c-߃, {]`p-a-μn-c- ߃ F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn-se√mw ÿm]-Xy-I-e-bpsS `mK- ambn `‡n-h¿≤-I-ß-fmb Nph¿Nn-{X-߃ hc-∏n- ®n-cp-∂p. ]mc-º-cy-ssi-en-bn-ep≈ Nph¿Nn-{X-ß- tfm-Sp-Iq-Snb q‰-º-tXmfw t£{X-ß-sf-¶nepw tIc- f-Øn¬ Ah-ti-jn-°p-∂p-≠v. Xncp--μn-°c Kplm- t£-{X-Øn¬ H≥]Xmw q‰m-≠n¬ hc® Nn{X-ß- fn¬ n∂m-cw-`n-°p∂ ΩpsS Nph¿Nn-{X-]m-c-º- cy-Ønv ]Øp q‰m-≠p-I-fpsS XpS¿®-bmb Ncn{Xw Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sm≥ Ign-bpw. tIc-fob Nph¿Nn-{X-ßsf Ime-K-W-m-{I-a- a-p-k-cn®v hn`-Pn-°m≥ klm-b-I-amb sXfn-hp-Iƒ th≠{X e`n-®n-´n-√. Nph¿Nn-{X-߃ hc-bv°p∂ Iem-Im-c-∑m-cpsS t]cpw hc® Imehpw tcJ-s∏-Sp- Øn-bn-´p≈ Nph¿Nn{X kt¶-X-߃ hfsc hfsc Ipd-hm-sW-∂-XmWv CXnp Imc-Ww. Hcn°¬ hc® Nn{X-߃ ambm≥ XpS-ßp-tºmƒ IpΩm-b-Øns‚ sXfn-]qin ho≠pw Nn{X-߃ hc-bv°p∂ k{º- Zmbw ]cs° {]Nm-c-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂-XmWv as‰mcp Imc-Ww. Xncp--μn°c ssien°v H∂mwL- ´-Øns‚ {]mXn-n[yw Ah-Im-i-s∏-Smw. ]Xns´pw ]sØm-ºXpw q‰m-≠p-I-fn¬ hc- ®n-´p≈ Nph¿Nn-{X-ß-fmWv s]mXpth tIc-f-Øn¬ ImWp-∂-Xv. ]Xn-mdpw ]Xn-tgpw q‰m-≠p-I-fn¬ hc® Nph¿Nn-{X-ßfpw A]q¿Δ-am-bn-´m-sW- ¶n¬t]mepw tIc-f-Øn¬ Ahn-S-hn-sS-bmbn ImWmw. ]m›mXy I®-h-S-°-º-n-I-fpsS FÆn-bm- sem-Sp-ßmØ IpX-{¥-ßfpw m´p-cm-Py-ß-fpsS njv{In-b-Xzhpw krjvSn® Acm-P-I-XzsØ A]I- S-ambn I≠ GXmpw {Im¥-Z¿in-I-fpsS tXrXz- 15 ............................................................................................... ..........
  9. 9. Øn¬ Bcw-`n® a[y-Im-e-`‡n{]ÿm--Øns‚ Ime-ØmWv Nph¿Nn-{X-߃ kPo-h-am-b-Xv. hnez- aw-K-e-Øn-s‚bpw Fgp-Ø-—-s‚bpw ta¬∏-Øq-cn- s‚bpw ]q¥m--Øn-s‚bpw am-th-Z-s‚bpw ]Xn- s-´-c-°-hn-I-fp-sSbpw a‰pw Imew Nph¿Nn-{X- ߃°pw Zmcp-in-ev]-߃°pw am{X-a√ IrjvW- m-´-Ønpw IY-I-fn°pw Ap-Iq-e-am-bn. hnIm-c-ßsf kwbaw sNbvXp {]I-Sn-∏n-°p- hm-p≈ tIc-fo-b-cpsS Ignhv Ah-cpsS Iem-cq-]- ß-fnepw {]I-S-am-Wv. Ip∂p-Ifpw Xmgvhc-Ifpw Ncn- hp-Ifpw CS-I-e¿∂ tIc-f-Ønse `q{]-Ir-Xn-bpsS kzm[ow tIc-fob Nn{X-I-e-bnepw Zmcp-in-ev]-I- e-bnepw ]tcm-£-am-bn-´m-sW-¶nepw ImWp-hm≥ Ign- bpw. h¿Øpf tcJ-Iƒ°mWv tIc-fob Nph¿Nn- {X-ß-fn¬ {]m[myw. NmIym-cpsSbpw IY-Ifn S- s‚bpw kvtXmZ-{]-I-S k{º-Zm-bhpw Nph¿Nn-{X- I-em-Im-c-∑msc BI¿jn-®n-cp-∂p. F∂m¬ IY-Ifn ap{Z-Ifpw Nph¿Nn-{X-ß-fnse tZho-tZ-h-∑m-cpsS AwK-hn-ymk{Ia-Ønpw ]c-kv]cw kmay-ap-s≠- ¶nepw BZy-tØ-Xns‚ tIh-em-p-I-c-W-am-bn-cp-∂n- √. IY-I-fn-bnse ]pcp-j-th-j-ß-fpsS taep-Sp-∏npw IhNw F∂p hnti-jn-∏n-°m-dp≈ Nph¿Nn-{X-ß- fnse taep-Sp-∏npw XΩn¬ {]I-S-amb kmay-ap-≠v. tZh-∑m-scbpw a‰pw aoi C√m-sX-bmWv Nn{X- ß-fn¬ hc-®n-cp-∂-Xv. kzm`m-hn-I-amb Hcev]w kvss{XW `mhw Nph¿Nn-{X-ß-fnse ]pcpj cq]- ߃°v h∂n-´nt√ F∂p kwibw tXm∂mw. a- im-kv{X-⁄-∑m¿ ]d-bm-dp≈ ]pcp-j-nse kvss{XWmw-ihpw kv{Xobnse ]pcp-jmw-ihpw ]≠sØ ΩpsS Nph¿Nn{X Iem-Im-c-∑m¿°pw t_m[y-am-bn-cp-∂p. ]c-ip-cm-a≥, th´bv-s°mcp aI≥, apn-am¿, `‡-∑m¿, cmPm-°-∑m¿ XpS-ßn-b- hsc am{X-amWv XmSn-tbmSpw aoi-tbmSpw Nn{Xo-I- cn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. k¿hm-e-¶mc `qjn-X-cm-bmWv tZho- tZ-h-∑msc Nph-cp-I-fn¬ Nn{Xo-I-cn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. tIc- fob cmPm-°-∑m-cm-Is´ hnoX thj-[m-cn-I-fpw. ºq-Xn-cnbpw Aº-e-hm-kn-bpw ]c-tZ-i-{_m- lvWpw mbcpw am{X-a-√- I-®-h-S-°m-cmb dmhp- Øcpw Ic-Iu-ie hnZ-Kv[pw tIc-fob Nn{X-ß- fn¬ Nne-t∏m-sg√mw Nn{Xo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≠v. ]pfn- bn-e-°-c-ap≠v AX-s√-¶n¬ ]pfn-bn-e-°-c-tØm¿Øv AXm-bn-cp∂p Aº-e-ß-fn¬ t]mbn-cp-∂-h-cpsS km[m-cW thjw. tI-c-fob Iem-Im-c-∑m-cpsS kuμcy k¶ev]w hywKy-ambn Nph¿Nn-{X-ß-fnepw {]Xn-^-en-®n-cp-∂p. AwtKm-]mwK s]mcp-Ø-sØ- bmWv kuμ-cy-ambn tIc-fob Iem-Im-c-∑mcpw I≠n-cp-∂-Xv. imeo-w, D∑-Øw, F∂n-ßs kuμ- cy-Øn-p≈ hn`n-∂-[m-c-I-sfbpw Iem-Im-c-∑m¿ AwKo-I-cn-®n-cp-∂p. o≠-ap-J-tØmSpw ZrV-i-co-c- tØmSpw IqSn-b-h-cmWv ]fl-m-`-]pcw sIm´m-c- Ønse `nØn Nn{X-ß-fn¬ ImWp∂ kv{Xo cq]- ߃. h´-ap-J-tØm-S-Sp-∏-ap-≈-h-scbpw amwkf ico- c-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-scbpw a´m-t©-cn-bn¬ ImWmw. sh´pI√p-sImt≠m Icn-¶-√p-sImt≠m sI´n- s∏m-°nb Nph-cn¬ ]cp-°≥ IpΩmbw I-Øn¬ ]qin-b-Xn-p-tijw IpΩm-b-sØfn ho≠pw ]qin AXn≥ta¬ Nn{X-߃ hc-bv°p∂ Hcp k{º-Zm-b- amWv tIc-f-Øn¬ I≠p-h-cp-∂-Xv. NnØ-Æm-hm-k¬, Im©o-]pcw XpS-ßnb ÿe-ß-fnepw ne-n-∂n- cp∂ Cu k{º-Zm-b-Ønv "s{^kvtIm sks°m' ‘Fresco Seco’ F∂mWv Iem-hn-Z-Kv[≥am¿ hnti- jn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv. km[m-cW hen-∏-ap≈ Hcp Nph¿Nn{Xw hc-bv°p-∂-Xnv m¬∏Øn H∂v Znhkw apX¬ Adp-]Xp Znhkw hsc FSp-Øn-cp- ∂p. a™-®mbw sIm≠v _mly-tc-J-Iƒ hc-®- tijw nd-߃ Hmtcm∂pw {ItaW hny-kn-∏n- °p-I-bmWv Nn{X-Im-c-∑m¿ sNbvXn-cp-∂-Xv. Nn{Xw ]q¿Øn-bm-bn-°-gn-™m¬ Idp-Ø-h-c-Iƒ hc®v ]Sw ]q¿Æ-am-°p-∂p. 17 ............................................................................................... ..........
  10. 10. Nph¿Nn-{X-߃°p-th≠ Nmb-߃ A∏-t∏mƒ Xøm-dm-°p-I- bmWv ]Xn-hv. ]ecpw sX‰n-≤-cn-®n- ´p-≈-Xp-t]mse ]g-®m-dp- IƒsImt≠m ]®n-e-®m-dp-Iƒ sImt≠m am{X-a√ Nph¿Nn-{X-߃ hc-bv°p-∂-Xv. aÆn¬ n∂p Ipgn- s®-Sp-°p∂ Nne-bnw a¨I-´-Ifpw a-tbm-e, Nmbn-eyw, Fc-hn-°-d, Xpcniv XpS-ßnb cmk-h-kvXp-°fpw FÆ-°-cn, oeAa-cn-®mdv XpS-ßnb {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb Nmb-ßfpw Nn{X- n¿Ωm-W-Ønv D]-tbm-Kn-°m-dp-≠v. G‰hpw {][m h¿Æ-amb Nph∏v tIc-f-Øn¬ kpe-`-ambn ImWp∂ sh´p-I-√p-I-fnse Hcn-Øn¬ n∂mWv Xøm¿ sNøp-∂-Xv. Nmb- ß-tfm-sSm∏w Bdn-sem∂p apX¬ ]Øn-sem∂p hsc th∏n≥]-ibpw tN¿Ø-tijw hc-bv°p-I-bmWv coXn. Nph¿Nn-{X-߃ hc-bv°m≥ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ aq∂p-Xcw {_jp-I-sf-∏‰n ]Xn-mdmw q‰m-≠nse "inev]-cXvw' F∂ IrXn-bn¬ n∂p a- n-em- °mw. ssIX-thcv NX-®mWv ]c∂ {_jp-Iƒ Xøm- dm-°p-∂-Xv. Iq¿∏n-s®-SpØ apfw X≠v D]-tbm-Kn- ®m-bn-cp∂p ap≥s]ms° Nn{X-Øn-p-th≠ _mly- tc-J-Iƒ hc-®n-cp-∂-Xv. tImc-∏p-√p-Iƒ kwkvI-cn®v Xøm-dm-°p∂ sNdnb {_jp-I-fmWv G‰hpw IqSp- X¬ Bh-iy-ambn hcp-∂-Xv. A©p nd-ßfpw Ah-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´ CX- c-n-d-ß-fp-amWv tIc-fob t£{X-ß-fnse Nph¿Nn- {X-ß-fn¬ s]mXpth I≠p-h-cp-∂-Xv. Imhn-®p-h-∏v, a™, Idp-∏v, sh≈, Ccp≠ oew F∂n-h-bmWv Nph¿Nn-{X-ß-fnse Cu {][m h¿Æ-߃. ]oX- l-cn-Xw, lcn-X-o-ew, taL-iym-aw, kph¿Æw XpS- ßnb nd-t`-Z-ßfpw Chn-SpsØ Iem-Im-c-∑m¿ ]n¬°m-eØv D]-tbm-Kn-®n-´p-≠v. Nph¿Nn-{X-ßfnse nd-߃°v {]Xo-Im-flI kz`mhw Iev]n-®n-cp-∂p. kzmXzn-Iw, cmP-kw, Xmakw F∂o {XnKp-W-ßsf B[m-c-am-°n-bmWv tZho-tZ-h-∑msc Nn{Xo-I-cn-®n-cp- ∂-Xv. XnI™ kmXznI aq¿Øn-Isf IY-Ifnbnse- ∂-t]mse ]®-n-d-Øn-emWv Bhn-jvI-cn-°p-I. ctPm-Kp-W-{]-[m-n-I-fmb tZh-∑msc Nn{Xo-I-cn-°p- tºmƒ Nph∂ nd-Øn-m-bn-cp∂p {]map-Jyw. Xtam- Kp-W-aq¿Øn-Isf Idp-∏nv ]Icw sh≈-bn-emWv Nph¿Nn-{X-I-em-Im-c≥am¿ Bhn-jvI-cn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. A·n-bpsS nd-tØmSp kmZr-iy-ap≈ Imhn-®p-h- ∏mWv tIc-fob Nph¿Nn-{X-ß-fn¬ nd™p n∂n- cp∂ h¿Æw. lcn-Xm-`-amb tIc-f-{]-Ir-Xn-bpsS hncp- ≤-h¿Æw F∂ ne-bn¬ {]tXy-I-X-bp≈ Cu Nph∏v Nph¿Nn-{X-߃°v khn-ti-j-am-sbmcp Kmw`ocy ]cn-thjw ¬In-bn-cp-∂p. ]-b-∂m¿Imhv, G‰p-am-q¿, ]pWvU-co-I-]p- cw, Xr{]-bm¿, ]≈n-a-Æ, sNΩ≥Xn-´, tIm´-°¬, sXmSn-°-fw, temI-m¿Imhv F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ I≠p- h-cp∂ Nph¿Nn-{X-߃°v kvac-W-`-‡n-bp≈ nan- Ø-ß-sf∂ ne-bnepw Iem-kr-jvSn-I-sf∂ ne- bnepw {]m[m-y-ap-≠v. ]fl-m-`-]p-cw, IrjvW-]p- cw, a´m-t©cn F∂o sIm´m-c-ß-fnse Nn{X-ßfpw tIc-fob Nn{X-I-e-bpsS anI® amXr-I-I-fm-Wv. apdp- °n-sI´n h®n-cn-°p∂ cp{Z-ho-W-t]mse Ne--Øn- mbn ImØn-cn-°p-I-bm-sW∂v tXm∂pw G‰p-am- qsc S-cmP Nn{Xw I≠m¬. ]-b-∂m¿Im-hnse Nn{X-ß-fn¬ h®v atm-lcw cma-cm-h-W-bp-≤hpw koXm-cm-a≥amcpsS ]px-k-am-K-a-hp-am-Wv. HmS-°p- g¬ hmbn-°p∂ thWp-tKm-]m-e-Ir-jvW-mWv ]pWvU-co-I-]pcw Nn{X-ß-fn¬ sh®v apJyw. th´ S-Øp∂ imkvXm-hns‚ Nn{Xo-I-c-Whpw ]pWvU- co-I-]p-csØ {]ikvX Nn{X-ß-fn¬ H∂mWv Incm- X¿÷p-obw IY-bpsS Na¬Im-c-]q¿Æ-amb Bhn- jvIm-c-amWv ]≈naÆbn-sebpw sNΩ≥Xn-´-bn- sebpw {][m Nn{X-߃. GIm-Zi cp{Z-∑mcpw thWp-tKm-]m-e-Ir-jvWpw sXmSo-°fw t£{X- Ønse Ahn-kva-c-Wob Nn{X-ß-fm-Wv. cp‹nWo kzbw-h-chpw Chn-SpsØ A-izc Nn{X-]-c-º-c-I- fn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-∂p. 19 ............................................................................................... ..........
  11. 11. h¿Æ-em-h-Wy-Øn¬ AP-¥bnse Nn{X-߃ Fß-s-bmtWm ap¥n-n¬°p-∂Xv AXp-t]m-se- bmWv tcJm-Nm-cp-X-bn¬ tIc-fob Nph¿Nn-{X-߃. Nn{X-I-e-bpsS Bflmhv tcJ-I-fn-em-sW∂ kXy- Z¿iw tIc-fob Nn{X-Im-cs AKm-[-ambn kzm[o- n-®n-cp-∂p. XSn-®-h-c-sIm≠v kmao-]yhpw t¿Ø hc-sIm-≠v Zqchpw Nn{Xo-I-cn-°mpw HgpIp∂ hc- IƒsIm≠v Ahn-On-”-amb {`a-W-{]-XoXnbpw krjvSn-°mpw tIc-fob Iem-Im-c-∑m¿ F∂pw {i≤n-®n-cp-∂p. ZrjvSn-tIm-Wp-I-fn-eqsS kΩn-Xnbpw a‰p Nne-bn-S-ß-fn¬ hncp≤ KXnbpw t_m[-]q¿Δw Bhn-jv°-cn-°mpw Ah¿°-dn-bm-am-bn-cp-∂p. hn{Kl imkv{X-Øn-s‚bpw [ym-a-{¥-ß-fp- sSbpw ]cn-[n-°p-≈n¬ n∂v hf-sc-sbm∂pw ]pd- tØ°v IS-°m≥ Ign-™n-s√-∂-XmWv tIc-f- Ønse t£{X-Nn-{X-ß-fpsS yq-X-I-fnsem∂v. IYm-Jym Nn{X-ß-fn¬ Cu ]cn-an-Xnsb adn-I-S- °m-p≈ [oc-]-cn-{i-a-߃ ImWm-p-≠v. h¿Æ-an- {i-߃ ]co-£n-°m-Xn-cp-∂Xv t]mcm-bva-bmbn Nne¿ Nq≠n-°m-Wn-°p- ∂Xv icn-b-√. Aeu-In-I- amb Hcp ]cn-th-j-amWv Nph¿Nn-{X-ß-fpsS [y-X- I-fn¬ {][m-w. Ccpfpw shfn-®hpw F∂-t]mse emkyhpw cu{Zhpw AhnsS amdn amdn ImWmw. mSy-h¿Ωn-bpsS XnIhv Fs¥-∂-dn-b-W-sa-¶n¬ A`n--b-hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ Nph¿Nn-{X-߃ {i≤n®p ]Tn-®m¬ aXn. chn-h¿Ω ssien- bpsS {]Nm-chpw `qn-b-a- Øn¬ h∂ am‰-ßfpw Nph¿ Nn{X-te-J--Øn- ep≈ Xmev]cyw GXm≠v XpS-®p-o-°m≥ XpS-ßn-bn- cp-∂p. F∂m¬ bi:ico- c-mb aΩn-bq¿ IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b-sc-t∏m-se-bp≈ Iem-Im-c-∑mcpsSbpw a‰pw tXr-Xz-Øn¬ Nph¿Nn- {X-I-ebv°v Hcp ]p-cp-≤m-cWw Ign™ Ipd®v h¿j-ß-fmbn D≠m-bn-´p-≠v. Iem-n-cq-]-I≥ F∂ ne-bnepw Kth-j-I≥ F∂ ne-bnepw Cu ]p- cp-≤m-c-W-Øn¬ kPo-h ]¶m-fn-bm-Im≥ Ign-™- Xn¬ Cu teJ-Ipw AXn-bmb Nmcn-Xm¿∞yw D≠v. GsX-¶nepw Hcº-e-Øn¬t]mbn ]g-sbmcp Nn{X-Øns‚ kvsIs®-SpØv sIm≠p-h∂v IS-em-  n¬ ]I¿Øn Nph-´n¬ kz¥w t]sc-gp-Xp∂ Hcp Zpjv{]-h-WX ASp-Ø-Im-e-Ømbn I≠p-h-cp-∂p. X©m-hq¿ Nn{X-ß-fpsS bm{¥n-Im-p-I-c-W-߃ bYm¿∞ X©m-hq¿ ssien°v D≠m-°n-b-Xp-t]m- se-bp≈ A]-I¿jw tIc-fob Nph¿Nn-{X-߃°pw Cu {]h-WX krjvSn-°pw. AXv kw`-hn-°m-Xn-cn- °m≥, ]´p-qepw hmg-mcpw Xncn-®-dn-bm≥ ΩpsS Iem-kzm-Z-I≥∑m¿°v Ign-tb-≠-Xm-Wv. ......................................................................................................................................................................................... Fw. Pn. iin-`q-j¨: Ncn-{X-K-th-j-Ipw A≤ym-]-I-pw. ap∂q-tdmfw t£{X-ß-fnse Nph¿Nn-{X-ß-sfbpw inev]-ß-sfbpw Ipdn®pw tIc-f-Ønse k¿∏-°-f-߃, If-sa-gp- Øp-]m-´p-Iƒ F∂n-h-sb-°p-dn®pw ]Tw S-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. tIcf km£-cXm anj≥, sshtem-∏n≈ kwkvIr-Xn-`-h≥ F∂n-h-bpsS Ub-d-IvS-dm-bn-cp-∂p. ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 ............................................................................................... ..........
