Nutrients A nutrient is a chemical that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from its environment. They are used to build and repair tissues, regulate body processes and are converted to and used as energy.
Carbohydrates (65% of your diet) Definition : A class of nutrients that contains sugars and starches and is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Function : Excellent source of energy. Types: 1) Simple : consist of sugars Examples include: cookies, candy, and soft drinks 2) Complex : sugars that are linked together chemically to form long chains (starch). Examples include: rice, cereals, and bread
Fat (less than 30% of your diet) Definition : The class of nutrients with the highest energy content. Function : Energy supply, part of the structure of cells, and important for healthy hair and skin. Types: Saturated : Contain as many hydrogen atoms in their structure as possible. Trans Fats : Fats that are formed when vegetable oils are processed into margarine or shortening. Polyunsaturated fat : fat that contains fewer hydrogen atoms than possible and are open to hydrogenation Monounsaturated fat : fat that contains fewer hydrogen atoms than possible and are open to hydrogenation Cholesterol : a waxy fat-like substance found in the cells of all animals.
Protein (10-15% of your diet) Definition : nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Function : growth and repair of body tissue, and an energy source. Amino Acids : chemical substances that make up proteins. Essential amino acids: nutrients your body cannot produce or store so you must get them through food. Nine of the 20 amino acids are essential. Complete protein : food that has all essential amino acids (animal products, soy, poi)
Vitamins Definition : Made by living things and are only needed in small amounts. Function: assist in many chemical reactions in the body.
Types of vitamins water-soluble : dissolve in water. Should be supplied daily. Vitamin B: Good sources include: Milk, poultry, fish, whole grains, cheese, nuts, and eggs. Vitamin C: Good sources include: Citrus fruits, green vegetables, melons, potatoes, and tomatoes
fat-soluble : dissolve in fat (can be stored in body). Vitamin A: Good sources include: eggs, cheese, milk, orange, dark green vegetables and fruits. Vitamin D: Good sources include: Milk, eggs, liver, and exposure of skin to sunlight. Vitamin E: Good sources include: Margarine, vegetables oils, wheat germ, whole grains, greens, and leafy vegetables. Vitamin K: Good sources include: Greens, leafy vegetables, liver.
Minerals Definition : nutrients that are not manufactured by living things. Important minerals to consider: calcium: important for: building and maintaining bones and teeth; nerve and muscle function; blood clotting. sodium: excess can lead to: high blood pressure. iron: deficiency can lead to: anemia
Water Water is 65 percent of our body weight and essential for all life processes.
Functions :1. chemical reactions2. primary component in blood and tissue fluids3. energy production4. digests food5. carries dissolved wasted products out of the body6. brings nutrients to cells7. regulates body temp. Recommended daily intake of water: 8 cups