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Alternate roofing


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Alternate roofing

  2. 2. • Stone slab roofing • Jack arch roofing • Madras roofing • Deck roofing
  3. 3. ● Alternate building materials are those which can be used economically by replacing the conventional building materials. ● These materials are historically appropriate,cost effective,easy to install,and functional in wildland fire environments. ● Eventually in stone slab roofing different forms of mortar were used to hold the stones together, cement being the most commonplace now. INTRODUCTION STONE SLAB ROOFING
  4. 4. • Where particular geology made it easy to split stones into large slabs or where such flat stones were produced by nature, they formed a natural building material. • Traditionally, stone slabs provided excellent insulation and unique looks. Stone slab roofs are also solid and virtually stormproof. • Nowadays, a stone slab roof might be seen as part of the restoration of a heritage building, or as a decorative feature - although rarely as the main roof.
  5. 5. Stone roofs • Stone roofs are not much used at the present time, except for covering small vestibules, porches, turrets, towers, and monumental buildings. • They may be flat or pitched. Large slabs are used for flat roofs, and small ones for pitched roofs.
  6. 6. Methods of Construction: CONTEMPORARY METHOD • It is a flat roofing system with stone slabs resting over steel or slender rcc section beams. • The slabs are laid over the terracing for insulation and to provide a slope for rain water drainage.
  7. 7. METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION : TRADITIONAL METHOD • In this system stone slabs are placed over wooden planks which are supported on wooden beams. • This keeps the building cool and is mainly suitable for hot and dry climate. • There is no need of centering and shuttering.
  9. 9. TYPES OF STONE SLAB ROOFING Ex at Karnak,Egypt A structure with stone walls, supporting flat roof made of stone slabs of large boulders. Corbelled roof Flat roof Gabled roof
  10. 10. Advantages and Disadvantages • Good insulation • Beautiful appearance • They are solid and also storm proof • Water proof roofing • Durability • Very heavy • Labour incentive • An obsolete cladding material • Not suitable to withstand loading from furniture, etc of modern residential buildings.
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION • A jack arch is classically defined as a structural element in masonry construction that provides support at openings in the masonry. • Alternate names are FLAT ARCH and STRAIGHT ARCH. • Unlike regular arches, jack arches are not semicircular in form. • Instead they are flat in profile and are used under same circumstances as lintels.
  13. 13. MATERIALS • This type of roof may be built with materials such as brick, steel, concrete, and clay-gypsum mortar. • The roofing technique in auroville is that of jack arch roof with terra cotta hollow blocks and pre cast concrete beams.
  14. 14. ADVANTAGES • It can be constructed from relatively small pieces of material that can be handled by individuals . • Arches are typically sawn from an appropriately sized fired clay lintel. • There is considerable scope for in corporation of decorative patterns and elements into jack arches.
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION o This is the traditional roofing found in south India. o It involves the use of wood,“aachikal”(a locally available material which is a small brick)and lime plaster. o These are commonly used for small spans. o Wooden beams are used to cover the span, over this wooden beams are laid at intervals of less than 45 cms from each other. o The gaps between is filled with bricks on edge with lime plaster. Upon this “ aachikal brick “is laid on edge across in diagonal fashion plastered with lime.
  19. 19. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS • STEPS IN CONSTRUCTION o Teak wood joist are placed on rolled steel joists. o Sufficient slope is provided. o Terrace bricks of size 15x75x25mm to be laid diagonally. o Brick bat concrete of thickness 75mm to be laid. o Rammed and allow to set for 3 days. o Flat tiles are then laid over this concrete. o Surface of this roof is finished with 3 coats of plaster.
  20. 20. Construction Process
  21. 21. ADVANTAGES • It is easy for construction and maintenance. • Flat roofs possess good insulation properties. • It provides better light,ventilation and architectural appearance to the building. • Upper floor can be easily constructed. • Fire resistant.
  22. 22. DISADVANTAGES • Madras roofs are not suitable for long span ,with out the introduction of columns and beams. • Initial cost is less than a pitched roof • Not suitable for places of heavy snowfall. • Construction speed is slower than pitched roof
  23. 23. DECK ROOFING
  24. 24. DECK ROOFING • A flat open portion top of a roof such as a terrace or a sun deck
  25. 25. TYPES OF DECK ROOFING • Depending upon materials used there are four types of deck roofing. 1.Steel deck roofing. 2.Wood deck roofing. 3.Concrete deck roofing. 4.Cement deck roofing.
  26. 26. STEEL DECK ROOFING • Materials used in steel deck roofs are light- gauge , cold- rolled sections , welded or screwed to bar joists.
  27. 27. WOOD DECK ROOFING • Materials used are sawed lumber, asphalt , ply wood or OSB (oriented strand board).
  28. 28. CONCRETE DECK ROOFING • There are four types of concrete deck roofs 1.Structural concrete deck. 2.Structural composite concrete deck. 3.Precast concrete deck. 4.Lightweight insulating concrete deck. • Concrete roof decks are commonly topside insulated using adhered insulation panels or cast-in-place lightweight insulating panels.
  29. 29. USES • The primary use of steel roof is to support vertical loads and the weather resisting system , such as insulation , roofing and waterproofing materials. • Deck roofing can be used in garden landscaping , to extend living areas of houses.
  30. 30. Source ● ●
  31. 31. Thank you!