  12. 12. 23 ............................................................................................... .......... t£{X Npa¿Nn-{X-Øns‚ ]cn-Wmaw s{]m^. hnP-b-Ip-amc tatm≥ apjy kwkvIm-c-Øns‚ BZy-ap-{Z-Iƒ D]- I-c-W-ß-fpsS n¿Ωm-W-sa∂ ne-bn-emWv ImW- s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. ]n∂oSv Kpl-I-fn¬ ImWp∂ Nn{X-ß- fmWv apjy kwkvIr-Xn-bpsS hf¿®-bpsS Hcp kp{]-[m L´w t{ImUo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xv. `mc-X-Ønepw tIc-f-Ønepw CØcw Kplm-`nØn Nn{X-ß-fp-≠v. ]n∂oSv kwkvIm-c-Øns‚ ]cn-Wm-a-Øn¬ Bcm-[- m-{I-a-߃ hcm≥ XpS-ßp-Ibpw Bcm-[-m-e-b-ß- fpsS n¿ΩmWw Bcw-`n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. AtXmsS B hmkvXp-`n-Øn-bpsS Ae-¶mcw Bh- iy-am-bn-h-∂p. ap-jy≥ ]md Xpc∂v Kpl-bp-≠m°n AXns‚ `nØn-Iƒ πmÿ sNbvXv AXn-t∑¬ Nn{Xw hc-°m≥ XpS-ßnb kwkvIm-c-Øns‚ G‰hpw √ DZm-l-cWw AP¥m Kplm-Nn-{X-ß- fm-Wv. PmXI IY-I-fpsS ]e-Xn-s‚bpw Nn{Xo-I- cWw khn-ti-j-amb coXn-bn¬ sNbvX Kpl-I- fmWv AP-¥-bn-te-Xv. ]n∂oSv `mc-X-Ønepw `mc-X- Ønp ]pdØpw Nn{X-Ie AP-¥-bn¬ n∂p hym]n-®p. _p≤-aXm-p-bm-bn-I-fmWv AP-¥m-Kplm n¿Ωm-Whpw AXnse Ae-¶m-chpw t{]m’m-ln- ∏n-®-Xv. tIhew `nØn-b-e-¶mcw am{X-am-bn-cpt∂m AXns‚ Dt±iyw? _p≤-`n-£p-°-fpsS ssNXyhpw hnlm-c-hp-a-S-ßp∂ Kpl-I-fn¬ _p≤-I-Y-Ifpw PmXI IY-Ifpw hc-®-t∏m-ƒ Kplm-¥¿`mKw _p≤m- ¥-co£w tSn. _p≤-]-cn-th-jw-sIm≠p ]qcn-X-amb Hch-ÿ-bn¬ n∂p-sIm-≠mWv _p≤-`n-£p-°ƒ°v AXp-ambn ebn-°m≥ Ign-™-Xv. ]n∂oSv ]Sp-Øp- b¿Ønb t£{X-ß-fp-≠m-b-t∏mƒ t£{X-`n-Øn- Iƒ inev]-߃sIm≠pw Nn{X-߃sIm≠pw Ae- ¶-cn-°p∂ kwkvIm-chpw hf¿∂p. Bcm-[-m-e-b-߃ n¿Ωn-°p-tºmƒ AXns‚ hmkvXp-cq-]-Øn-p-X-s∂ ]e khn-ti-j-X-Ifpw ¬I-Ww. ap-jym-e-b-Øn-p≈ hmkvXp-h√ tZhm- e-b-Øn-p-th-≠Xv. hmkvXp-cq]w Xs∂ ssZh-Nn- ¥, Z¿i--߃ F∂nh t{ImUo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xm-bn-cn- °-Ww. {InkvXy≥ ]≈nbpw C…mw ]≈nbpw _p≤- ssP-m-cm-[-m-e-b-ßfpw knJv lnμp-t£-{X-ß-fp- sa√mw AØcw Hmtcm ho£-W-Øns‚ n¿Ωn-Xn- I-fm-Wv. a≤y-`m-c-Ønse t£{X-ß-fn¬ inev]- ߃sIm-≠-e-¶-cn-®-h-bmWv `nØn-Iƒ. tIc-f-Øn¬ Npa¿Nn-{X-߃°v {]m[myw ¬Ip-∂p. F.-Un. 8˛mw q‰m-t≠msS Bcw-`n®p F∂p Icp-Xmhp∂ tIc-fob ]mc-ºcy Npa¿Nn{Xw ]e ]cn-jvIm-c-ßfpw kzoI-cn®v 16-˛17 q‰m-≠p-I-tfmsS Hcp kpÿn-c-ssien B¿Pn-®p. tIc-f-Øns‚ t£{X hmkvXp-`n-Øn-Iƒ {i≤n-®m¬ Ah Nn{X-c- N-°v Dt±-in-®n-´p≈ ÿe-ß-fm-sW∂p ]d-bm≥
  13. 13. 25 ............................................................................................... .......... {]bm-k-am-Wv. bmsXm-c-e-¶m-c-hp-an-√mØ `nØn-I- fp≈ t£{X-ß-fp-≠p-Xm-pw. t£{X-`n-Øn-bn¬ Nn{X-c-N sNøp-tºmƒ HmtcmbnSØpw ¬tI≠ cq]-߃ AXn-{]-[m--am-Wv. nc-h[n [ym-t«m-I- ߃ Hmtcm aq¿Øn-°p-ap-≠v. [ym-t«m-I-ß-fn- se√mw tZh-X-bpsS ndw, `mhw, ssIap-{Z-Iƒ, Bbp- [-߃, hml--߃ F∂n-ßs Nn{X-]-c-amb hnh- c-W-ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv. a- n¬ I≠ cq]sØ Imhy- `m-j-bn-em-°n-b-XmWv [ym-t«m-I-߃. tIc-f-Øns‚ t£{X-ß-fnse Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ C∂pw lnμp-°-f-√m-Ø-h¿°v ImWm≥ Ign-bn-√. Ah¿°p-Xs∂ ]e hkv{X-[m-cW hne-°p-Iƒ D≈-Xn-m¬ lnμp-°-sf-Øs∂ t£{X- Øn¬n∂pw AI‰n n¿Øp-Ibpw sNøp∂ Ahÿ 21-˛mw q‰m-≠mbn´pw ne-sIm-≈p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. AXn-m¬ Ipd®pt]¿ am{Xw I≠n-cp∂ (C∂pw ImWp-∂) Cu Nn{X-߃ Hcn°epw P- k-a-£-Øn¬ Imcy-amb kzm[ow sNep-Øn-bn-√. 1989-˛¬ Kpcp-hm-bq¿ tZhkzw Npa¿Nn{X ]T--tI{μw Bcw-`n-®-tXmsS AhnsS ]Tn-®n-d-ßnb hnZym¿∞n- I-fmWv Cu ssien ]pdw-tem-IsØØn®-Xv. sIm≠p--S-°m-hp∂ coXn-bn¬ Npa¿Nn{X ssien- bn¬ Nn{X-߃ hc®v Kyme-dn-I-fn¬ {]Z¿in-∏n- °m≥ t]mepw Xøm-dm-btXmsS tIc-f-Øns‚ khn- tij Nn{X-ssien ]pdw-tem-I-a-dn-™p. Aan-X-amb ssieo-I-c-Ww, Ae-¶m-c-®m¿Øv, ]©-h¿Æ-ß-fpsS BI¿j-Wo-b-X, IqSn-bm-´w, IrjvW-m-´w, IY-I-fn-t]m-ep≈ cwK Ie-I-fn¬ ImWp∂ coXnsb Hm¿Ωn-∏n-°p∂ apJ-`m-hw, ssieo-IrX ico-c-n-e, ssieo-IrX ssIap-{Z-Iƒ F∂nh BI¿j-W-amb coXn-bn-emWv tIc-fob t£{X-ß-fn¬ hc-®n-cp∂Xv. an°-hmdpw {iotIm- hn-enp Np‰p-amWv Nn{X-߃ hc-°p-∂-Xv. {]Z- £nWw sNøp∂bmfpsS Hcp hiw apgp-h≥ tZho- tZ-h-∑m-cpsS h¿tÆm-Pz-e-{]-`mhw `‡v kpc-tem- Im-¥-co£w ¬Ipw. Hcp sNdnb ÿewt]mepw iqy-am-°n-bn-SmsX Npa¿ apgp-h≥ Nn{X-߃ sIm≠p-n-d-°p∂ tIc-f-Øns‚ ssien a‰p `mc- Xob Nn{X-ssi-en-I-fn¬n∂pw {]I-S-amb hyXymkw ImWn-°p-∂p. {InkvXy≥ ]≈n-I-fnepw Npa¿Nn-{X-ß-fp-≠v. AhnsS {InkvXp-hn-sbpw ss__n-fn-sbpw B[m-c-am-°nb IY-I-fm-Wp-≠m- hp-I. ssien-bm-I-s´, ]m›m-Xy-hpw. t£{X-ß-fn¬ an°-hmdpw Npa-cp-I-fn¬ am{X-amWv Nn{X-ß-fp-≠m- hp-I. ]≈n-I-fn¬ hnXm--Ønepw (ceiling) Nn{X- ߃ ¬Im-dp-≠v. t£{X Npa¿Nn-{X-ß-fn¬ tZho- tZ-h-∑m-tcmsSm∏w A]q¿Δ-ambn km[m-cW P- ß-sfbpw Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp∂ kμ¿`-߃ ImWmw. KW-]-Xn°v Imbv°p-ebpw N°bpw a‰pw sIm≠p- h-cp∂ Bƒ°m-cmbn km[m-cW P-ßsf Ah- X-cn-∏n-°m-dp-≠v.
  14. 14. 27 ............................................................................................... .......... tIc-f-Ønse a´m-t©cn sIm´m-cw, IrjvW- ]pcw sIm´m-cw, ]fl-m-`-]pcw sIm´mcw F∂n-hn- S-ß-fnepw t£{X-Nn-{X-ssi-en-bn-ep≈ Nn{X-߃ ImWmw. a´m-t©cn sIm´m-c-Ønse cmam-bW Nn{Xw cmam-bW IY kºq¿Æ-ambn Zriym-Jymw S-Øp-∂p. `mc-X-Øn¬ {ZmhnU Ie-bpsS G‰hpw √ DZm-l-c-W-ambn B-μ-Ip-am-c-kzman I≠Xv G‰p-am-q¿ inh-t£-{X-Ønse {]tZm-j-rØw (- S-cm-P≥) BWv. t£{X-Øn¬ n∂p ]pdØp IS∂ Cu ssien 21-˛mw q‰m-≠n¬ ]e s]mXp sI´n-S- ß-fpsS `nØn-I-fnepw bph-I-em-Im-c-∑m¿ D]-tbm- Kn-°p-∂p-≠v. Bh-iy-{]-Imcw ssZhnI hnj-b-ß- f-√m-Øh CØcw `nØn-I-fn¬ hc-°m≥ XpS-ßn- b-tXmsS Cu ssien°v A¤pX]q¿Δ-amb hf¿®- bp-≠m-bn. `nØn-bn¬ Xq°n-bn-Sm-hp∂ Nn{X-ambn CXv ]ecpw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ CXnse ]e tam´n- ^p-Ifpw hkv{Xw, ]m{Xw F∂n-h-I-fn¬ Bte-Jw sNbvXpw ImWm≥ Ign-bpw. 25 h¿jw aps∂ hsc t£{X-Øns‚ XS-hn-em-bn-cp∂ Cu ssien ]pd- Øp-h-∂-tXmsS hf-sc-b-[nIw ]cn-W-an-°p-Ibpw hf- cp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Npa¿ Nn{X-Øns‚ kuμ-cy-imkv{Xw `nØn-bn¬ Xq°p∂ Nn{Xhpw `nØn-bn¬ hc® Nn{Xhpw XΩn¬ hyXym-k-ap-≠v. BZy-tØXv sIm≠v S-°m-hp∂ (Portable)-Xm-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠p- Xs∂ AXnv ]e-bn-SØpw sNs∂-Øm-p≈ km≤y-X-bp-≠v. F∂m¬ Npa-cn¬ hc® Nn{Xw AΔn- [-Øn-ep-≈-X-√. AXv HcnSØv ÿnc-ambn ne-sIm- ≈p-∂p. ÿncw-˛-A-ÿncw F∂ Ahÿ Ie-I-fn¬ hnhn[ emh-Wy-X-e-ß-sf (aesthetic levels) t{ImUo- I-cn-°p-∂p. G‰hpw Aÿn-c-amb Nn{X-߃ [qfo- Nn-{X-ßfpw apJ-sØ-gp-Øv, sasø-gp-Øv, ]mf-sb- gpØv (]-S-b-Wn-t°m-e-߃) XpS-ßn-b-h-bm-Wv. AsX√mw Hcp {]tXyI ÿeØv Ipd-®p-Imew ne- n-∂v, Bhiyw Ign-™m¬ If-tb-≠-h-bm-Wv. AXns‚ Cu Aÿn-c-X-bm-W-Xns‚ kzXzhpw emh- Wy-hpw. F∂m¬ ÿnc-X-bmWv Npa¿Nn-{X-Øns‚ emh-Wyw. t£{X Npa-cn¬ {]tXy-In®pw ({iotIm-hn-en- s‚) AtIw Nn{X-ß-fp-≠m-Ipw. AXv HcnS-Øp- n∂p am{Xw ImWm-m-hn-√. n›-e-ambn Npa-cn¬ ne-sIm-≈p-∂ AØcw Nn{X-irw-Je ImW-W-sa- ¶n¬ ImgvN-°m-cs‚ (`-‡s‚/`‡-bp-sS) icocw Hmtcm Nn{Xhpw I≠p-I≠p oßn-s°m-≠n-cn-°-Ww. t£{X-Øn¬ {iotIm-hn-enp Np‰p-ap≈ Nn{X-߃ ImWp∂ ImgvN-°m-c≥ (`-‡≥/`‡) {]Z-£nWw sNøp∂ hy‡nbmWv. {]Z-£nWw F∂ imco-cnI {Inb-bn¬ Zriy-sa∂ LS-Ihpw tN¿∂-Xm-Wv Npa¿Nn-{X-Øn¬ A¥¿eo--am-bn-cn-°p∂ kuμ-cyw. Hcn°¬ I≠ Nn{X-߃ ]Xn-hmbn ImWp- tºmƒ {]Z-£n-W-ho-Yn-bn-eqsS S-°p∂ icocw B Nn{X-ß-fpsS Hcp kpÿn-c-ap{Z kz`m-hn-I-ambpw Z¿in-°p-∂p. AXv At_m[ a- n¬ F∂pw ne- sIm-≈pw. `‡nbpw at‰-sXmcp `mhhpw GI-am--a- √. F√m-Ønpw ]e am-ß-fp-≠v. Nn{X-ßfnep≈ Hmtcm `mhhpw Hmtcm tZho-tZ-hs‚ I¿Ω aWvU- e-sØ-bmWv t{ImUo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Cu ImgvN tIhew Ae-¶mcw F∂ H∂√m-Xm-bn-Øo-cp-∂X- t∏m-gm-Wv. {iotIm-hn-ens‚ ]pdw-`m-KØpw {ioXzw ¬Ip-∂Xv H∂pw ]Xn-°mØ Npa-cp-I-f-√. Nn{X- ßfpw inev]-ßfpw ]Xn-∏n® Npa-cp-I-fm-Wv. {iotIm- hn-ens‚ A¥¿a-WvU-e-Øn¬ (K¿`-Kr-lw) {][m {]Xn-jvT-bp-≈-t∏mƒ AXns‚ Np‰p-`n-Øn-bnse cq]- ߃ {iotIm-hn-ens `mhw-sIm≠pw cq]w-sIm≠pw DZm-Ø-am-°p-∂p. ......................................................................................................................................................................................... s{]m^. hnP-b-Ip-amc tatm≥ : Nn{X-N-cn-{X-Im-c≥, ncq-]-I≥, teJ-I≥, Nn¥-I≥, Iem-kw-c-£-I≥ F∂o hnhn[ Xe-ß-fn¬ {]i-kvX≥. ae-bmfw k¿Δ-Iemime-bnse kmwkvIm-cnI ss]XrI ]T hn`mKw t_m¿Uv AwKw. .........................................................................................................................................................................................
  15. 15. 29 ............................................................................................... .......... Nn{X-I-ebv°v Hcp BapJw Sn.- hn. am[-h-hm-cn-b¿ Nn{X-I-e-sb-°p-dn®v {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p∂ nc-h[n {KŸ-߃ kwkvIr-X- `m-j-bn¬ D≠v. G‰hpw {][m- -s∏-´h {ioIp-am-c≥ cNn® inev]-c-Xvw, ]pcm-W- ß-fn¬ Ay-X-hp-amb hnjvWp-[¿tΩm-Ø-c-]p-cm- Ww, Imiy-]o-bw, Nmeq-Iy-hw-i-cm-Pm-hm-bn-cp∂ tkma-tZ-h≥ cNn® A`n-e-jn-Xm¿∞ Nn¥m-a-Wn, _rl-’w-lnX F∂n-h-bm-Wv. `qtZ-h-a-√≥ cNn® am-tkm-√mkw F∂ Hcp {KŸw [qfo-Nn-{X-sØ- °p-dn®v {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂-Xm-bn´v Ds≠∂v A`n-e-jn- Xm¿∞ Nn¥m-a-Wn-bn¬ kqN--bp-≠v. hn≤-km-e- `-RvPn-I, DØ-ahXm-em-e-¶m-cm-P-Xm-c-kq-{Xw, kºq¿Æ-Nn-{X-e-£Ww F∂o {KŸ-ß-fpsS t]cpw ]d-™p-tIƒ°p-∂p. Nn{X-tØmSv G‰hpw ASpØ Ie-bmb rØ-im-kv{X-{]-Xn-]m-Z-I-amb `c-X-ap-n- bpsS mSy-im-kv{Xhpw Nn{X-I-em-k-º-Øn-te°v shfn®w hoip-∂-Xm-Wv. IqSmsX X{¥-k-ap-®-b-Øn se inev]-`m-Khpw Nn{X-im-kv{X-X-Xz-߃ Dƒs°m- ≈p-∂p. mSy-im-kv{X-Øn¬ kwkvIr-X-Ønepw ae- bm-f-Ønepw hymJym--߃ D≠v. X{¥-k-ap-®-b- Ønv ae-bm-f-Øn-epw. a‰p {KŸ-߃°v hymJym- -߃ H∂pw {]Nm-c-Øn-en-√. kmt¶-XnI ]Z-ßfpw {]ta-b-ßfpw nc-h-[n-bp≈ {]kvXpX {KŸ-ß- fpsS A¿∞w a- n-em-°pI {ia-I-c-am-Wv. ]c-º- cm-K-X-amb kn≤m-¥-ßfpw {]tbm-K-ß-fpsS ssien- Ifpw BWv tIc-fob Nn{X-I-em-Im-c-∑m¿ ]n≥Xp- S¿∂p-t]m-cp-∂-Xv. Nn{X-I-em-Im-c-∑m-cn¬ kwkvIr-X-`m-jm-]- WvUn-X-∑m¿ Ipd-hm-Wv, kwkvIr-X-`mjm ]WvUn- X-∑m-cn¬ Nn{X-I-e-bn¬ B`n-ap-Jy-ap-≈-hcpw hnc- f-am-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v Nn{X-I-e-bpsS kuμ-cy- imkv{Xw AkvX-{]-Nm-c-am-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Kpcp- hm-bq¿ Npa¿Nn-{X-]-T--tI-{μ-Øn¬ {io. aΩnbq¿
  16. 16. {ion-hm-k≥ amÃ-dpsS n¿_-‘-{]-Imcw inev]- c-Xvw, Nn{X-kq{Xw F∂o {KŸ-߃ Cu teJ- Iv ]Tn-∏n-t°-≠n-h-∂p. Nn{X-I-em-Nm-cy-mb At±- l-hp-ambn nc-¥cw N¿® sNbvXv {]kvXpX {KŸ- ß-fnse nKq-Vm¿∞w A]-{K-Yn-s®-Sp-°p-hmpw Gsd-°psd ka-RvP-k-amb Bibw a- n-em- °mpw Ign-™p. apI-fn¬ ]d™ Nn{X-K-Ÿ-ß- sf-°p-dn-®p≈ Adnhpw At±-l-Øn¬n-∂p-X-s∂- bmWv In´n-b-Xv. kne-_-kn¬ s]Sm-Ø-h-bm-sW- ¶nepw Ahsb Atz-jn®v Is≠-Ømpw {io. ]Wn-°¿ amÃ-dpsS D]-tZ-i-ß-fmepw hnh-c-W-ß- fmepw Xr]vXn-I-c-amb nK-a--Øn-se-Ømpw Ign- ™p. At±-l-Øns‚ ImcpWy e£vao ntbm-K- Øm¬ Iem-Im-c-∑m¿°pw Bkzm-Z-I¿°pw lnX-I- c-ambn GXmpw hcn-Iƒ Ipdn-°p-∂p. Ie, Nn{Xw, inev]w F∂o ]Z-ß-fpsS ncp‡w apX¬ XpS-ßmw. IwemXn = kpJw Xcp-∂Xv, F∂mWv Ie F∂ ]Z-Øn-¿∞w. ChnsS kpJw F∂-Xnv Bμw F∂¿∞w. B¿°v F∂ tNmZy-Ønv, t`m‡m-hnv, F∂p-sh- ®m¬ C{μo-b-a-tm-bp-‡-amb Bflm-hnv F∂pw. A¿∞-kn≤w AXm-bXv C{μo-b-ß-fn-eq-sSbpw a-  n-eq-sSbpw Ap-`qXn hnj-b-ambn B-μ-kz-cq-]- mb Bflm-hnv Bμw sImSp-°p-∂-XmWv Ie F∂¿∞w. Ie-I-fn¬ Ay--a-amWv Nn{Xw. NntX-cmXn = NnØnv sImSp-°p-∂Xv F∂v buKn-Im¿∞w Ap-k-cn®v NnØnv Bμw sImSp-°p-∂-Xv. B- μ-kz-cq-]-amb NnØnv as‰m∂pw sImSp-Øn´v Imcy- an-√-t√m. ^e-Øn¬ NnZm--μ-k-μm-bIw Nn{Xw. ine-DtQ (D-t]-£n-°pI F∂ A¿∞- Øn¬ inev F∂ [mXp) F∂ [mXp-hn¬ n∂v Dt]-£n-°-s∏-´Xv F∂ A¿∞-Øn¬ inev F∂ ]Zw njv]-∂am-hp-∂p. AXns c£n-°p-∂Xv F∂p sh®m¬ {]tbm-P--an-√m-bvI-bm¬ ap-jy¿ km[m-c-W-bmbn {i≤n-°mØ ]md, acw, aÆv apX- em-b-hsb ap-jy¿°v D]-tbm-K-{]-Z-am-°n-Øo¿°p- ∂Xv inev]w. AXpw B-μ-Zm-b-Iw-X-s∂. ae-bm- f-Øn¬ Ωƒ km[m-cW a- n-em-°p-∂-Xnepw hfsc hnim-e-amb A¿∞-amWv Cu ]Z-߃°v bYm¿∞-Øn¬ D≈-Xv. Nn{Xw F∂-Xns inev]-c-Xv-Im-c≥ Xmsg ]dbpw {]Imcw n¿Δ-Nn-°p-∂p. Z¿i--am-{X-bn¬ Xs∂ irwKm-cmZn `mh-߃ t{]£-I-n¬ Df-hm- °p-∂Xpw IÆm-Sn-bn¬ {]Xn-_nw_w F∂-t]mse kmZriyw D≈-Xp-amb n¿Ωn-Xnsb Nn{Xw F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. shdpw cq]-km-Zriyw t]mc- `m-hhpw A`n- hy-‡-am-hWw F∂v FSp-Øp-]-d-bp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. aq∂p temI-ß-fnepw ÿmh-c-ßfpw PwK-a-ß-fp-amb F√m-‰n-s‚bpw Xn-a-bm¿∂ cq]-Ønepw `mh- 31 ............................................................................................... ..........
  17. 17. 33 ............................................................................................... .......... Ønepw D≈ Ic-W-amWv Nn{Xw F∂mWv Nn{X- Ønv At±lw ]d-bp∂ e£-Ww. Nn{X-ßsf {][m--ambn aq∂p hn[-ambn Xncn-°p- ∂p.1. kw]q¿Æ Zriy-I-c-W-ap-≈-h. F∂p sh®m¬ {Xnam--X-e-Øn- ep≈ {]Xn-a, hn{K- lw, A¿®m-_nw_w apX-em-b-h. 2. A¿[- Nn-{Xw. AXm-bXv `nØn, kvXw`w apX-em- b-h-bn¬ ]Xn-™n-cn- °p∂ hn[-ap-≈-Xv. 3. Nn{Xm-`m-kw. AXm- bXv F√m {]Im-c-Ønepw Nn{Xw-t]m-se-Øs∂ Xnf-ßp- ∂-Xv. ZznX-eta D≈q F¶nepw {XnXe n¿Ωn-Xn- t]mse t{]£-Iv Ap-`-h-ap-≠m-°p-∂-Xv. CXnv BteJyw F∂pw ]d-bmw. If-sa-gp-Øv, Xp∂¬]- Wn, tXm¬∏mh n¿ΩmWw apX-em-b-hbpw Nn{Xm- `mkw F∂ hn`m-K-Øn¬s∏Sp-∂p. Nnt{X kmZr-iy-I-cWw {][mw ]cn-Io¿ØnXw F∂p Nn{X-kq-{X-Im-c≥ A`n-{]m-b-s∏-Sp∂ Ie-I- fn¬ G‰hpw anI-®-Xpw, [¿Ω-Im-am¿∞ tam£ {]Zhpw G‰hpw awK-f-hp-amWv Nn{Xw F∂n-ßs Hcp Nn{XsØ ]pI-gvØp-∂p At±lw. Nn{XsØ kXyw, sshWn-Iw, mK-cw, an{Xw F∂p mep-hn- [-ambn Xncn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. hnjvWp ]pcm-W-Øn¬ Nn{X-kq{Xw F∂p-t]-cn-´n-´p≈ 35 apX¬ 43 IqSn- bp≈ 9 A[ym-b-ß-fn¬ Bte-JysØ ]‰n-bmWv hnh-cn-°p-∂Xv F∂-Xp-sIm≠v Cu {]t`Zw {]Xn- am-Zn-Isf Dt±-in-®p-≈-X-√. Ah-sb-°p-dn®v XpS¿∂p≈ A[ym-b-ß-fn¬ hni-Z-ambn hnh-cn-°p- ∂p-≠p-Xm-pw. F∂m¬ 35-˛mw A[ym-b-Øns‚ XpS°w Nn{Xm-K-a-tØm-sS-bm-Wv. Xs∂ {]tem-`n-∏n-°p-hm≥ h∂v A]vk-c- p- I-fpsS kuμ-cy-aZw in-∏n-°m≥ mcm-bW apn .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. kwkvIrX ]WvUn-X≥ bi»-co-c-mb tXm∂-√q¿ Sn. hn. am[-h-hm-cn-b¿ 2000 am¿®v amk-Øn¬ Fgp-Xnb teJw .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. aÆp-sIm≠v kv{Xo {]Xn-a-bp-≠m-°n. k¿Δ-e-£W kºq¿Æ-amb {]kvXpX {]Xn-a°v Poh≥ h®p Ah- fpsS Ag-Ip-I≠v A]vkc kv{XoIƒ e÷n-®p-t]m- bn. ]n∂oSv B {]Xn-abpw D¿Δin F∂p t]cmb A]vk-c- m-bn. Xm≥ Bhn-jv°-cn® {]Xn-am- n¿ΩmWw ka-{K-ambn hniz-I¿Ωm-hnv D]-tZ-in®p F∂pw At±-l-Øns‚ ]c-º-c-bn-eqsS Nn{X n¿ΩmWw cq]-s∏-´p-sh-∂p-amWv hnjvWp-[¿tΩm- Øc ]pcm-W-Ønse D]m-Jym-w. (b-⁄-tΔZ {]mXniwkyØn¬ knam--im-kv{X-Im-c-mbn Ap- kva-cn-°p∂ mcm-bW apnbpw Ct±-lhpw Hcmƒ Xs∂ F∂v A`n-{]m-b-ap-≠v.) inev]-c-Xv-Ønepw Nn{X-kq-{X-Ønepw Bte- Jy-sØ-°p-dn-®mWv {][m--ambpw {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂- Xv. `nØn-kw-kvI-c-Ww, Nmb-°q-´p-Iƒ D≠m-°¬, Xme-amw AwKp-e-am-w, kq{X-hn-ym-k-kn-[n, kwap-Jm-[n-ÿm--t`-Z-߃, Xqen-I, ]i, kz¿Æm- Zn-te-]--kn-≤n-Iƒ, {]Ir-Xn-Zr-iy-߃ hc-bp-tºmƒ {]tXyIw {i≤n-t°≠ hnj-b-߃, aqe-h¿Æ- ߃, h¿W-kw-tbm-P--Øm¬ D≠m-Ip∂ an{i- h¿Æ-߃, Nn{X-c-N--bn¬ {]tXyIw {i≤n-t°≠ Imcy-߃, `mh-c-km-Zn-I-fpsS {]m[myw F∂nh khn-kvXcw {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂p-≠v. F√m Ie-Ifpw B-μm-p-`q-Xn-bp-≠m-°p-∂- h-bm-Wv. Nn{X-I-e -hn-ti-jn®pw. B Ap-`q-Xn-tbm- sSm∏w Ie-Iƒ kmwkv°m-cn-I-amb ]cn-h¿Ø- hpw D≠m-°p-∂p-≠v. B ]cn-h¿Øw kaq-l- Øns‚ ]ptcm-K-Xnbv°pw [m¿Ωn-I-amb DtØ-P-- Ønpw klm-b-I-am-h-Ww. kzmK-am-p-tcm-[n-I-fmb Nn{X-߃ am{Xta hc-bmhq F∂v inev]-cvX--Im- c-pw, [¿Ω-Im-am¿∞ kn≤n-Z-am-hWw Nn{X-c-N F∂v Nn{X-kq-{X-Im-cpw Du∂n ]d-bp-∂Xv {]tXyI {i≤-b¿ln-°p-∂p. Nn{X-Im-cp am{X-a√ Nn{Xm-kzm-Z-Ipw Bhiyw Adn-™n-cn-t°≠ A¿L-ß-fmb Bi-b-߃, km-X--aq-ey-߃ Ah-K-Wn®v `uXn-I-kp-J-Øn-p-th≠n ]c°w ]mbp∂ Znim-t_m[w jvS-s∏´ C∂sØ P- Xbv°v k≥am¿§ Z¿i-I-ß-fm-Wv. jvS-{]m-b-am-bn- s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂ ss]Xr-IsØ kwc-£n-°mpw kmwkvIm-cnI cwKsØ kwip-≤-am-°mpw Nn{X- I-e-bpsS D≤m-cWw Ap-t]-£-Wo-b-am-Wv.
  18. 18. 35 ............................................................................................... .......... `mc-Xob Nn{X-I-em-]m-c-º-cyhpw tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-I-ebpw sI. bp. IrjvW-Ip-am¿ temI-Øns‚ ]e-`m-KØpw C∂v ImW-s∏- Sp∂ Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bpsS Ncn{Xw Bcw-`n-°p-∂-Xv AXn-{]m-No--ß-fmb Kplm-Nn-{X-ß-fn¬ n∂p-am- Wv. Ae-™p--S∂v th´-bm-Snbpw Iq´w-Iq-Snbpw Pohn- ®n-cp∂ ]pcm-X-- a-p-jy-cnse Iem-Im-c-∑m-cpsS kw`m-h--bm-Wv Cu Kplm-Nn-{X-߃. rØ-k-am- -amb ap-jy-cq-]-߃, mbm-´p-cw-K-߃, Aºpw hn√pw G¥nb ap-jy¿, arK-cq-]-߃, {]tXy-In®pw B, am≥, Im´p-t]mØv XpS-ßn-b-h, kqN-I-Nn-”- ߃ F∂n-h-bmWv Kplm-Np-a-cp-I-fn¬ hc® Nn{X- ߃. AXn-i-‡hpw ZrV-hp-amb tcJ-Ifpw emfn- Xy-am¿∂ cNm coXnbpw ssieo-h¬°-c-Whpw Kplm-Nn-{X-ß-fpsS {][m {]tXy-I-X-bmbn Icp- Xp-∂p. mbm-´p-k-a-bØv `b-t∂m-Sp∂ arK-ß-fpsS thKhpw ssZy-Xbpw, Atº‰v hogp-Ibpw NØp- In-S-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ arK-ß-fpsS thZ-bpw AXoh efn-X-amb coXn-bn¬ Ch¿ Bhn-jv°-cn- ®n-cn-°p-∂p. arK-s°m-gp-∏p-Ifpw c‡-hpw, ac-∏-ibpw, Icnbpw, Ce-®mdpw D]-tbm-Kn-®mWv Ch¿ Nn{X-c- N n¿Δ-ln-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. temI-Øns‚ hnhn[ `mK-ß-fnepw `mc-X-Ønepw Is≠-Ønb Cu Kplm- Nn-{X-ß-fn¬ n∂p-amWv ΩpsS Iem-N-cn{Xw Bcw- `n-°p-∂-Xv. AtXm-sSm∏w Xs∂ in¬]-k-am--amb coXn-bn¬ hnhn-[-X-c-Øn-ep≈ Bbp-[-ßfpw
  19. 19. 37 ............................................................................................... .......... I√p-fn-Ifpw ]md-s°-´p-I-fpsS cq]-s∏-Sp-Ø-ep-Ifpw Ah-cpsS in¬]-I-em-]m-Shw sΩ t_m[y-s∏-Sp- Øp-∂p. a[y-{]-tZ-inse t`m]m-env kao-]-ap≈ `ow`SvI Kpl-Iƒ, DØ¿{]-tZ-inse an¿km-]q¿, _m{μ, knwK≥]q¿, DØ-cm-©-ense A¬tam- dbv°p kao-]-ap≈ Kpl-Iƒ XpS-ßn DØ-tc-¥y≥ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse AtIw Kplm-k-t¶-X-ß-fnepw Xan-gvm-´nse tImb-º-Øq-cn-pw, ahm-sUbv°pw kao-]-Øp-n∂pw tIc-f-Ønse ad-bq¿ (C-Sp-°n) {]tZ-isØ Fgp-Ømsse Kpl-Iƒ, hb-m-´nse FS-°¬ Kpl-Iƒ, søm-‰n≥Icbv°SpØ ]mWvU- h≥]md, Im-k¿tIms´ G‰p-I-Sp° F∂n-hn-S-ß- fn¬ ]pcm-X apjy¿ hc® Kplm-Nn-{X-߃ Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. XpS¿∂p-cq-]w-sIm≠ kn‘p Zo-XS kwkv°mc Ime-L-´-Øns‚ kw`m-h--bmb [mcmfw ap{Z-I-fn¬ n∂pw sSdm-t°m´ in¬]-ß- fn¬ n∂pw IqSp-X¬ IrXy-X-bm¿∂Xpw kmt¶- Xn-I-Øn-I-thm-sSbpw Iem-{]m-[myw Gdp∂ Xc- Ønepw AXn-a-tm-l-c-ambn ssieo-h¬°-cn-®-Xp- amb [mcmfw Nn{X-in¬] cq]-߃ Is≠-Øp-hm≥ Ign-™n-´p-≠v. Kp]vX-hm-Im-S-IcpsS Ime-L-´-Øn¬, GI- tZiw _n.-kn. 200pw F.-Un. 600-˛700pw CSbv°v n¿Ωn-°-s∏´ AP¥m Ft√md Kplm-Np-a-cp-Ifn¬ hc® Npa¿Nn-{X-ß-fn¬n∂pamWv ΩpsS Npa¿Nn- {X-]m-cºcyw Bcw-`n-°p-∂Xv. ae-bpsS ]md-®p-a-cp- Iƒ sImØn-Øp-c∂v AXn-a-tm-l-c-ambn in¬]- `w-Kn-tbmsS n¿Ωn® ap∏-Xn¬ A[nIw hcp∂ ssNXy-ß-fnepw hnlm-c-ß-fn-ep-am-bmWv Nn{X-߃ hc-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. {]mNo Kplm-t£-{X-ßsf At]- £n®v {]tXyIw Xøm-dm-°nb {]X-e-Øn¬ imkv{Xo-b-amb coXn-bn¬ `nØnXøm-dm°n, Iw- Ip-d™ Hcp ]cp-°≥ {]X-ehpw AXnp apI-fn-¬ anp-Ø-{]-X-ehpw Xøm-dm°n {]tXyIw Xøm-dm- °n-sb-Sp-°p∂ {]IrXn h¿Æ-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-®mWv Nn{X-c-N n¿Δ-ln-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. alm-bm--˛-lo-- bm Ime-L-´-Øns‚ Aaqey kw`m-h--bmb Cu Nn{X-߃°v hnj-b-am-bXv _p≤s‚ Pw apX¬ ]cn-n¿ΔmWw hsc-bp≈ hnhn[ IYm-k-μ¿`-ß- fmWv. AtXm-sSm∏w Xs∂ PmX-I-I-Y-Ifpw Nn{Xo- I-cW hnj-b-ß-fm-Wv. ]pjv]-e-Xm-Zn-I-fp-sSbpw ]£n-arKmZn-I-fp-sSbpw Nn{X-߃ Kplm-Np-a-cp-I- fn¬ AXn-a-tm-l-c-ambn hc-®n-cn-°p-∂p. Kplm-Np- a-cp-I-fnepw apIƒ `mKØpw AXn-a-tm-l-c-ß-fmb Unssk-p-Iƒ hc-®n-cn-°p-∂p. hnj-bm-hn-jv°-cW coXn-IƒsIm≠pw, kuμ-cy-h¬°-cWw sIm≠pw Chn-SpsØ Nn{X-߃ temI-{]-i-kvX-ß-fm-Wv. ssIap-{Z-Iƒ sIm≠pw t{X Ne-- ߃sIm≠pw `mh-hn-Nm-c-߃ krjvSn-°pI F∂ `mc-Xob Nn{X-I-em-Z¿iw ]q¿Æambpw Dƒs°m- ≠-h-bmWv AP-¥-bnse Nn{X-߃. tcJ-I-fpsS {]m[m-yw, Bflo-b-kz-`m-hw, hnim-e-X, ssieo- h¬°-c-Ww, kmt¶-Xn-I-ta-∑, emfn-Xyw, cN-m-]m- S-hw, Ae-¶-cW kz`mhw F∂n-h-sb-√mw-Xs∂ AP¥m-Nn-{X-ß-fp-sSbpw s]mXpsh `mc-Xob Nn{X- I-e-bp-sSbpw s]mXp-kz-`m-hhpw {]tXy-I-X-bp-ambn Icp-Xn-h-cp-∂p. Kplm-Nn-{X-ß-fn¬ n∂pw hyXy-ÿ- ambn Nn{X-c-N--bv°m-h-iy-amb {]tXyI {]X-e- ߃ Xøm-dm-°phmpw AXn-p-th-≠p∂ kmt¶- XnI coXn-Iƒ hnI-kn-∏n-°mpw Nn{Xo-I-c-W hnj- b-߃ Nn´-tbmsS {Iao-I-cn-°p-hmpw hc® Nn{X- FS-bv°¬ Kplm Nn{Xw `ow`SvI Kplm Nn{Xw
  20. 20. Xm-a-cw-Ip-f-ßc {io[¿Ω-im-kvXm-hnv A-¥-tImSn {]Wmaw
  21. 21. 39 ............................................................................................... .......... ߃ q‰m-≠p-I-tfmfw ne-n¬°-Ø° coXn-bn¬ Bhn-jv°-cn-°p-hmpw, AP-¥-bn-tebpw Ft√m-d- bn-tebpw Nn{X-Im-c∑m¿°v km[n-®p. AP¥m Kpl- I-fn¬ n∂pw hyXy-kvX-ambn Ft√md Kpl-bn¬ _p≤-hn-j-b-߃°p-]p-dsa ssP-˛-ssl-μh hnj- b-ßfpw Nn{Xo-I-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. q‰m-≠p-Isf AXn- Po-hn®v Ch-sb√mw C∂pw ne-n-∂p-h-cp-∂p. al- Ømb Cu Nn{X-]m-c-ºcy kwkvImcw XpS¿∂v {ioe-¶, ssN, Xmbvem‚ v, P∏m≥, _¿Ω, Ct¥m- t-jy, t∏mƒ XpS-ßnb cmPy-ß-fn-te°v hym]n- °p-Ibpw hyXy-ÿ-am¿∂ ssien-I-fmepw hnj-bm- hn-jv°-c-W-Ømepw AXo-h-k-º-∂-amb Npa¿Nn{X k{º-Zm-b-߃ AhnsS {]N-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. AP¥m Nn{X-ssi-en-bpsS Bhn¿`m-h-Øn- p-tijw Npa¿Nn-{X-c-Nm k{º-Zmbw `mc-X-Øns‚ hnhn[ {]tZ-i-ß-fn-te°v AXn-Kw-`o-c-amb coXn- bn¬ {]N-cn-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn. cmP-ÿm≥, Hdo , tIc- fw, Imivao¿, B{‘, Xan-gvm-Sv, I¿Æm-S-I, kn°nw, lnam-N¬, alm-cm-jv{S, KpP-dm-Øv XpS-ßnb kwÿm--ß-fn-se√mw Npa¿Nn-{X-c-N-m-co-Xnbpw k{º-Zm-bhpw hyXy-ÿ-X-bm¿∂ ssien-bnepw cNm coXn-I-fnepw hnj-b-ß-fnepw cq]w {]m]n- °p-Ibpw Gsd {]N-cn-°p-Ibpw P-Io-b-am-hp-I-bp- ap-≠m-bn. 7, 8 q‰m-≠p-I-fn-embn ]√h cmPm-°-∑m-cpsS ImeØv n¿Ωn® Im©o-]p-csØ ssIem-k-mY t£{X-Øn¬ AXn-a-tm-l-c-amb in¬∏-ßfn¬ {]Ir-Xn-h¿Æ-߃ D]-tbm-Kn®v Ae-¶-cn-®-Xns‚ Ah-ti-jn-∏p-Iƒ C∂pw ImWm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. AtXm- sSm∏w Xs∂ Npa-cp-I-fnse Hgn™ `mK-ß-fn¬ Nn{X-߃ hc®v Ae-¶-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. Nn{X-∏-Wn-I-fmepw hmkvXp-in¬]-`w-Kn-bmepw ssIem-k-mY t£{Xw Gsd {]i-kvX-am-Wv. cmP- cm-P-tNm-fs‚ `c-W-Im-eØv 10, 11 q‰m-≠p-I-fn-embn n¿Ωn® X©m-hqcnse _rltZ-izc t£{X- Ønse Npa¿Nn-{X-ßfpw hnj-bm-hn-jv°mcwsIm≠v Gsd {]i-kvX-am-Wv. tNmf-`-c-W-Ønv Ah-kmw Ipdn-®p-sIm≠v ]n∂oSp mSp-`-cn® mbIv cmP-hw- i-Ønse cmPm-°-∑mcpw Nn{X in¬]-I-e-Iƒ°v Gsd t{]m’m-lw ¬In-bn-cp-∂p. B{‘, I¿Æm-SI {]tZ-i-߃ `cn-®n-cp∂ hnP-b--Kc cmPm-°-∑mcpw Z£n-tW-¥y-bnse Nn{X-in¬]-I-e- bpsS hf¿®bv°v Gsd kw`m-h--Iƒ ¬In-b-h- cm-bn-cp-∂p. B{‘-{]-tZ-inse te]m-£n, I¿Æm-S- I-bnse _m`m-an, lw]n XpS-ßnb tI{μ-߃ Ie- bpsS hf¿®-bn¬ Gsd kw`m-h--Iƒ ¬Inb {]tZ-i-ß-fm-Wv. am{X-a√ t£{Xw F∂-Xn-p-]p-dta Ch-sb√mw kmwkv°m-cnI tI{μ-ß-fp-am-bn-cp-∂p. temI-Øns‚ hnhn[ `mK-ß-fn¬ n∂pw [mcmfw k©m-cn-Iƒ Chn-sS-sb√mw kμ¿in-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. cmP-ÿm≥, tIc-fw, kn°nw, Hdo , ]©m_v XpS-ßnb {]tZ-i-ß-fn-se√mw Npa¿Nn{X cN-m- AP¥bnse Kplm Nn{Xw
  22. 22. 41 ............................................................................................... .......... coXn Gsd kº-∂-amb coXn-bn¬ {]N-cn-°p-Ibpw hnImkw {]m]n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. {]tXy-In®pw cmP-ÿm-nepw tIc-f-Ønepw. Iem-t{]m¬km-l- -Ønv Gsd {]m[myw ¬Inb cmPv]pXv cmPm- °-∑m¿ sIm´m-c-ß-fnepw t£{X-ß-fnepw s]mXp- a-μn-c-ß-fnepw Nn{X-߃ hc-∏n-°p-Ibpw {]N-cn-∏n- °p-Ibpw sNbvXp. cmP-ÿm-nse Pbv]q¿, DZ-bv]q¿, siJm-h-Xn, _n°m-o¿ _p≠n, APvao¿, tPmYv]q¿, tIm´ XpS-ßnb {]tZ-i-ß-sf√mw Npa¿Nn{X tI{μ- ߃ F∂ ne-bn¬ Gsd {]i-kvX-am-Wv. ]pcm- W-ßsf ASn-ÿm--am°n Nn{X-c-N n¿Δ-ln- °p∂Xntm-sSm∏w Xs∂ [mcmfw bp≤-cw-K-ßfpw BtLmj Nn{X-ßfpw cm[m-IrjvW {]Wb Nn{X- ßfpw Ch¿ [mcm-f-ambn hc-®p. tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-Ie tIc-f-Øn¬ Npa¿Nn{XcNm ]mc-º-cy-Ønv XpS-°w-Ip-dn-°p-∂Xv Ct∏mƒ Iym-Ip-amcn Pn√-bn¬ ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ Xncp--μn-°c Kplm-t£-{X-Øn¬ n∂p-am-Wv. Kplm-t£-{X-Øns‚ Npa-cn¬ hc® Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ C∂v ]q¿Æ-ambpw in-®p-t]mb Ah-ÿ-bn-emWv. Npa¿Nn-{X-c-N--bpsS XpS°w 8, 9 q‰m-≠p-I-fn-em-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶nepw Gsd kº-∂- am-bXpw {]N-cn-∏n-®Xpw tIc-fob hmkvXp-in¬]- I-em-coXn hf¿∂p-hn-I-kn® 14 apX¬ 18 hsc-bp≈ q‰m-≠p-I-fn-em-bn-cp∂p. tNc-cm-Pm-°-∑m-cpsS `cWImeØv hnImkw {]m]n® hmkvXp-in¬] coXn-Ifpw, t£{X-n¿Ωm-W-ßfpw Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e- bpsS hf¿®bv°pw Imc-W-am-bn. cN-m-co-Xn-I-fpsS {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ°p-]p-dsa `mhm-hn-jv°m-c-Ønepw ssIap-{Z-I-fpsS kz`m-h-ß-fmepw ico-c-h-Sn-hp-I-fpsS {]tXy-I-X-bmepw Ne--ß-fmepw tIc-fob Npa¿Nn- {X-߃ Gsd hyXy-kvX-am-Wv. IqSp-X¬ Ne-m-fl- I-kz-`m-hhpw Bflob Z¿i--ßfpw tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-ß-fn¬ ImWm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. Npa¿ Nn{X-tI-{μ-߃ tIc-f-Øn¬ GI-tZiw 150-˛¬ A[nIw t£{X-ß-fnepw aq∂v sIm´m-c-ß-fnepw 15-˛-Hmfw {InkvXy≥ ]≈n-I-fnepw ]pcm-X Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ I≠p-h-cp-∂p. Xncp-h--¥-]pcw {io ]fl-m-`-kzman t£{Xw, G‰p-am-q¿ t£{Xw, ]pWvU-co-I-]pcw t£{Xw, Ipam-c-s-√q¿ t£{Xw, ]mWvUhw t£{Xw, B¿∏q-°c t£{Xw, (tIm-´bw Pn√)
  23. 23. 43 ............................................................................................... .......... Xriq¿ hS-°pw-mY t£{Xw, Xr{]-bm¿ {iocma t£{Xw, sNΩ≥Xn´ t£{Xw, Kpcp-hm-bq¿ t£{Xw, ]≈n-aÆ t£{Xw, ]m™mƒ Aø∏ t£{Xw (Xr-iq¿ Pn√), aq°p-Xe t£{Xw, tIm´- °¬ inh-t£-{Xw, Xr{]-tßmSv t£{Xw, Be-Øn- bq¿ t£{Xw (ae-∏pdw Pn√), Xfn-t£-{Xw, temI- m¿°m-hv, Iogq¿ t£{Xw, Ifn-bmw-]≈n t£{Xw (tIm-gn-t°mSv Pn√), sXmSo-°fw t£{Xw, tNtdmSv t£{Xw, apg-∏n-e-ßmSv Nodp-º-°mhv (I-Æq¿ Pn√), Xr°-Socn t£{Xw, Np´-hm-e-Øq¿ t£{Xw, (]m-e- °mSv Pn√) Ipºf t£{Xw (Im-k¿tImUv Pn√), Xncp-an-‰-t°mSv t£{Xw, tNμ-aw-Kew t£{Xw, Ff¶p-∂-∏pg t£{Xw (F-d-Wm-Ipfw Pn√) XpS- ßnb t£{X-ß-fn¬ ]pcm-X Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ ImWm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. a´m-t©cn sIm´mcw (sIm-®n) {io]vX-a-m-`- ]pcw sIm´mcw (X-°-e) Imbw-Ipfw IrjvW-]pcw sIm´mcw F∂o sIm´m-c-ß-fn-emWv AXn-a-tm-l- c-ß-fmb {]mNo Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ ImWp-∂-Xv. Nn{Xo-I-cW hnj-b-߃ aXm-fl-I-amb hnj-b-ß-fmWv tIc-fob Nn{X- ß-fn¬ IqSp-X-embpw hc-®p-Im-Wp-∂-Xv. ]pcm-W-I- Y-Ifpw tZho-tZ-h-∑m-cpsS cq]-ß-fp-amWv Nn{Xo-I-c- W-Øn-mbn Xnc-s™-Sp-Øn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. cmam-b-Ww, alm-`m-c-Xw, `mK-h-Xw, tZho-]p-cm-Ww, inh-]p-cmWw XpS-ßnb ]pcm-W-{K-Ÿ-ß-fn¬ n∂p-amWv hnj-b- ßfpw kμ¿`-ßfpw Nn{X-Im-c-∑m¿ Is≠-Øn-b-Xv. ssih-˛-ssh-jvWh kw_-‘-amb Nn{X-߃ tIc-f-Ønse t£{X {iotIm-hn-ep-I-fn¬ ImWm- hp-∂-Xm-Wv. AtX-t]m-se-Xs∂ a‰p kwÿm-- °m¿°v ]cn-Nn-X-a-√mØ imkvXmhv F∂ k¶¬∏hpw tht´-°-c≥ k¶¬∏hpw ΩpsS {iotIm-hn-ep-I-fn¬ ImWmw. IpXn-c-∏p-d-Øn-cp∂v ]cn- hm-c-k-taXw mbm-´p--S-Øp∂ imkvXm-hns‚ Nn{Xw AtIw t£{X-ß-fn¬ hc-®n-´p-≠v. ssih-kw-_-‘n-bmb Nn{X-ß-fn¬ {io]-c- ta-iz-cs‚ {]tZm-j-rØw (B--μ-Xm-WvU-hw) Nn{X-Øn-mWv {]m[m-yw. 16 ssII-tfm-Sp-IqSn rØw sNøp∂ Cu inh-cq]w Z£n-tW-¥y-bn¬ {]Nmcw kn≤n® S-cmP k¶¬∏-Øn¬n∂pw hyXy-kvX-amWv tIc-fob Nn{X-Im-c-∑m¿ Xß-fp-tS- Xmb kuμ-cy-t_m-[hpw ssien-bpw-sIm≠v krjvSn- s®-SpØ S-cm-P-Nn{Xw temI-{i-≤-bm-I¿jn® H∂pIq-Sn-bmWv G‰p-am-q¿ t£{Xw, hS-°pw-mY t£{Xw F∂n-hn-S-ß-fnse S-cm-P-Nn{Xw CXn-p- Zm-l-c-W-am-Wv. ]m¿ΔXn KW-]Xn kp{_-“-Wy≥ F∂n-h- tcm-Sp-IqSn ssIem-k-Øn¬ hmgp∂ inhs‚ "i‡n- ]-©m-£cn', inhs‚ ⁄m-kz-cq-]-amb "Z£n-Wm- aq¿Øn', AtLm-c-i-nh≥, kv{Xo]p-cpj _‘- Øns‚ DØ-a-am-Xr-I-bmb A¿≤-m-co-izc Nn{Xw, Incm-X-in-h≥, A¿Pp--˛-In-cm-X-bp-≤w, kZm-in-h≥, Imekwlm-c-aq¿Øn, inh-]m¿Δ-Xo-kz-bw-h-cw, arXyp-RvP-b≥ F∂n-h-sb√mw ssih-hn-j-b-ß-fp- ambn _‘-s∏´v tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bn¬ ImW- s∏-Sp∂ hnj-b-ß-fm-Wv. sshjvWh Nn{X-߃ Zim-h-Xm-cw, Ah-Xm-c-I-Y-Iƒ, thWp-tKm-]m- ew, `qao-tZhn e£vao-tZhn kta-X-mbn AtIw tZh-∑mcmepw Ejn-am-cmepw Bcm-[y-mbn ]mem- gn-bn¬ A-¥-imbnbmbn InS-°p∂ {io]-fl-m- `s‚ Nn{X-amb A-¥-i-b-w, k¥m--tKm-]m-e- aq¿Øn, alm-hn-jvWp, Kpcp-hm-bq-c-∏≥, KtP-{μ- tam£w XpS-ßnb sshjvWh Nn{X-߃ Nn{X- Im-c-∑m¿°v {]nb-s∏´ hnj-b-ß-fm-bn-cp-∂p. `mK-hXw IY-Isf ASn-ÿm--am°n hc® {ioIr-jvWs‚ _me-eo-e-Iƒ {]tXyIw {i≤-bm- I¿jn-°p-∂-h-bm-Wv. tXmgn-am-tcm-sSm-Øv, hrμm-h- -Øn¬ HmS-°p-g¬ DuXn ckn-°p∂ {ioIr-jvW≥, hkv{Xm-]-l-c-Ww, ]qX-m-tam-£w, aZ--tKm-]m-ew, NXp-c-£co tKm]mew, IrjvW-˛-_-e-cm-a≥am¿, Imfn-b-a¿±-w, tKmh¿≤-tm-±m-c-Ww, f-Iq-]p-c-tam- £w, _Im-kp-c-h-[w, cm[m-am-[hw, Iwk-h-[w, cp‹nWo kzbw-h-cw, ]m¿∞-km-cYn XpS-ßnb
  24. 24. 45 ............................................................................................... .......... Nn{X-߃ [mcmfw t£{X-®p-h-cp-I-fn¬ ImWm-hp- ∂-Xm-Wv. sXmSo-°fw (I-Æq¿) ]-b-∂m¿°m-hv, ]pWvU-co-I-]p-cw, Xr{]-bm¿, ]fl-m-`-]pcw sIm´m- cw, ]pØ≥Nn-d, a´m-t©cn sIm´m-cw XpS-ßnb ÿe-ß-fn¬ hc® {ioIrjvW kw_-‘n-bmb Nn{X-߃ AXn-a-tm-l-c-ß-fm-Wv. {iocm-as‚ Pw apX¬ ]´m-`n-tjIw hsc- bp≈ hnhn[ cwK-߃ tIc-fob Nn{X-Im-c-∑m¿ cN--bv°mbn Xnc-s™-Sp-Øn-cp-∂p. hoc-cm-a≥, {iocm-a-]-´m-`n-tj-Iw, cma-cm-h-W-bp-≤w, {iocm-a-kp- {Ko-h-k-Jyw, koXm-kz-bw-h-cw, h-bm{X XpS-ßnb Nn{X-߃ tIc-fo-b¿°v kp]-cn-Nn-X-am-Wv. a´m- t©cn sIm´m-c-®p-a-cn¬ AXn-a-tm-l-c-ambn Nn{Xo- I-cn-®n-cn-°p∂ {iocm-as‚ Pw apX¬ ]´m-`n- tjIw hsc-bp≈ cwK-߃ temI-{]-i-kvX-am-Wv. sXmSo-°fw t£{X-Øn-tebpw ]-b-∂m¿°mhn- tebpw cmam-bW Nn{X-ßfpw Gsd atm-l-c-ß- fm-Wv. P-w, h-hm-kw, Zi-c-Ys‚ ]p{X-Im-ta- jvSn-bm-Kw, cm⁄n-am¿, kp{Ko-h-k-Jyw, _men-h- [w, kpc-k-e-¶m-e-£van, lp-am≥, koXm-k-ta-X- mb {iocm-a≥, lp-am≥ C{μ-PnØv h[w, Ipw`I¿Æ≥, i_-co-tam-£w, Kpl≥ XpS-ßn-b-h- sb√mw a´m-t©cn Nn{X-Øn¬ kap-∂-X-amb ÿmw ssIh-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. [ym-t«m-I-ßsf ASn-ÿm--am°n hc® AtIw hnj-b-߃ Npa¿Nn-{X-ß-fn¬ k¿Δ-km- [m-c-W-am-Wv. KW-]-Xn-bpsS hnhn[ k¶¬∏-߃, tZho-cq-]-߃ Zp¿§, cmP-cm-tP-iz-cn, alm-e-£van, {Xn]p-c-kp-μ-cn, `{Z-Im-fn, k]vX-am-Xr-°ƒ, A∂- ]q¿tW-iz-cn, kc-kz-Xn, Zp¿§ XpS-ßnb Nn{X-ß- fpw, aln-jm-kp-c-p-ambn t]mcp--SØn hnP-bn-bmbn thXm-f-Ønv ]pd-Øn-cn-°p∂ Zp¿§bpw Npa¿Nn- {X-ß-fn¬ k¿Δ-km-[m-c-W-am-Wv.- ]--b-∂m¿°mhv ]pWvU-co-I-]p-cw, sNΩ≥Xn´ F∂o t£{X-ß- fnse aln-jm-kp-c-a¿±n-n-bmb Zp¿§-bpsS Nn{X- ߃ {]i-kvX-ß-fm-Wv. {_“m-hv, kc-kz-Xn, hnjvWp-am-b, mc-Z≥, lp-am≥, k]vX¿jn-Iƒ, h-{K-l-߃, `ojva-cpsS ici-ø, {Xnhn-{I-a≥ XpS- ßn-b-h-sb√mw Npa¿Nn{X cN--b°v {]ta-b-am-bn- ´p-≠v. kv{Xoku-μ-cy-Øns‚ DØ-a-am-Xr-I-bmbn ]-
  25. 25. 47 ............................................................................................... .......... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... sI. bp. Ir-jvW-Ip-am¿ : Kpcp-hm-bq¿ tZh-kz-Øns‚ Iogn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p∂ Npa¿Nn- {X-Iem ]T--tI-{μ-Ønse BZy _m®v hnZym¿∞n. Ct∏mƒ {]kvXpX tI{μ-Ønse {]n≥kn-∏mƒ. nc-h[n t£{X-ß-fn¬ Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ hc-®n-´p-≠v. nc-h[n teJ-- ßfpw {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®n-´p-≠v. ......................................................................................................................................................................................... bpsS Nph-´n¬ n¬°p∂ kpμ-c-b£n F∂ k¶¬∏w tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-Im-c-∑m-cpsS kuμ- cy-t_m-[sØ shfn-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ H∂mWv. ]pWvU- co-I-]p-c-tØbpw ]-b-∂m¿°m-hn-tebpw b£n Nn{X-߃ Gsd {]kn-≤-am-bXpw CXp-sIm-≠m-Wv. tIc-fob Nn{X-Im-c-∑m¿ {]Xn-]m-Zy-am-°nb as‰mcp {][m--I-Ybpw hnj-b-hp-amWv Incm-Xm¿Pp- o-bw. tIc-f-Øn-e-tßm-f-an-tßmfw Cu hnjbw ÿmw-]n-Sn-®n-´p-≠v. A¿Pp-s‚ X] p apX¬ ]cm- Pn-X-mb A¿÷p-s Biz-kn-∏n®v ]m¿Δ-Xo-k- ta-X-mbn ]mip-]-Xmkv{Xw ¬In Ap-{K-ln- °p∂ inhs‚ Nn{Xw- hsc hfsc atm-l-c-am-bmWv tIc-fob Nn{X-Im-c-∑m¿ Nn{Xo-I-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. hn- b-Øn-s‚bpw emfn-Xy-Øn-s‚bpw cu{Z-X-bp-sSbpw Kmw`o-cy-Øn-s‚bpw I¿Øn-aXv cq]-ß-fmb Cu A¿Pp inh-bp≤w tIc-fob Nn{X-Im-c-∑m¿ hyXy- ÿ-ß-fmb ssien-Iƒ {]tbm-Kn-®v AXn-Kw-`o-c- am°nbncn-°p-∂p. ctPm-Kp-Ww, Xtam-Kp-Ww, kmXzn-I-KpWw F∂o {XnKp-W-ßsf B[m-c-am°n ]©-h¿Æ {]tbm-K-Øm¬ cN n¿Δ-ln® tIc-fob Npa¿Nn- {X-߃ AXns‚ tcJm-hn-ym-kw-sIm≠pw `mh- Xo-{h-X-sIm≠pw AXn-a-tm-l-c-amb h¿Æ-{]- tbmKw AXn-Kw-`o-chpw atm-l-c-hp-am-Wv. AP-¥- bn¬ n∂pw Bcw-`n® kuμ-cy-k-¶¬∏w H´pw jvS-s∏-Sp-ØmsX AXns‚ XpS¿®-bmbn {]N-cn® tIc-f-Øn¬ tcJ-I-fpsS {]m[m-yhpw `mhm-hn- jv°m-chpw Bflo-b-kz-`m-hhpw ]cn-tim-[n-°p-I-bm- sW-¶n¬ `mc-X-Øn¬Xs∂ {]Ya ÿmØv ]cn- K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-h-bmWv tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-߃. tIc-f-Øn¬ Gsd Po-I-b-am-bn-cp∂ hnhn[ If-sa-gpØp k{º-Zm-b-ßfpw {]i-kvXn-bm¿÷n-®n- cp∂ Zmcp-in¬] Iem-co-Xn-Ifpw Npa¿Nn{X cN-- bpsS hf¿®-bn¬ Gsd ]¶p-h-ln-®n-´p-≠v. {]tXy- In®pw Ah-bpsS `wK{]tXy-I-X-Iƒ. tIc-fo-b, Btbm-[--I-e-bmb If-cn-∏-b-‰ns‚ Nph-Sp-I-fpw Ne- -ßfpw, tIc-fob rØ-cq-]-ß-fpsS ssIap-{Z-Ifpw t{X-N-e--ßfpw Nn{X-Im-c-∑msc Gsd kzm[o-n- ®n-´p-≠v F∂v a- n-em-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.
  26. 26. 49 ............................................................................................... .......... tIc-f-Ønse Nph¿ Nn{X-˛-{]-Xn-a, Ah-X-cW inev]-ß-fpw, -hm-kvXphpw ÿe-˛-X-em-hn-jvI-c-W-ß-fpsS Hcp Xmc-Xay ]Tw kn. -]n. ioXƒ Ncn-{Xm-XoX Imew- sXm´v ap-jy≥ kpK-a- amb PohnX kml-N-cy-߃°p-th≠n Nn¥n-°p- Ibpw {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX-Xns‚ ^e-ß- fmWv apjy n¿Ωn-Xn-I-fmb hmkvXp inev]-߃. amp-jnI Ignhpw _p≤n-bpw- sIm≠v hnI-kn-∏n- s®-SpØ krjvSn-I-fmbn CXv Iem-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ `mK-ambn ne-sIm-≈p-∂p. oßn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂ Ime-Øn¬ ne-n¬°m≥, ÿew Bh-iy-am-bn. {]Ir-Xn-ZØ Kpl-Iƒ hn{i-a-Ønp kwc-£nX ÿe-ß-fmbn I≠ BZna ap-jy≥ Nn¥Ifpw ]T- -ßfpw krjvSn-Ifpw Kplm `nØn-I-fn¬ tImdn-bn- ´p. Ah Nph-cnse Nn{X-ß-fm-bn. sImØp-]-Wn-Ifpw Ifn-a-Æp-sIm-≠p-≠m-°nb cq]-ßfpw {]Xn-am-in-ev]- ß-fm-bn. apjy ico-chpw i_vZ-hpw-sIm-≠p≈ A`ym-k-ßfpw `mj-I-fp-ap-≠m-bn. CØ-c-Øn¬ Iem-h-I-t`-Z-߃ At-I-am-hp-Ibpw Bhn-jvImc Ah-X-c-W-߃°v ÿew Hcp AXy-¥m-t]-£nX LS-I-am-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Nn{X-inev] hmkvXp Ie-I-fnse ÿe-Im- esØ°pdn®v Iem-N-cn-{X-Im-c≥ hnPbIpam-c-ta- tm≥ S-Ønb ]T--ß-fn¬ Zriy Iebv°v ÿe Ie F∂mWv DNn-X-sa∂v hnh-£n-°p-∂p-≠v. ÿe- Øns‚ i‡n-bpw kzm[o-hp-ap-]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ Ie. hmkvXp ÿew, Nn{X ÿew, inev] ÿew F∂n-
  27. 27. 51 ............................................................................................... .......... ßs th¿Xn-cnhpw {Iao-I-c-Whpw BZy-Imew apX¬t° ImWmw. AXn-tm-S-p-_-‘n-®p≈ `q{]- IrXn IqSn hne-bn-cp-Øn-bmte ÿe-˛-X-em-hn-jvI- cW ]Tw ]q¿Øn-bm-Iq. tIc-f-Øns‚ Ncn{X kvac-W-I-fmbn C∂pw ne-n¬°p∂ Xcw _rlØmb hmkvXp-inev] n¿Ωn-Xn-I-fpsS XpS°w A D 8˛mw q‰m-≠n-em-sW- ∂mWv F®v k¿°m¿ XpSßnb hmkvXp-Iem Ncn{X hnZzm≥am-cpsS nK-a-w. GI-tZiw AD 15˛mw q‰m≠v apX¬ AD 17˛mw hsc-bmWv CØcw n¿Ωn- Xn-I-fp-sSbpw Nn{X-ß-fp-sSbpw kph¿Æ Ime-L- ´w. Ah-bn¬ t£{X-ßfpw sIm´m-c-ßfpw ]≈n-I- fp-amWv A[n-I-hpw. Cu hmkvXp n¿Ωn-Xn-Iƒ Hcp D∂-X-hn-`mKw kmwkv°m-cnI ka-z-b-ambmWv h¿Øn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. CØcw ÿqe n¿Ωn-Xn-bpsS `mK-am-bn-´mWv Nn{X-˛-{]-Xn-a-I-fpw, Ah-X-cW Ie- Iƒ°mbn Iqغ-e-hpw, hmkvXp-hn-tm-S-p-_- ‘n®v `q{]-Ir-Xnbpw a‰pw {Iao-I-cn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. a[y- Im-e-L-´-Øn¬ Fgp-X-s∏´ inev]-imkv{X {]Im-c- amWv Cu n¿Ωn-Xn-Iƒ D≠m-°nbn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. AXp-sIm≠v Xs∂ IrXy-amb IW-°-Sn-ÿm-- Ønepw coXn-I-fn-ep-am-W-h. Cu teJ--Øn¬ {][m- -ambn Ah-ew-_n-°p∂ ÿew-˛-n¿W-bn-°p-∂- Xnpw {Iao-I-c-W-Ønpw {]tXyIw am-ß-fp-s≠- ∂Xv FSp-Øp-]-d-b-Ø° H∂mWv. F∂m¬ ka- Im-enI Np‰p-]m-Sn¬ CØcw Adn-hns‚ ]cn-anXn in¬]-ßsf £Wn-I-ß-fm-°p-∂p-≠v. hmkvXp inev]w Hcp imizX B¿´v Kme-dn-˛-ÿew Iem-in¬]-ß-fpsS ÿnc-X, kwc-£Ww XpS- ßnb kmamy k¶¬]-߃ Ime-l-c-W-s∏-´p-sIm- ≠n-cn-°p∂ Ah-ÿ-bn¬ Cu Bi-b-Øns‚ {]k‡n Xncn-®-dn-b-s∏-tS-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. {]ikvX ]m›mXy B[p-nI Nn{X-Im-c≥ t]m¢n-bpsS A`n- {]m-b-Øn¬ 20-˛mw q‰m-≠nse ÿe Ime Bi-b- Ønv ÿe-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ Ie, Ime-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ Ie, F∂n-ß-s-bp≈ hn`-Pw D]-tbm- K-Øn-en√m-Xm-bn-cn-°p-∂p. ]Icw Hcpan®v n¬°p- ∂p. F∂m¬ Cu teJ--Øn-eqsS ]pXp-a-bn¬ am{X- a√ ]g-a-bnepw Cu ]mc-kv]cyw ne-n¬°p-s∂∂v ]d-bm-m-{K-ln-°p-∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬, AXp-sIm-≠m- Wt√m ÿeØv Dcp-Øn-cn-™n-´p≈ Ie hne-bn- cpØn Ime-n¿Æbw S-Øp-∂-Xv. ÿew-˛-ÿn-cX, Imew-˛--izcw F∂ Nn¥ amdn GX-h-ÿbpw {]m]yhpw {]kvI-X-hp-amWv Bi-b-{]-[m-y-ap≈ Ie-bn¬ F∂-Xm-Imw. D]-hn-`mK io¿j-I-Øn-te°v Xncn®phcp-∂p. tIc-f-Ønse {][m hmkvXp-in¬]-ß-fpsS {]tXyIw ÿe Xe-ß-fn-emWv Hmtcm Iem in¬]- ß-fp-sSbpw ÿmw. Hcp ÿncw Kmedn ÿew Xs∂. Chsb ImgvN-°m¿ D≠m-°p∂ taJ-e-Iƒ- ˛-AXpw GXv coXn-bn-ep≈ ImgvN-°m¿ F∂-X-p- k-cn-®v, Ah-X-cW in¬]-ß-ƒ°m-bp≈ ÿew, ne-sØ-gp-Øn-p≈ ÿew, hmkvXp-hns‚ Dd- ∏npw bYm-k-abw tamUn-°p-am-bp≈ ÿew F∂n- ßs th¿Xn-cn-°mw. Cu th¿Xn-cn-hn¬ hmkvXp- hns‚ am[y-a-߃°-p-k-cn-®mWv Iem am[y-a-ß- fp-sSbpw ÿe-{I-ao-I-c-Ww. h¿W-ß-fp-]-tbm-Kn®v Nn{X-sa-gp-Xp-I-bmWv hmkvXp-hnse Npa¿ `nØn-bn-ep-Nn-Xw. F∂m¬ Zmcp- sIm-≠p≈ ta¬∏pc `mK-ß-fn¬ sImØp-]-Wn- IfmWv √-Xv. Iqغ-e-ß-fn¬ Ah-X-cW in¬]- ߃°mbn Xd `mKw BWp-≈-Xv. CØ-c-Øn¬ ÿnc kwc-£nX B¿´v Kmedn ÿe-ß-fmbn Ch ImW-s∏-Sp-∂p. C∂v `mc-X-Ønepw tIc-f-Øn-ep-ambn ImWp∂ ]e ayqkn-b-ßfpw, ]g-a-bpsS A[n-Imc Nn”-ß-fmb sIm´m-c-ßfpw t£{X-ß-fp-am-Wv. Xncp- h--¥-]pcw, Xr∏q-Wn-Øp-d, Xr»q¿ XpSßnb ayqkn- b-߃ DZm-l-c-W-ß-fm-Wv. aXw, `‡n, A[n-Im- cw, kºØv, D∂-X-Ipew XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS kmwkvIm-cnI ka-z-b-ambpw Chsb Z¿in-°mw. AXp-sIm≠pXs∂ ChnsS Dcp-Øn-cn™ Iem Bte-Jy-ß-fpw C∏-d™ hnjb kw_-‘-am-Wv. tIc-f-Øns‚ t£{X hmkvXp kwkvIm-c-Øn¬ s]mXpth ImWp∂ in¬] ÿe {Iao-I-cWw t£{X cq]-tcJ hmkvXp in¬]-Ønse Hmtcm ÿehpw Iem- Im-cv D]-bp-‡-am°n hmkvXp-hnv Ae¶m-c-am-°n-
  28. 28. 53 ............................................................................................... .......... s°m≠v Bkzm-Z-Is‚ a- nv Cºhpw ndhpw ]I-cp-∂p. tIc-f-Øn¬ Xs∂ tcnb sshhn-≤y- am¿∂ ssien-I-ƒ Nph¿ Nn{X-ß-fn¬ ne-n¬°p- ∂p-s≠-¶nepw X-Xmb ]©-h¿Wm-[n-jvTn-X-ß- fmWv Nph¿`n-Øn-bn-te-Xv. A[n-Ihpw Np‰º-e-Øn- sebpw meº-e-Øn-sebpw {iotIm-hn-en-s‚bpw Nph¿`n-Øn-I-fmWv Nn{X in¬] {]Z¿i ÿe- ߃. {][m--ambpw _en-°¬]p-c-bn-tebpw a- kvImc aWvU-]-Øn-tebpw Iqغ-e-Øn-tebpw a‰v ÿe-ß-fn-tebpw ta¬`m-K-ØmWv (a-®v) Zmcp- in¬]-߃ sImØn-h-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. IqSmsX Zmcp D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ hmkvXp-`m-K-ß-fm-bn-´p≈ apJ-∏v, Igp-t°m¬, Xmßp-`m-K-߃ F∂n-hn-S-ß-fnepw Zmcp- in¬]-߃ ImWp-∂p. Icn¶¬ ]Wn-bm-sW-¶n¬ Icn-¶¬ in¬]-ß-fm-Ip-∂p. ]ns∂ Ah-X-c-W- ßfpw BNm-c-ßfpw CXns‚ `mK-am-Ip-∂p. ImgvNm-X-e-߃ tsc tm°p-tºmƒ ZrjvSn°v nc-∏mb ÿe-X-e-amWv h¿Æs∏m-en-a-bm¿∂ Nph¿Nn-{X- Im-gvN-bv°v. AhnSw shfn-®hpw D≈-Xp-sIm≠v bYm¿∞ ImgvN km≤y-am-Ip-∂p. Zmcp-in¬]-ß- fpsS Imcy-am-sW-¶n¬ apI-fn-te°v ItÆm-Sn-°-Ww. hmkvXp-in¬] Nmcp-Xbpw Zmcp-in¬] Nmcp-Xbpw HØnWßn n¬°p-∂p. Ifw-]m´v t]mep≈ BNm- c-ß-fpsS `mK-amb ne-sØ-gpØv Xmtg°v tm°n Bkz-Zn-°p-∂p. Ah-X-c-W-in¬]-ß-fm-sW-¶n¬ tsc-bp≈ Ne-m-fl-Ihpw i_vZ Xmfm-fl-I-hp- amb N£p-{i-hW ImgvN-bm-sW-∂Xv hntij ImgvN-bm-Wv. ......................................................................................................................................................................................... kn. ]n. ioXƒ: Ncn{X Kth-j-I, Iemncq-]I, {io i¶-cm-Nmcy kwkvIrX k¿Δ-I- em-ime A≤ym-]n-I. tIcf Iem-a-WvU-ew Iev]nX k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-bnse Kth-jI hnZym¿∞n. ......................................................................................................................................................................................... kwc-£Ww agbpw shbnepw G¬°m-Øn-S-ß-fn-emWv Nn{X˛Zm-cp-in¬]-ß-fpsS ÿew. kwc-£-Whpw ÿnc-Xbpw ap≥n¿Øn-Ø-s∂-bm-Wv am≤y-a-ßfpw nd-°q-´p-Ifpw kt¶-X-ßfpw D]-tbm-Kn-®n-cn-°p-∂- Xv. t£{X ]cn-k-chpw `q{]-Ir-Xnbpw IqSn Ap- tbm-Py-am-°n-bp≈ n¿Ωn-Xn-I-fmWv A[n-I-hpw. t£{X-Np-‰p-]m-Sn-ep≈ h≥ hr£-X-W-ep-Iƒ Cu Nn{X-߃°v kwc-£-W-ta-Ip-∂p. C∂v ipNo-I-c- W-Øn-s‚bpw tIm{Io-‰nw-Kn-s‚bpw t]cn-¬ hr£- ߃ in-∏n-°pI hgn XW¬ jvS-s∏´v Nn{X- in¬]-߃ CuSp-n¬°msX hcp-∂p-≠v. kmt¶- XnI hi-ß-fnse Adn-hp- tISpw CuSp-Ip-d-bv°m≥ Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p-≠v. ]mc-kv]cyw Iem-in¬] Bte-Jy-ß-fnse hnjb ]c- Xbpw ssienbpw BJym-hpw mS-Io-b-Xbpw ]mc- kv]cy kz`m-h-ß-fm-Wv. tZho tZh-∑m¿, cmam-b- Ww, alm-`m-c-Xw, ]pcm-W-߃, a‰v lnμp antØm- f-Pn-bnse `mK-߃ XpS-ßnb IYmw-i-߃ `mhm- `n-b anI-thmsS Xs∂ Nn{Xo-I-cn-®n-´p-≠v. IqSmsX IqSn-bm-´hpw IqØp-sa√mw CtX hnjb kw_-‘n- bn¬ Ah-X-c-W-hp-ap-≠m-Ipw. IYm kμ¿`- BJym- -߃ kw£n]vX cq]-am-bn-´mWv Nn{X, {]Xn-a, Ah-X-cW in¬]-ß-fn-se√mw ImWp-∂-Xv.
  29. 29. 55 ............................................................................................... .......... aΩn-bq¿ IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b¿ Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bpsS D]m-k-I≥ Fw. fn≥ _m_p ks‚ n¿t±-i-{]-Imcw tZhkzw ]T--tI{μw Bcw- `n-®-t∏mƒ AXns‚ Aa-c-°m-c-m-bXpw IrjvW≥Ip´n mb-cm-bn-cp-∂p. imco-cn-Im-kzm-ÿy-ßfpw {]mb-Øns‚ sshj-ay-ßfpw ad-∂p-sIm≠v IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b¿ Hcp ntbm-Kw-t]mse BZysØ _m®npw c≠m- asØ _m®npw Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bpsS kmt¶-XnI n¿ΩmW coXn-Ifpw h¿Æ {]tbm-Khpw cq]-tc-J- Ifpw F√mw Xs∂ ]I¿∂p ¬In. tIc-fob t£{X {iotIm-hn-ep-I-fnepw -sIm´m-c-`n-Øn-I-fnepw am{Xw HXpßn n∂n-cp∂ Npa¿Nn-{X-I-esb P- Io-b-am-°m≥ IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b-cpsS I¿tΩm-’p- I-amb tXr-]m-S-h-Ønv km[n®p F∂v Ime-߃ Ign-™-t∏mƒ t_m[y-am-bn. C∂v tIc-f-Øn¬ tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bpsS Bflm-hns sXm´-dn™ IemNm-cy≥ aΩn-bq¿ IrjvW≥Ip´n mb¿ Iem temIw hn´p-]n-cn-™n´v 2014 Pqembv 19- ˛v 20 h¿jw XnI™p. ]mc-º-cy-Øns‚ De-bn¬ am{Xw DuXn sXfn™ Cu tZh-I-esb Hcp Iq´w Iem-Im-c-∑m-cpsS ssII-fn-te°v ]I¿∂p ¬Im- p≈ a v IrjvW≥Ip´n mb¿°v D≠m-b-XmWv At±-l-Øns‚ aln-a. Ayw n∂p-t]m-Ip-am-bn-cp∂ tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-I-ebv°v thm-∞m--Øns‚ h-ssN-Xyw 1989-˛¬ Kpcp-hm-bq¿ tZhkzw Npa¿Nn{X ]T tI{μ-Øns‚ Bcw-`-tØm-Sp-IqSn km£m-XvIr-X-am-Ip-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. A∂sØ tZhkzw `c-W-k-anXn AwKhpw Iem-kmw-kvIm-cnI {]h¿Ø-Ipw Fgp-Øp-Im-c-p-amb sI.-F. N{μ-lm-
  30. 30. 57 ............................................................................................... .......... Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bv°p-≠mb hf¿®bv°v apJy-]¶pw IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b¿°pw tZhkzw Npa¿Nn-{X-]-T- -tI-{μ-Ønpw Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. Xt∂m- sSm∏w {]h¿Øn-®n-cp∂ a‰p Iem-Im-c-∑m-sc√mw Nn{X-I-e-bpsS hnhn[ taJ-e-Ifpw kmº-ØnI `{Z- Xbpw tXSnt∏mb-t∏mgpw Xs‚ PohnXw tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bv°p-th≠n am{X-am-sW∂ n›-b-Øn- em-bn-cp∂p B Iem-Im-c≥. aΩn-bq¿ hmI-bn¬ h≈p-I-∏p≈n Pm-In-b- Ω-bp-sSbpw cma-Ir-jvW≥ F{ºm-¥n-cn-bp- sSbpw aI-mbn 1927˛¬ Pn® IrjvW≥Ip´n mb¿ Icp-amw-]-d-ºØv A®p-X≥ mb-cn¬ n∂mWv Kpcp-Ipe k{º-Zm-b-Øn¬ hfsc sNdp-∏- Ønse Nn{X-Ie A`y-kn-®-Xv. Kpcp- hm-bq¿ ssien Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bpsS D]-⁄m-Xm-hmb ]pem-°m´v cma≥m- b-cmWv Icp-am-]-d-ºØv A®p-X≥m- b-cpsS Kpcp. tZho-tZ-h-∑msc amp- jn-I-amb Ae-¶m-c-ß-fn¬ AXy- [nIw Na-b-ß-fn-√msX hc-°p∂ k{º-Zm-b-amWv ]n¬°m-eØv Kpcp- hm-bq¿ ssien-bmbn ]cn-W-an-®- Xv. a‰p Npa¿Nn{X Iem kmt¶-X- ß-fp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNøp-tºmƒ ]›mØe hnym-k-Ønv Kpcp-hm-bq¿ ssien-bn¬ {]m[myw Ipd-hm-bn-cp-∂p. chn-h¿Ω Ime-L-´-Øn¬ cq]m- ¥cw {]m]n® Cu ssien°v chn-h¿Ω Nn{X-ß-fp- ambn sNdnb kam--X-Iƒ I¬∏n-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. 1942-˛¬ Kpcp-m-Y-tm-sSm∏w ae-∏pdw Pn√-bnse AßmSn∏pdw Xncp-am-‘mw-Ip∂v `K-h-Xn-t£-{X- Øn¬ Nn{Xw hc-®p-sIm-≠mWv IrjvW≥Ip´n mb¿ Iem-k-]-cy°v XpS°w Ipdn-®-Xv. 1995-˛v tijw B Nn{X-߃ ]n∂oSv as‰mcp Npa¿Nn{X Iem-Im-c≥ ]pXp°n hc-®p. C∂v B Nn{X-߃ At±-l-Øns‚ Nn{X-ß-fm-bm-bmWv Iem- temIØn¬ Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. CXv Ie-bnse hntcm- [m-`m-kw! Kpcp-hm-bq¿ t£{X-{io-tIm-hn-ense ]Sn- ™msd Npa-cn-ep≈ Nn{X-ß-fpsS cN-bn-Xmhpw IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b-cm-bn-cp-∂p. `ojva-cpsS ic-i-ø, lp-am≥, A∂]q¿tW-iz-cn, Kcp-U≥, IrjvWs‚ _meyw XpS-ßnb Nn{X-߃ AXn¬ Gsd {]m[myw A¿ln-°p-∂-h-bm-Wv. ]me-°mSv Pn√- bnse Xncp-an-‰-t°mSv A©p-aq¿Øn t£{X-Ønepw IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b¿ Npa¿Nn-{X-߃°v `mhp-IXzw ¬In-bn-´p-≠v. Xncp-an-‰-t°mSv t£{X-Øn¬ Kpcp- m-Y-mb A®p-X≥m-bcpw D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Kpcp-hm- bq¿ t£{X-Ønepw IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b-tcm-sSm∏w Nn{Xw hc-°m≥ At±-l-Øn-s‚ ka-io¿j-m-bn- cp∂ ]´mºn IrjvW-hm-cycpw D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. nc- h[n t£{X-ß-fn¬ Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ hc-®n-´p≈ ]´m- ºn IrjvW-hm-cy¿ s√mcp t^mt´m {Km^-dpw-IqSn Bbn-cp-∂p. GXmpw amk-߃°p apºv tIc-fob
  31. 31. 59 ............................................................................................... .......... Ncn-{X-]p-cp-j-tbpw hc-°m-sa-∂-Xns‚ ZrjvSm-¥- am-Wv. C∂sØ Iem-Im-c-∑m¿ ]pc-kvIm-c-߃°v ]pdsI t]mIp-tºmgpw kzbw IemNm-cy-∑m-cmbn Ah-tcm-[n-°p-tºmgpw IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b¿ Hcp _lp-a-Xn-bp-sSbpw ]pdsI t]mIm≥ Xøm-dm-bn-cp- ∂n-√. 1991-˛¬ Kpcp-hm-bq¿ tZhkzw {io Kpcp-hm-bq- c-∏≥ ]pc-kvImcw ¬In At±-lsØ BZ-cn-®p. 1981-˛¬ tI{μ-kmw-kvIm-cnI hIp-∏ns‚ s^t√m-jn∏v tSnb IrjvW≥Ip´n mb¿ Bd-∑p-f-bnse hn⁄m Iem-th-Zn-bpsS D]-tZ-i-I-k-anXn AwK- am-bn-cp-∂p. hmZy-ta-f-߃ Gsd CjvS-s∏-Sp∂ Cu Iem-Im-c≥ s√mcp ]pkvXI kvtln-bm-bn-cp-∂p. A¥-cn® kmln-Xy-Im-c≥ {io. kn.-hn. {iocm-a≥ kplrØpw Ab¬hm-knbpw Bbn-cp-∂p. kmlnXy ncq-]I tUm. Fw.-eo-em-hXn IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b- cpsS kl-]mTn Bbn-cp-∂p. Kpcp-hm-bq¿ t£{X- Øn¬ Nn{Xw hc-°p-tºmƒ hSt° Npa-cnse Nn{X- ߃ hc-®n-cp-∂-Xv {io. Fw.-sI. {ion-hm-k≥ amÃ- dm-bn-cp∂p. Kpcp-hm-bq¿ tZh-kz-Ønv {io Kpcp-hm- bq-c-∏s‚ Nn{Xw hc-®p-sIm-Sp-Ø-Xn-eqsS Aa-cXzw tSnb {ion-hm-k≥ amÿ aΩn-bq-cnptijw Kpcp- hm-bq¿ tZhkzw Npa¿Nn-{X-]-T tI{μ-Øns‚ apJy- Np-a-X-e-°m-c-m-bn-cp-∂p. Ie-tbbpw kulr-Z-ß- tfbpw Hcpt]mse kvtln-°p∂ {ion-hm-k≥ amÿ 1999 Pp-hcn 20-˛v Ime-b-h-n-Ibv°p≈n¬ ad-™p. 1992-˛¬ Kpcp-hm-bq¿ k{Xw HmUn-t‰m-dn-b- Øn¬ sh®v BZymbn S∂ Z£n-tW-¥y≥ Npa¿Nn- {X-I-em-Iym-ºn¬ IrjvW≥Ip´n mb¿ hc® tIc- fmw_ F∂ Nn{Xw Iymºne anI® Nn{X-ß-fn-sem- ∂m-bn-cp-∂p. tamln-n-bm-´-Øns‚ emky-X-bn¬ n¬°p∂ tIc-fmw-_-bpsS Nn{X-Øn¬ tIc-fob Im¿jnI D¬∏-∂-ß-fmb Cf-o¿, s¬I-Xn¿, a‰p tIc-fob Ie-I-fnse Na-b-߃ F√mw Dƒs∏-SpØn Nn{XsØ [y-am-°m≥ IrjvW≥Ip´n mb-cnse Iem-Im-cv km[n-®p. {]ikvX Z£n-tW-¥y≥ Nn{X- Im-c-∑m-cmb {ion-hm-k-ep, N{μ-ti-J-c≥, sImSp- ß-√q¿ am[-h-ta-tm≥, (kn.-sI.-cm), Fw.-hn. tZh≥ {]ivkX kmlnXy ncq-]-I≥ tUm. Fkv. Kp]vX≥m-b¿ XpS-ßn-b-h-tcm-sS√mw IrjvW≥Ip- ´n-m-b¿ A°m-e-ß-fn¬ kulrZw ]pe¿Øn-bn- cp-∂p. {]ikvX Iem-K-th-j-Ipw Kpcp-hm-bq¿ tZhkzw Npa¿Nn{X ]T--tI-{μ-Øns‚ BZy-Ime D]-tZ-i-I-k-anXn AwK-hp-amb tUm. Fw.-Pn. iin- Npa¿Nn-{X-I-e-bpsS Pohn-®n-cn°p∂ BNm-cy-t{i- jvT-mb ]´mºn IrjvW-hm-cycpw Iem-temIw hn´p- ]n-cn-™p. Npa-cn¬ tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-I-em-ssi- en°v as‰mcp am[yaw Is≠-Øn-bXpw IrjvW≥Ip- ´n-m-b-cm-bn-cp-∂p. {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb nd-ß-fn¬ Bkv_kv-t‰mkv jo‰p-I-fn¬ Npa¿Nn-{X-ssi-en- bp≈ Nn{X-sa-gp-Xm-sa∂v sXfn-bn-®Xpw Cu almmb Iem-Im-cs‚ Ignhv H∂pam-{X-am-Wv. {io ]fl-m-`-kzman t£{Xw, sNss∂-bnse alm-enw-K-]pcw Aø-∏≥tIm-hn¬, temI-m¿°mhv XpS-ßnb t£{X-ß-fn-se√mw IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b¿ Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ hc-®n-´p-≠v. s]mXp-ÿ-e-ß-fn¬ Npa¿Nn-{X-߃ hcm-°m-sa∂pw Cu ssien-bn¬ GXv ]pcm-W-hn-j-b-ßfpw Nn{Xo-I-cn-°m-sa-∂p-ap≈ Bi-b-amWv CS-∏≈n Fw.-F≥.-F-^v. B¿´v Kme- dn-bnse A`n-⁄m imIp-¥-f-Ønse h¿Æ--Isf B[m-c-am°n hc® Nn{Xw sIm√w mtbgvkv tlmkv]n-‰-ense Npa-cn¬ {]Xn-]m-Zy-am-°n-bXv Aiz-n-tZ-h-Iƒ°v sshtZym-]-tZiw ¬Ip∂ [z- ¥-cn-bpsS cq]-am-bn-cp-∂p. Xncp-h--¥-]p-csØ ayqkn-b-Øn¬ {ioNn{Xm F≥t¢-hvkn¬ NnØn-c- Xn-cp-m-fns‚ h-cm-{Xn-a-WvU-]-Øn-te-°p≈ Fgp- ∂-≈-Øv hc-®p-Xo¿ØXv Cu ssien-bn¬ GXp
  32. 32. 61 ............................................................................................... .......... `q-j-Wns‚ Iem-K-th-j-W-߃°v IrjvW≥Ip´n mb-cp-am-bp≈ Bfl-_‘w Gsd klm-b-I-am-bn- ´p-≠v. aΩn-bq¿ -t£-{X-Øn¬ alm-tZ-hs‚ {iotIm- hn-enp ]pd-Ip-h-iØv nc-h[n h¿j°mew `‡¿ sXmgpXv Bfl-km-bqPyw tSnb Hcp Nn{X-am-bn-cp- ∂p -h-c-W-am-ey-hp-ambn n¬°p∂ ]m¿Δ-Xn-tZ-hn- bpsS Nn{Xw. o≠ aq°pw o≠ IÆp-Ifpw hnS¿∂ ]p©n-cn-bp-ambn n¬°p∂ ]m¿Δ-Xn-bpsS Nn{Xw IrjvW≥Ip´n mb-cpsS Iem-k-ºØv Gsd {]I-S-am-°n-bn-cp-∂ Hcp Nn{X-am-bn-cp∂p. hfsc h¿j-߃ ]g-°-ap≈ Cu Nn{Xw GXmpw h¿j- ߃°p apºv AhnsS n∂pwamdn tIc-fob Xna A¬∏wt]mepw Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sm-m-hmØ as‰mcp Nn{X-Im-cs‚ Nn{Xw ÿm]n-®Xv Iem-cw-KØv Gsd hnhm-Zhpw H®∏m-Sp-ap-≠m-°n-bn-cp-∂p. 1990-˛Ifn¬ aΩn-bq¿ t£{X-Øns‚ Imcy-ÿ-®p-a-Xe hln-®n- cp∂ ka-b-ØmWv aΩn-bq¿ alm-t£-{X-Ønse inhs‚ {iotIm-hn-enepw hnjvWp-hns‚ {iotImhnenepw IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-bcpw At±-l- Øns‚ injy-∑mcpw Nn{X-߃ hc-°p∂Xv. hnjvWp {iotImhn-ense Zim-h-Xm-c-Nn-{X-߃°v cq]-tcJ Xøm-dm-°p∂ ka-b-ØmWv 1994 Pqembv 19-˛v IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b-cpsS hntbm-Kw. a’yw XpSßn I¬°n hsc-bp≈ Zim-h-Xmc Nn{X-ß- fn¬ hymk-ap-n-tbbpw ipI-`-{Z-a-tbpw kμ¿t`m- Nn-X-ambn IrjvW≥Ip´n-m-b¿ hc-®p-tN¿ØXv Gsd {i≤ ]nSn-®p-]-‰n-bn-cp-∂p. Cu Ime-Øp-Xs∂ Xncp-h--¥-]pcw {io ]fl-m-`-kzman t£{Xw, a{Zm- knse alm-enw-K-]pcw t£{Xw, F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ injy-tcm-sSm∏w Nn{X-c-N--bn¬ G¿s∏-´n-cp∂p {io aΩn-bq¿. tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-I-ebv°v CØ-c-samcp hf¿® D≠m-Ip-sa∂v kz]v-Øn¬t∏mepw IrjvW≥Ip-´n-m-b-cm-im≥ hnNm-cn®p ImWn-√. C∂sØ Iem-temIw Npa¿Nn-{X-I-esb temIw apgp-h≥ AwKo-I-cn-°p-tºmƒ GtXm AZr-iy-amb km∂n-≤y-ambn aΩn-bq-cm-im≥ AXp-I≠v B-μn- °p-∂p-≠m-Ipw. tZho-tZ-h-∑msc hc-°p-∂-h¿°v tZh≥ Xs∂ XpW-bm-Ip-sa∂ B]vX-hmIyw Az¿∞-am-Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-Ie hf¿®-bpsS t´-߃ sImbvsX-Sp-°p-I-bm-Wv, Hs∂m∂m-bn..... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... Fw. fn≥ _m_p: Kpcp-hm-bq¿ tZhkzw Npa¿Nn{X ]T--tI-{μ-Ønse c≠mw _m®v hnZym¿∞n. Ct∏mƒ ]T tI{μ-Ønse No^v C≥kv{S-IvS¿. aΩn-bq-cm-ims‚ in£-W- Øn¬ Npa¿ Nn{X-Ie A`y-kn-®p. ......................................................................................................................................................................................... -{]-ikvX kmln-Xy-Imcn s]]nXm tkXn-tm-sSm∏w aΩn-bq-cm-im≥ aΩn-bq-¿ IrjvW≥Ip-´n- m-b¿ hc® AXn{]i-kvX-amb hc-W-am-ey-hp-ambn n¬°p∂ ]m¿ΔXn tZhn-bpsS tcJmNn{Xw
  33. 33. Nadukkurissu, Muttukad-Periakanal Road Chinnakkanal P.O, Idukki, Kerala., Munnar 685 618, India Email: booking@spicetreemunnar.com Phone: 04868 249 444 SpiceTree Nestled amidst the pristine Kannan Devan Hills and Bison Valley Hills, SpiceTree is a perfect mountain retreat. Being a boutique resort, SpiceTree offers its guests the best-of-it's-kind personal care and attention. The resort has 14 luxurious suites and 2 individual pool-villas to accommodate the guests. The pool-villas are the latest additions to the resort for the convenience of people who are looking for a little more luxury and space. The scenic locale, the mountains, forest and valley, can be enjoyed equally from each and every suite of SpiceTree. There are many activities that the guests can indulge themselves in during their stay at SpiceTree. The rejuvena- tion sessions at the spa at SpiceTree ('The Bliss') is one of the favourites. Other activities include Yoga and Meditation sessions, Tea Tasting, Ethic Cooking classes, Treks, Soft Treks, Book Bar, Plantation Walks, Swim- ming Pool, Bison Valley Village Tour, Nature Expeditions, Photography Expeditions, Dolmen Visit, and Tea and Cardamom Field Visits. The wonderful team of chefs are ready to amaze each and every guest with their culinary skills by preparing a variety of dishes belonging to varied cuisine styles. Responsible Tourism is the norm that SpiceTree always follow. SpiceTree strongly believes that nature has given us a lot and we need to return the favour too. Through all the activities, service, and luxury provided, SpiceTree becomes the perfect destination for relaxation, inspiration, and rejuvenation.
  34. 34. 63 ............................................................................................... .......... Ifn-tbmK kvac-W-bp-W¿Øpw IY-I-fn-®p-h¿®n-{X-߃ tUm. hnn. F. tIc-fob Ie-bpsS kph¿Æ-bp-K-am-bn-cp∂ Ccp-]Xmw q‰m-≠ns‚ BZysØ c≠p Zi-I-ß- fn¬ Ie-I-sf, {]tXy-In®pw IY-I-fnsb hf¿Øn- s°m-≠p-h-cn-Ibpw kwc-£n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp- t]m- ∂n-cp-∂Xv P∑n-amcpw mSp-hm-gn-Ifpw AS-ßp∂ kº- ∂-Ip-Spw-_-ß-fm-Wv. ]e¿°pw kz¥-ambn Ifn-tbm- K-߃ D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. H‰s∏´ Iptd-t]-cpsS c£m- [n-Im-c-Øn-emWv A∂v Ie-Iƒ ne-n-∂n-cp-∂Xv. mSy-I-esb t]mjn-∏n-°p-hmpw ]ptcm-K-an-∏n-°p- hmpw IY-I-fnsb hntizm-Ø-c-amb Hcp Ie-bm- °p-hmpw tIc-f-Ønv am{Xta km[n-®n-´p-≈q. tIc-f-Øn¬ Cw•ojv hnZym-`ym-k-Ønv ]sØm-ºXmw q‰m-≠ns‚ a≤y-L-´-Øn-ep-≠mb {]Nm-c-W-tØmsS m´n¬ ]e hn[-Øn-ep≈ ]cn- h¿Ø--ßfpw D≠m-bn. ]m›mXy mK-cn-I-Xz- Øn¬ {`an-°-bm¬ ]g-b-Im-eØv ]ca nZ¿i-- ß-fmbn hnNm-cn-°-s∏-´n-cp∂ ]eXpw ]e¿°pw cpNn-°m-Xm-bn. Ah-cn¬ an°-h¿°pw IY-I- fnsbt]mep≈ Ie-Isf ]p—-am-bn-cp-∂p. chn-h¿Ω Nn{X-ß-fnepw N¥p-ta-tms‚ Cμp-te-J-bnepw A∂sØ {_n´ojv `c-Ww, Cw•ojv hnZym-`ym-kw, cmjv{Sob am‰-߃ ^yqU-en-k-tØm-Sp≈ hntcm- [-`m-hw, acp-a-°-Øm-b-Øns‚ XI¿® apX-emb kmap-Zm-bnI kmwkv°m-cnI am‰-߃ {]I-S-am-Wv. Cμp-te-J°v {`m¥p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-s√∂v hcp-Øm≥ N¥p-ta-tm≥ F{X-am{Xw njvI¿jn-®p. Cw•ojv `c-W-tØm-Sp-IqSn k{º-Zm-b-ßfpw Nn¥m-K-Xn-Ifpw amdp-hm≥ XpS-ßnb A°m-eØv IY-Ifn S-∑mcpw
  35. 35. 65 ............................................................................................... .......... Ifn-tbm-K-ßfpw ]q¿Δm-[nIw D≠m-bXpw hnP-b- ]q¿Δw {]h¿Øn-®Xpw Hm¿°p-tºmƒ A∂p-≠m- bn-cp∂ P-{]nbw A¤p-Xm-h-l-am-Wv. mSy-I-em-t£-{X-Ønse kPoh {]Xn-jvTbpw hS°≥thj-°m-cn¬ {]Y-a-K-W-o-b-p-am-bn-cp∂ Ip©p-I¿Øm-hns‚ ImeØv ne-n-∂n-cp∂ c≠v Ifn-tbm-K-ß-fm-bn-cp∂p ae-∏pdw Pn√-bnse ]p√qcv Ip‰m-n-°m´v a Ifn-tbm-Khpw tImgn-t°mSv Pn√- bnse s]mgmbn Awi-Øn-ep≈ (am-¶m-hv) aÆn- te-SØv Ifn-tbm-K-hpw. sNdnb ºq-Xn-cn-∏m-Sp-am-bn-cp-∂p. I√-Sn-t°m-S≥ k{º-Zmbw IqSp-X¬ Bkzm-Zy-am-°n-bXpw ]me-°mSv Xmeq-°n¬ IpØ-∂q-cn¬ F∂-t]mse h≈p-h-mSv Xmeq-°n¬ sh≈n-tgn Hcp IY-Ifn tI{μ-am-°n- bXpw Ah-cpsS ]cn-{i-a-^-e-ß-fmWv. I√-Sn-t°m- S≥ ]mc-º-cy-Øns‚ {][m tI{μ-amb ]me-°mSv Cu®-c-ta-tm-s-t∏m-se-bp≈ tIƒhn-s∏´ S-∑m¿ D≠m-bn-cp-∂Xv C°m-e-Øm-Wv. aÆn-te-SØv Ifn-tbmKw tImgn-t°mSv Xmeq-°nse s]mgmbn Awi- Øv Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ aÆn-te-SØv mb¿, kmaq-Xn- cn-bpsS Hcp tkm-n-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Ahn-SsØ Imc- W-h¿°v Aøm-bn-c-{]`p I¿Ømhv F∂ ÿm- t∏-cp-≠v. B IpSpw-_-Øn¬ Imc-W-h-cm-bn-cp∂ sIm√-h¿jw 1067-˛¬ A¥-cn® C´n-cm-c-∏pÆn mb- cmWv Ifn-tbmKw SØnbn-cp-∂-Xv. sIm√-h¿jw 1050˛am≠v XpS-ßnb aÆn-te-SØv Ifn-tbmKw At±lw acn-°p-∂-Xp-hsc ne-n-∂p. Cu®-c-ta- tm≥ Cu Ifn-tbm-K-Øn¬ A©m-dp-sIm√w A`ymkw S-Øp-Ibpw Ip©p-I¿Ømhv Ipd-®p- Ip©p-I¿Øm-hns‚ ImeØv hSt° ae-_m- dn¬ Ifn-°m¿ Ipd-hm-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶nepw sX°p-n- ∂p≈ {]tXy-In®v ]me-°m´v Ifn-bm-im-∑m-cpsS Ifn- tbm-K-߃ at©-cn, tImgn-t°m-Sv, Ipdp-{º-m-Sv, tIm´- bw, Nnd-°¬, Imk¿tImSv F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ k©- cn-°p-Ibpw Ah¿°v Ahn-sS-bp≈ m´p-Im-cpsS t{]m’m-lw e`n®p hcn-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. tIc-f-Øn¬ A∂p-≠m-bn-cp∂ mSp-hm-gn-I-fn¬ an°-hcpw Iem-c-kn-I-∑m-cm-bn-cp-∂p. Ah-cn¬ sh®v {]Y-a-K-W-o-b-∑m¿ Hf∏-aÆ henb ºq-Xn-cn-∏m-Spw, ]p√qcv Ip‰m-n-°m´p a Nph¿ Nn{Xw. lp-am≥ ]p√qcv Ip‰m-n-°m´p a e¶m-e-£van. IS-∏mSv. atmPv
  36. 36. 67 ............................................................................................... .......... Imew AXn¬ BZym-h-km--am-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-´p-≠v. 1066-˛¬ aÆn-te-SØv mb-cpsS £Ww kzoI-cn®v Cu®-c-ta-tm≥ s]mgm-bn¬sh®v A`y-kw Bcw-`n-®p. 1066-˛hsc Cu®-c-ta-tm≥ aÆn-te-SØv Ifn-tbm-K-Øn¬ Bim-m-bn-cp-∂p. Ip©p-I¿Ømhpw GXmpw Imew ÿnc-ambn n∂Xv aÆn-te-SØv am{X-am-Wv. C´n-cm-c-∏p-Æn-m- b¿ Ip©p-I¿Øm-hns‚ tbmKy-Xbpw kz`m-hhpw {Kln®v At±-lsØ th≠-t]mse BZ-cn-°p-Ibpw kt¥m-jn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂-XmWv AXn-p- Im-c-Ww. aÆn-te-SØv Ifn-tbm-K-Ønv tImgn-t°m- Snv ]pdsa Gd-m-Sv, s]m∂mn Xmeq-°p-I-fnepw {]Nm-c-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. ]p√q¿ Ip‰m-n-°m´v a Ifn-tbmKw Gd-mSv Xmeq°v Ff-¶q¿ Awi-Øn-emWv ]p√q¿ Ip‰m-n-°m´v a ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂-Xv. sNdm- ¶p∂v F∂q-IqSn t]cp≈ Cu P∑n Krlw at©-cn- bn¬ n∂pw mev In.-ao. Ing-°m-Wv. sIm√-h¿jw 1105-˛¬ Znhw-K-X-mb hmkp-tZ-h≥ ºq-XncnbpsS ImeØv At±-l-Øns‚ Ap-P-mb am[-h≥ ºq- Xn-cn-bpsS {]m]vXn-sIm≠v ]p√qcv a s√mcp ÿnXn-bn-em-bn. Nn{X-sa-gp-Øp-Im-cpw Iem-]-WvUn- X-p-amb am[-h≥ ºq-Xn-cn-bmWv a-hI Imcy- ßfpw Ifn-tbm-Khpw tm°n S-Øn-bn-cp-∂-Xv. Cu Ifn-tbm-K-Øn¬ thjw, ]m´v, sIm´v, Np´n Ch-bvs°- ∂√ Xnc-»o-e°p IqSn {]tXyIw Bfp-Isf A`y- kn-∏n-®n-cp-∂p. C√sØ Ifn-tbm-K-Øn¬ A`y-kn- ®-h¿ ]e-cp-ap-s≠-¶nepw t]sc-Sp-Ø-h¿ sNdp-]m-d- bv°¬ IrjvW≥m-bcpw hS-t°-Xn¬ i¶-c≥m- b-cp-am-bn-cp-∂p. Icn-°m´v {Kma-Ønse ]c-tZ-h-X- bmb kp{_-“-Wy-kzm-ansb kvXpXn-°p∂ Hcp hμ- -t«m-Ihpw Ch¿°v kz¥-am-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. ""htμhμn-X-hm-k-hm-Zn-hn-_p-[- t{i-Wn-In-co-tSm-Pze∂mm- c-Xv-hn-cm-Pn-Xmw-{Ln-I-aew ImcWy cXvm-Icw BcpVw inXn IWvT IWvT auLw jm◊m-Xpcw kpμcw n¿±p-Xm-Jn-e-ssh-cn-kwL "akn-Xm-tcWy'izcw `mkpcw'' CXm-bn-cp∂p B t«mIw. 1071 hsc Ifn-tbmKw icn°v S-∂p. IrjvW-]-Wn-°-cm-bn-cp∂p Bim≥. hS-°≥ thj-°m-cn¬ {][m-n-bm-bn-cp∂ Ip©p-I¿Øm-hns‚ ImesØ Cu c≠p Krl-ß- fp-sSbpw Ct∏m-gsØ khn-ti-jX A∂sØ Ifn- tbmK ImeØv hc-°-s∏´ c≠v Nph¿Nn-{X-߃ Ccp-a--I-fp-sSbpw c≠mw ne-I-fn¬ Z¿in-°m-sa- ∂-Xm-Wv. Nn{X-ß-fpsS ]g°w Ip©p-I¿Øm-hns‚ Ime-am-Wv. Ip©p-I¿Ømhv kz¥-ambn Ifn-tbmKw S-Øp-I-tbm, {]`p-°-∑m-cpsS Ifn-tbm-K-ß-fn¬ ÿnc-ambn n¬°p-I-tbm, Hcp If-cn-bn¬ am{Xw Bim-mbn A`y-kw S-Øp-Itbm D≠m-bn-´n√ F¶nepw 1058-˛1066 ImeØv CS-bv°n-S-bv°mbn aÆn- te-SØv Ifn-tbm-K-Ønepw ]p√q¿ a Ifn-tbm-K- Ønepw Ct±-l-Øns‚ km∂n≤yw ne-n-∂n-cp-∂p. Cu Ifn-tbm-K-Im-e-߃°n-S-bn-em-bn-cn-°Ww Cu c≠p P∑n-Kr-l-ß-fn-tebpw Nph¿Nn{X cN S- Øn-bn-´p-≈Xv F∂-p-am-n-°mw. C∂p-Im-Wp∂ am¶mhv tImhn-eIw F∂-dn- b-s∏-Sp∂ "hmbn-°p∂ amfnI'bpw tImhn-e-Iw t£{Xhpw Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ mb¿ Xd-hmSv C∂sØ am¶mhv tImhn-e-IsØ Ah-Im-in-Iƒ hmßn-bn´v GI-tZiw H∂c q‰m-≠n-e-[n-I-am-bn. tImhn-e-I-Øn-s‚bpw tImhn-eIw t£{X-Øn- s‚bpw ]g°w GI-tZiw ap∂qdv h¿j-am-Wv. {ioh- f-b-mSv `K-h-Xn-bpsS ktlm-Zcn F∂ k¶-ev]- Øns‚ h-Zp¿§-bmWv Cu t£{X-Ønse {]Xn- jvT. am¶mhv tImhn-e-I-Øn¬ "hmbn-°p∂ amfnI' F∂mWv IY-Ifn Nph¿Nn-{X-ap≈ sI´nSw Adn-b- am¶mhv tImhn-eIw hmbn-°p∂ amfn-I-bnse Nph¿Nn{Xw IS-∏mSv. lcn am¶mhv s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. IY-Ifn Nph¿Nn-{X-Ønp ]pdsa Cu amfn-I-bn¬ sshIp-WvT-m-Y-mb hnjvWp, lp- am≥, KtP-{μ-tam-£w, Z£n-Wm-aq¿Øn, {ioN{Iw F∂o Nn{X-ß-fp-ap-≠v. Nn{X-{]m-[myw ZriycwK-߃ BI¿j-I-ß-fmb cmam-bW IY-bnse tXmc-W-bp-≤-amWv Nph¿Nn-{X-Øns‚ hnj-bw. IY-I-fn-bpsS Bkzm-ZyX Ap-`-hn®v Nnc- ÿm-bn-bmb as‰mcp am[y-a-Øn¬ {]Ir-Xn-P-y-Nm- b-ßfm¬ Bte-Jw sNbvX Cu Nn{Xw hc-®Xv Ifn-tbm-K-Øn-se-Øs∂ GsX-¶nepw Stm Nn{X-
  37. 37. anX-amb ]Wn-°q-en. anI® hnev]-m--¥c tkh-w. kwip-≤-amb BIS 916 lmƒam¿°vUv kz¿Æm-`-c-W-߃!! ®
  38. 38. 69 ............................................................................................... .......... Im-ctm Bbn-cn-°-Ww. c≠n-S-sØbpw Nn{X- ߃°v me-Sn-tbmfw ofhpw Db-chpw c≠-c-b-Sn- tbmfw hoXn-bp-ap-≠v. IY-Ifn S-∑m-cn¬ BZy-ambn t]sc-SpØ sh´-Øp-m-´p-Im-c-mb (F.-Un. 1793) i¶-c≥m-b- cp-sSbpw i¶-c-∏-Wn-°-cp-sSbpw ImeØv IY- IfnbpsS ]ptcm-K-Xn-°p-≠mb Hcp t´-am-Wv, lp- ams‚ thj-Øn-p-≠mb {]m[m-yw. IY-I-fn-bn¬ sh≈-Øm-Sn-bm-bn-cp∂p At±lw Be-Øn-bq¿ kztZ-inbpw tZi-°m-cpsS ]c-tZ-h-X-bmb s]cpwXr- t°m-hn¬ lp-ams D]mk sNbvXn-cp∂ Hcp hnin-jvSp-am-bn-cp∂p. GXm≠v C∂sØ BIr- Xn-bn-ep≈ h´-ap-Snbpw sh≈-Øm-Snbpw sh≈-tcm- a-°p-∏m-bhpw lp-am≥ thj-°m¿ [cn-®n-cp-∂p. lp-am≥ thj-Ønv {]m[myw h∂-tXm-Sp-IqSn thj-°m-cs‚ hy‡n-Xz-Øn¬ P-߃°v Hcp IuXp-I-ap-f-hm-bn. sIm´m-c-ß-fnepw t£{Xm-¶-W- ß-fnepw IY-I-fn°p {]I-S kzmX{¥yw e`n®tXmsS B`n-Pm-Xy-Øn-s‚bpw ssZho-I-X-bp- sSbpw ]cn-thjw Cu Iebv°v Ap-`-h-s∏-´p. ∑- bpsS hnP-bhpw Xn∑-bpsS ]X-hpw DZvtLm-jn- °p∂ tXmc-W-bp-≤-Ønse lp-am-s‚bpw e¶m- e-£van-bp-sSbpw bp≤-cwKw GsXmcp IY-I-fn Bkzm-Z-I-s‚bpw a- n¬ Xßn-n¬°p∂ H∂mWv. IY-I-fn-bn¬ thj-°m-cs‚ {]I-S-sØ ncq- ]Ww sNøm≥ hfsc hnj-a-am-Wv. rØ-Øns‚ bYm¿∞ kz`mhw a- n-em-°p-hm-pw, AXv Ays t_m[n-∏n-°p-hmpw sRcp-°-am-Wv. Ihn- Xbpw kwKo-Xhpw Ime-Ønepw, Bte-Jyhpw {]Xn- am-in-ev]hpw ÿe-Øn-ep-amWv ne-sIm-≈p-∂-Xv F¶n¬ rXyw ÿe-Im-e-ßsf Hcpt]mse B{i- bn®p n¬°p-∂p. ]t£, CXn¬ Iem-Im-cpw Iem-kr-jvSnbpw hn`n-∂-a-√. ÿmbn-bmb Ign-hp-I- fpsS Ne-m-fl-I-cq]w hyXy-kvX-ambn Z¿in-°-s∏- Sp∂p F∂p am{Xw. rØ-Ønv kmln-Xy-tØm- tSm, XZ-¥¿K-X-amb ]Zy-I-e-tbmtSm D≈-Xn-e-[nIw _‘w kwKo-X-tØmSpw Nn{X-c-N--tbm-Sp-am-Wv. Aßs hnin-jvS-mb Hcp B´-°m-cs‚ thjw I≠ ka¿∞-mb A⁄m-X≥ Xn°v Ap-`-h- s∏´ B-μ-Øns‚ kvacW ne-n¿Øm≥ Xßsf A¤p-Xm-[o-cm-°nb mSy-cq-]-ßsf h¿Æm NmXp-cyw-sIm≠v ]p-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°m-p≈ {iaw S- Øn-b-Xns‚ DØa nZ¿i--ß-fmWv am¶mhv hmbn- °p∂ amfn-I-bn-tebpw ]p√qcv Ip‰m-n-°m´v a-bn- tebpw tXmc-W-bp≤w Nph¿Nn-{X-߃. {]apJ kmlnXy IrXn-Iƒ ne-n¬°p-∂- Xp-t]mse Nn{X inev] Ie-Iƒ ne-n¿Øm-Ø- Xn-mepw AXns‚ I¿Ømhv, Imew F∂nh shfn- s∏-Sp-Øm-Ø-Xn-mepw ]e Nn{X-ßfpw hnkvar-Xn- bn¬ ebn-®p-t]m-bn. F∂n-cp-∂mepw IY-I-fn-bnse B›-cy-I-chpw Ap-{I-a-hp-amb ]ptcm-KXn Ht∂Im¬ q‰m-≠n-e-[nIw ]g-°-ap≈ Cu Nph¿Nn-{X-ß-fn-eqsS ap°v Z¿in-°mw. IY-I-fn- tbmSv kmay-ap≈ Nn{X-߃ Xr°-Socn aq∂v aq¿Øn t£{X-Ønepw hS-°m-t©cn ]≈n-aÆ t£{X- Ønepw ImWp-∂p-s≠-¶nepw IrXy-ambn hc® ÿe- ߃ tIc-f-Øn¬ s]mXpsh Ipd-hm-Wv. tIcf kwkv°m-c-Øns‚ Xna apgp-h≥ Bhm-ln®v ]cn-e-kn-°p∂ ΩpsS Iem-]m-c-º-cy- ߃ ]eXpw jvSs∏-´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. C∂pw tIc-f-Ønse s]mXp-P--k-º¿°-an-√mØ ]e t£{X-ß-fnepw tImhn-e-I-ß-fnepw CØcw Iem-ti-jn-∏p-Iƒ D≠m-bn-cn-°pw. F∂m¬ ]cn- jv°m-c-Øns‚ aq¿≤-ym-h-ÿ-bn¬ ]gb Ime-L- ´sØ ad-°p-Ibpw ambv°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ C∂sØ Xe-ap-d°v kmwkv°m-cnImh-t_m[w ]I¿∂p sImSp- °m≥ CØcw Ie-I-fpsS kwc-£-W-Øn-eqsS Cu c≠p IpSpw-_mw-K-ßfpw sNøp∂ tkhw amXr- Im-]-c-am-Wv. IY-I-fn-bpsS cq]w bYm-¿∞yambn In´- Ø-°-hn-[-Øn¬ tcJ-s∏-SpØn sh®n-cn-°p∂ Nn{X- ß-fmbn thWw Chsb ]cn-K-Wn-°m≥. ad-™p- t]mb IY-Ifn Blmcyw ]cn-jv°-cn-°-s∏´v C∂sØ Ah-ÿ-bn¬ FØn-b-t∏mƒ ]gb Ifn- tbm-K-Im-e-Øns‚ Hm¿Ω-Iƒ Nph-cp-I-fn¬ C∂pw A∂sØ bmYm¿∞yw ImWn-°p-∂p. APvRm-X- mb Nn{X-Im-c≥ hc® Cu cN--bn-eqsS a¨a-d- ™p-t]mb Cu t{ijvT A`n-t-Xm-°-fpsS ssNXyw Ap-`-h-tbm-Ky-am-hp-∂p. ......................................................................................................................................................................................... tUm. hnn. F. : Iem Kth-j-I, nc-h[n ]pkvX-I-߃ cNn-®n-´p-≠v. tIcf Iem aWvU-e-Øn¬ n∂pw tUmIvS-td‰v tSn-bn-´p-≠v. .........................................................................................................................................................................................
  39. 39. 71 ............................................................................................... .......... temI-sØ-hn-sSbpw ap-jys‚ BZna k¿§ Bhnjv°-cW am[y-a-am-bn-cp-∂p-h-t√m, Kplm-Nn-{X- ߃. Kplm-Nn-{X-ß-fpsS ssZ¿Ly-ta-dnb ]mc-º- cy-k-c-Wn-bn¬ ]e-hn-[-Øn-ep≈ hyXn-bm ]cn- Wm-a-߃°v hnt[-b-am-Ip-∂p-≠v. F¶nepw {]Ya am[yaw F∂ ]cn-K-W--bn¬ Chbv°v F√m P- k-aq-l-Ønepw Htc ÿm-am-Wp-≈-Xv. BZn-Ime kaq-l-Øns‚ ssk¿§n-I-amb Hcp sshb-‡nI Bhn-jv°m-c-ß-fpsS Xe-Øn¬ n∂v hf¿∂v Kplm- Nn-{X-ß-fpw inev]ßfpw aX-Øn-s‚bpw a‰pw hn]p- e-amb {]Nm-cW e£y-߃°p-th≠n ]cn-Wmaw {]m]n-°p-∂p-≠v. Cßs cmPm-°-∑m¿ ap≥ssI FSpØv AtIw Nn{X-Im-c-∑m-scbpw inev]n-I- sfbpw AWn-n-cØn n¿Ωn® ]n¬°me Kplm- Nn-{X-˛-in-ev]-ß-fpsS Imcyw Ch-bn¬ n∂v hyXy- kvX-am-Ip-∂p. Nn{X-IebpsS ]cn-Wm-a-Z-ibn¬ c≠mw-L-´- Øn¬ hnI-kn-°p-∂Xv Npa¿Nn-{X-ß-fm-Wv. hnhn[ tZi-ß-fn¬ hnI-kn® Npa¿ Nn{X-]m-c-º-cy-߃°v Du¿÷w ]I¿∂Xv kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw AXXv m´nse `uXnI Imem-h-ÿbpw kmwkv°m-cnI t{kmX pw Xs∂ BWv. AXp-sIm≠pXs∂ cN- m-k-t¶-X-Ønepw ssien-bnepw tZi-t`-Z-߃°v Ap-k-cWambn XnI®pw hyXy-kvXX ImWp-∂p. AXn-m¬ temI-Øns‚ hnhn[ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ne-n-∂n-cp∂ Npa¿Nn-{X-ssi-en-Iƒ am{X-a-√, C¥y-bnse Xs∂ hnhn[ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ne-n- ∂n-cp∂ Nph¿ Nn{X-ssi-en-Iƒt]mepw XnI®pw hyXy-kvX-ß-fm-bn-Øo¿∂p. "Nn{XW Ie' Xmfn-tbme {KŸ-ßfn¬ ta¬ kqNn-∏n® c≠v Nn{XW am[y-a-ß-fpsS XpS¿®-bmbn hnhn[ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ne-hn¬ h∂ Bhn-jv°mc kt¶-X-amWv Xmfn-tbme {KŸ-ß- fnse Nn{X-߃. B[p-nI A®Sn am[y-a-Ønse Nn{XW ]≤-Xn-I-tfmSv Xmc-Xayw sNøm-hp∂ AX- s√-¶n¬ aqe-cq]w F∂v hnti-jn-∏n-°m-hp∂ kt¶Xw Xs∂-bmWv CXv. kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw C°m- eØv cNn-°-s∏´ As√-¶n¬ ]I¿Ø-s∏´ Xmfn- tbme {KŸ-߃ `qcn-`m-Khpw aX-]-c-am-bhtbm ]pcm-Wm-Jym--ßtfm Bbn-cp-∂p. `mc-Øn¬ Xs∂ Fgp-X-s∏´/]I¿Ø-s∏´ Xmfn-tbme {KŸ-ß-fn¬ hnhn[ ssien-I-fn-ep≈ anI® Nn{X-ß-fpsS amXr- I-Iƒ Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. Nn{X-߃ hc®v Ae-¶- cn®v tamSn-]n-Sn-∏n® Cu {KŸ-ß-fnse ]mT-`m-K-ß- sf-°mƒ {]m[myw ]e-t∏mgpw Cu Nn{X-߃ ssIb-S-°p-∂-Xmbpw ImWmw. Imem-¥-c-Øn¬ Ffp∏w in-°p∂ Hcp am[yaw F∂ n-e-bn¬ Xmfn-tbm-e-bnse Nn{X-{K-Ÿ-߃ hf-sc-sbm∂pw hos≠-Sp-°p-hm≥ ap°v Ign-™n-´n-s√∂v am{Xw. DØ-tc-¥y≥ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ {KŸ-c-Nbv°v "Zp¿P-]{Xw' F∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp∂ ac-sØm-enbpw Z£n- tW-¥y-bn¬ ]-tbm-e-I-fp-amWv hym]-I-ambn D]- tbm-Kn®p h∂n-cp-∂-Xv. F∂m¬ CXn¬ n∂v hyXy- Xmfn-tbme Nn{X-ßfpw Nn{X cmam-b-Whpw B¿. tKm]m-e-Ir-jvW≥
  40. 40. 73 ............................................................................................... .......... kvX-ambn DØ-tc-¥y-bnepw ]-tbm-e-bn¬ {KŸ- ߃ cNn-°-s∏-´n-cp-∂-Xnv DZm-l-c-W-߃ D≠v. ssN-bn-emWv BZy-ambn IS-emkv n¿Ωn-°-s∏- ´-Xv. ]t£, AXv tcn´v C¥y-bn-se-Øn-bn-√. apKƒL-´-Øn¬ t]¿jy-bn¬ n∂v "IS-emkv' C¥y-bn¬ FØpw-hsc {KŸ-c-N-bv°pw Nn{X-W- Ønpw am[y-a-ambn h¿Øn-®Xv Ch-bm-Wv. (A- Iv_¿ N{I-h¿Øn-bmWv C¥y-bnse BZysØ IS- emkv n¿Ωm-W-ime ÿm]n-®-Xv.) C∂sØ _olm-dn-sebpw _wKm-fn-sebpw {]tZ-i-߃ Dƒs∏-SpØn `cWw S-Øn-bn-cp∂ (9,10 q‰m-≠p-I-fn¬) ]me-cm-P-hw-i-P-cmb `c-Wm- [n-Im-cn-I-fpsS ImeØv _p≤-a-X-kw-_-‘-amb Nn{X-߃ hln-°p∂ Xmfn-tbme Nn{X-߃ Pn- ®p. Ch-cn¬ aln-]me cmPm-hns‚ Ime-ØmWv G‰hpw {]kn-≤-amb "{]⁄m ]mc-anXm' (prajna paramitha) F∂ Xmfn-tbme Nn{X-߃ cNn-°- s∏-´-Xv. AXoh kº-∂-amb h¿Æ-{]-tbmK coXnbmWv Ch-bn¬ Ah-ew-_n-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. kam- -amb Hcp ssP Xmfn-tbme Nn{X ]mc-º-cyhpw KpP-dmØv {]tZ-iØv D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. CXns XpS¿∂v D≈ Ime-L-´-Øn¬ hc-bv°-s∏´ K‘hyql (Gandhavyuha) XpS-ßnb Xmfn-tbme {KŸ-]-I¿∏p-I-fnse Nn{X-ßfpw {]kn-≤-ß-fm-Wv. 1475 Nn{X-ß-tfmsS cNn-°-s∏´ "Iev]-kq{X' `mc- Xob Xmfn-tbme {KŸ-ß-fnse Hcp mgn-I-°-√m- Wv. tIc-fob Npa¿Nn-{X-ß-fpsS hnIm-k-]-cn-W-a- L-´-Øns‚ Ime-K-W-bv°v kam-¥-c-amb Hcp Ncn- {X-amWv CXpw F∂v {it≤-b-am-Wv. DØ-tc-¥y-bn¬ t∏mƒ hsc hym]n-®p-In-S-°p∂ `mc-Xob kwkvIr- Xn-bpsS Dd-h-I-fn¬ n∂v Nnd-Ip-hn-cn-®p-]-d∂ "kNn{X Xmfn-tbme' ]mc-ºcyw n¿`m-Ky-h-im¬ th≠{X Iem-N-cn-{X-]-c-amb ]T ]cn-K-W e`n- ®n-s√∂v Hcp bmYm¿∞y-am-Wv. DØ-tc-¥y-bn-se-∂-t]mse Z£n-tW-¥y- bnepw Xmfn-tbme Nn{X-W-coXn Gsd hf¿® tSn- bn-cp-∂p. U°m¨ {]tZ-iØv mSp-hm-Wn-cp∂ tlmbvkme cmPm-°-∑m-cpsS Imew Z£n-tW-¥y≥ inevI-em-cw-KsØ kph¿Æ-L´w F∂v hnti-jn- ∏n-°m-dp-≠v. F∂m¬ Cu L´w Xmfn-tbme Nn{X- ߃°pw kar-≤n-bp-≠mb Ime-am-Wv. ssakq-cnv kao-]-ap≈ "aqZ_nZvcn' F∂ {]tZ-i-Øp-n∂v Is≠-Øn-bXpw AXn-a-tm-l-c-ambXpamb Xmfn- tbm-e-{KŸw CXnv anI® DZm-l-c-W-am-Wv. tlmbvkme cmPm-hm-bn-cp∂ hoc-tk--s-°p-dn®v G.-Un. 1113-˛¬ hnc-Nn-X-amb {KŸ-am-Wn-Xv. AXn-i-‡hpw atm-l-c-hp-amb Xmfn-tbme Nn{X-c-N-m-]m-Shw Fs∂∂pw ne-n¿Øn-h-cp∂ Hcp {]tZ-i-amWv IenwK tZiw (Hdo- ). mtSmSn Nn{X-c-N ]mc-º-cy-Ønse {]kn-≤-amb IÆn- bmbn Icp-Xm-hp∂ "]S-Nn{X'ßfp-ambn ssieo-]- c-amb kmayw ]pe¿Øp-∂-h-bmWv Ch. IenwK Nph¿Nn-{X-ssi-en-tbmSpw Ch ZrV-_‘w ne- n¿Øp-∂p. cmam-b-Ww, alm-`m-cXw, Zim-h-Xm-c-I- Y-Iƒ, {ioIr-jvW-eo-e-Iƒ, ]£n-ar-Km-Zn-˛-{]-Ir-Xn- °m-gvN-Iƒ, Ima-kq{Xw XpS-ßn-b-h-bm-Wv Ch-cpsS Xmfn-tbme Nn{X-W-Ønv hnj-b-ambn hcp-∂-Xv. tcJm-Nn-{X-ß-fmbpw _lp-h¿Æ Nn{X-ß-fm-bp- ap≈ Xmfn-tbme cN--Iƒ Chn-sS-bp-≠v. Nn{X cmam-bWw mtSmSn ]n≥Xp-S¿®bpw htcWy ]WvUnX ]mc-º-cyhpw XΩn¬ Aen™v H∂mIp∂ Hcp ImgvN-bmWv cma-I-Y-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ ap°v Ap- `-h-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. C¥ybpw _¿Ωbpw Ct¥m-t-jybpw F√mw Dƒs∏-Sp∂ D]-`q-J-WvU-Ønse t^mIv]-c- º-cm-KX IYm-Jym--Øns‚ hym]ØneqsS hf¿∂v `mc-Xob CXn-lm-k-Ønv hnj-b-am-bn- Øo¿∂ cma-I-Y-bpsS hy]--hym-]vXn-sb-°p-dn®v Imap-h¬ _ps°-sb-t∏m-ep≈ ]m›mXy ]WvUn- X¿ hsc hn]peamb ]Tw S-Øn-°-gn-™-XmWv.
  41. 41. 75 ............................................................................................... .......... ¶nepw IqSp-X-embn hnh-c-W˛ kw`m-jW {][m-- ß-fp-am-Wv. "Nn{X-cm-am-bW'amIs´ {]mY-an-I-ambpw Nn{X-W-Øn-eqsS Xs∂ IY Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p∂ H∂mWv; Ahn-sS-hnsS Nne ASn-°p-dn-∏p-Iƒ Ds≠- ∂p-am-{Xw. samØw 114 Nn{X-߃s° ASn-°p-dn-∏p- Iƒt]mepw D≈q; samØw Nn{Xm-h-en-bpsS aq∂n- sem∂v `mK-Øp-am{Xw! CXns‚ cN-m-Im-eØv tIc- fo-b-cn¬ cma-IY A{X-tbsd Bg-Øn¬ ]Xn™p Ign-™n-cn-°-W-sa-∂p-thWw Ap-am-n-°p-hm≥. kzbw IY ]d-bp-hm≥ tijn-bp≈ Cu Nn{X-ßsf Aan-X-amb ASn-°p-dn-∏p-I-fn-eqsS If-¶-s∏-Sp-tØ≠ F∂v {KŸ-Im-c≥ Icp-Xn-b-Xn¬ sX‰n-√. IYm-K- Xn-bpsS kpK-a-amb Hgp°nv Ap-tbm-Py-amb Npcp- °w-Nne hm°p-Iƒ Ahn-S-hnsS tN¿∂n-´p≠v F∂p am{Xw. Xmfn-tbme kwkv°-cWw ImesØ AXn-Po-hn-°p-hm-mbn ]c-º-cm-KX coXn-bn¬ kwkv°-cn® ]-tbm-e-I-fn-emWv "Nn{X- cm-am-bWw' hc-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Xfn¿]--tbme ]pfn, ]m¬, sh≈w F∂n-h-bpsS an{in-X-Øn¬ `wKn- bmbn ]pgp-ßn-b-Xn-p-tijw XW-en¬ DW-ßm≥ Ap-h-Zn-°p-∂p. Hmebv°v √ a™-n-dhpw hg- °hpw e`n°pw hsc Cu coXn Bh¿Øn-°p∂p. 34 sk.-ao. ofhpw 5 sk.-ao. hoXn-bp-ap≈ Hme-I- fpsS Ccp A‰-ß-fn¬ n∂pw 10 sk.-ao. D≈n-te°v o°n-bmWv Nc-Sn´v _‘n-°p-hm-p≈ Zzmc-߃. {KŸØns‚ apI-fnepw Xmsgbpw km{º-Zm-bnI coXn-bn¬ tX°pw XSn-sIm-≠p≈ ]pdw-N´(]-Sn- Iƒ) D≠p-Xm-pw. Ncn-{Xw, ssien Be-∏pg Pn√-bnse {]kn-≤-amb Aº-e-∏pg t£{X-Øn¬n∂v 14 In.-ao. Ing°v amdn "tImgn- ap°v' F∂ ÿeØp BWv CXv cNn-°-s∏-´Xv F∂p Icp-Xp-∂p. sNdp-h-≈n-°mhv Zp¿§m-tZhn t£{X-Ønv kao-]-ap≈ Cu ÿew Hcp ImeØv "tImhn¬ap°v' F∂m-Wt{X Adn-b-s∏-´n-cp-∂-Xv. CXns‚ tem]nX cq]-am-bn-cn-°Ww "tImgn-ap°v'. Nn{X-cm-am-b-W-Øns‚ Nn{X-Im-c≥ ({K-Ÿ-Im-c≥) Xs‚ t]cv hy‡-ambn ]d-bp-∂n-s√-¶nepw cN-m- ÿew XpS-ßnb Imcy-߃ {KŸm-h-kmw ¬In- bn-cn-°p∂ t«mI-Øn¬ kqNn-∏n-°p-∂p-≠v. mcmbw sIm≠v hc™v Nn{Xo-I-cn® Nn{X-ß-fn¬ Xnf-°- am¿∂ h¿Æ hkvXp-°ƒ hnXdn tX®v ]nSn-∏n®v tIc-fob Nph¿Nn-{X-߃°v F∂-t]mse tIc-f- Øn¬ Is≠-Øn-b-h-bn¬ G‰hpw {]ap-J-amb Xmfn- tbme Nn{X-W-{K-Ÿ-amb "Nn{X-cm-am-bW'Ønpw hnj-b-am-bn-´p-≈Xv t]cp kqNn-∏n-°pw-t]mse Cu cma-IY Xs∂-bm-Wv. CXn¬ Nn{XWw IYm-c-N- bv°v Ae-¶m-c-sa∂ ne-bn-√. IYm-Jym--am-[yaw Xs∂-bm-Wv. temIØv Is≠-Øn-bn-´p≈ G‰hpw {]mNo--amb "Nn{X-IYm' {KŸw; Xmfn-tbm-e-bn- ep≈ GI "Nn{X-IY'bpw. {]mNo Nn{X-IYm BJym--Øn¬ Cu {KŸ-Ønv Gsd {]m[m-y-ap-≠v. 818 Nn{Xm-h-en-bn-eqsS cma-IY ]q¿Æ-ambn Xmfn-tbm-e-bn¬ mcm-bw-sIm≠v hc™v Xøm-dm- °nb Cu Aaqey {KŸ-Øns‚ cN 1453-˛¬ BWv ]q¿Øn-bm-°n-b-Xv. 34 sk.ao x 5 sk.-ao. hep-∏- ap≈ 98 Hme-I-fpsS Hmtcm hi-Øp-am-{X-ambn aqt∂m mtem cwK-߃ am{Xw Nn{Xo-I-cn-°p- ∂p.1934-˛¬ CXv Xncp-h--¥-]pcw amp-kv{In]v‰v sse{_-dn-bn¬ kwc-£n-°p-hm-t-s‰-Sp-Ø-Xp- sIm≠pw 1997-˛¬ tIc-fm-k¿ΔI-em-ime ]pkvX-I- cq-]-Øn¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-hm≥ Xøm-dm-b-Xp- sIm≠pw am{X-amWv ap°v hninjvS ]mc-º-cy- Øns‚ Cu kvamc-I-ine Ap-`-hn-°mpw Bkzm- Zn-°p-hmpw km≤y-am-b-Xv. H≥]Xmw q‰m≠p apX¬ tIc-f-Øn¬ cma- I-Y-bpsS kzm[ow Bg-Øn¬ thtcm-Sn-b-Xmbn Icp-X-s∏-Sp-∂p. A°mew apX-ep≈ kmln-Xy- Ønepw Nph¿Nn-{X-ß-fn-epw, cwK-I-e-I-fnepw, _nw_-k-¶-ev]-ß-fnepw (Iconography) F√mw CXv sXfn™p ImWmw. cma-I-Ym-k-μ¿`-߃ ]e Nn{Xo-I-c-W-ß-fnepw h∂n-´p-≠v F¶nepw kºq¿Æ- amb Hcp cma-I-Ym-I-Yw "Nn{X-cm-am-bW'Øn¬ am{X-amWv D≈Xv; B hn[-Øn-emWv CXv A-y- amb Hcp Xmfn-tbme Nn{X-W-{K-Ÿ-ambn amdp-∂- Xv. CXn-tmSv Aev]-sa-¶nepw Xmc-Xayw sNøm- hp∂ Nn{X-I-Y-Iƒ B[p-nI Ime-Øp-am-{X-amWv hcp-∂Xv; CXm-h-s´, Nn{X-ß-fpsS AI-º-Sn-bp-s≠-

×