• Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation
of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel drugs
and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
• The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of
agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been
driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and
• However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and
maintain the lands that are suitable for raising domesticated species. For
plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are
methods of dryland farming.
• Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the
dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support
for sustainable agriculure, including permaculture and organic
• Silk farming, is the rearing of silkworms for the production
• Although there are several commercial species of silkworms, Bombyx
mori is the most widely used and intensively studied.
• India has adopted the technique by CE140 of 1st century.. Later it
was introduced to Europe, the Mediterranean and other Asiatic
• Sericulture has become one of the most important cottage industries
in a number of countries like China, Japan, India, Korea, Brazil,
Russia, Italy and France.
• Today, China and India are the two main producers, together
manufacturing more than 60% of the world production each year.
• Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture,
while other methods may fall under mariculture.
• Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in
tanks/ponds or enclosures, usually for food.
• Worldwide, the most important fish species used in
fish farming are carp, salmon, tilapia and catfish.
• Horticulture is a term that evokes images of plants,
gardening, and people working in the horticultural
• Horticulture impacts widely on human activities,
more than its popular understanding as merely
"gardening" would indicate. It needs to be
recognized as a matrix of interrelating areas that
overlap, with complex interrelationships.
• Viticulture refers to the cultivation of
grapes, often for use in the production
of wine. It is one branch of the science
• In India southern state of Tamil Nadu,
Maharashtra, Karnataka & Andhra
• Within the Maharashtra region,
vineyards are found on the Deccan
Plateau and around Baramati, Nashik,
Pune, Sangli and Solapur.
• A farm is an area of land, or, for aquaculture, lake,
river or sea, including various structures, devoted
primarily to the practice of producing and managing
food (produce,grains, or livestock), fibres and,
increasingly, fuel. It is the basic production facility
infood production.Farms may be owned and operated
by a single individual, family, community,
corporation or a company. A farm can be a holding of
any size from a fraction of a hectare to several
• Farming is practiced in various ways
across the world .Depending upon the
geographical condition ,demand of
produced ,labour and level of technology
,farming can be classified into tow main
types. These are subsistence farming and
• Subsistenceagriculture is self sufficiency farming in
which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed
themselves and their families. The typical subsistence
farm has a range of crops and animals needed by the
family to feed and cloth themselves during the year.
Planting decisions are made principally with an eye
toward what the family will need during the coming
year, and secondarily toward market prices.
people who grow
what they eat,
build their own
houses, and live
• However, despite the primacy of self-sufficiency in
subsistence farming, today most subsistence farmers
also participate in trade to some degree, though
usually it is for goods that are not necessary for
survival, and may include sugar, iron roofing sheets,
bicycles, used clothing, and so forth. Most
subsistence farmers today live in developing countries
. Although their amount of trade as measured in cash
is less than that of consumers in countries with
modern complex markets, many have important trade
contacts and trade items that they can produce
because of their special skills or special access to
resources valued in the marketplace.
TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE FARMING
• Intensive Subsistence Farming
• Primitive Subsistence Farming
• Intensive Subsistence Farming :- The farmer
cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and
more labour. Climate with large number of days with
sunshine and fertile soils permit growing of more
than one crop annually on the same plot. Rice is the
main crop. Other crops include pulses and oilseeds.
Its prevalent in the thickly populated area.
• Primitive Subsistence farming:- There are two types of
primitive subsistence farming
• Shifting cultivation
• Nomadic herding
• Shifting cultivation:• Cultivated in thickly forested areas of Amazon basin and
• A plot of land is cleared by felling trees and burning them .
• The ashes are mixed with soil and crops like maize, ,potato
and cassava are grown..
• After the soil loses its fertility and the cultivator moves to a
• Its called shifting cultivation
• Nomadic herding :• The herds man move from place to
place with their animals for fodder and
• These type movement arises in response
to climatic condition
• They provide milk, meat, wool, hides
and other products to the herders and
• Commercial agriculture is large-scale production of plants for
sale, intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or
retail outlets. In commercial farming crops such as wheat
, maize, tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, cotton are
harvested and sold into world markets. Commercial agriculture
includes livestock production and livestock grazing. Due to the
expensive nature of capital formation and implementation of
technological processes, the landowners of such farms are often large
agricultural corporations (especially in developing countries). Largescale commercial farming, in terms of some of its processes, may be
conceptually not very different from large industrial enterprises;
United Fruit Company (now Chiquita Brands International) is an
example. Commercial farming is most commonly found in advanced
• There are two type of Commercial
farming :• Mixed farming
• Mixed farming :-
• The land is used for growing food and fodder
crops and rearing livestock.
• It is practiced in Europe, Eastern USA,
Argentina, New Zealand and South Africa
• Plantation :• A type of commercial farming where single crop of
tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, or
cotton are grown.
• Large amount of labour and capital are required.
• The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in
• The development of a transport network is thus
essential for such farming.
• Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of
• Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India
and Sri Lanka are some examples.
• Are the major crops
• Rice is an important food grain of
India. India is next to China in
the world in the production of
rice. Rice cultivation needs 25°
Celsius temperature and an
average of 150 centimeters of rain
per year. Rice plant needs water
from its plantation-stage to
harvesting of paddy in its root.
Rice cultivation needs fertile soil
or loamy soil.
River valley and delta areas are
suitable for the cultivation of
rice. Rice is produced throughout
the country but it is found more
in Tamilnadu, A.P., Orissa,
Bihar, M.P., Assam etc. Rice is
• Wheat is the second food grain of
India. Wheat needs medium
rainfall and low cold climate.
Wheat cultivation is suitable for
the area which has 5 to 10
centimeters of rainfall and 10° to
15° Celsius temperature. Though
wheat is produced in different soils
but it is more fruitful in fertile
sloping and loamy soil. Black soil
is also suitable for wheat
cultivation. Less rainfall at the
graining stage of wheat plant and
dry climate during harvesting
period raises production. Irrigation
facilities help wheat cultivation.
Wheat cultivation is generally
found in two regions (a) Punjab,
Haryana, north-east of U.P. and
central U.P. and river valley of
• Maize is an important khaki
crop of rainy season. Maize
is cultivated in different
areas and in different
climates but it is suitable
where temperature is 35°
Celsius and rainfall is 75
centimeters. Sloppy fertile
soil is suitable for the
cultivation of maize. Though
rocky soil is unsuitable for
maize cultivation, but it is
cultivated in hilly areas-of
Jammu and Kashmir and
Himachal Pradesh. Maize is
• Coffee cultivation needs
hot and wet climate and
fertile sloppy land.
Coffee needs more
temperature than tea. So
it is cultivated in
southern part of India.
Coffee tree cannot bear
direct sunshine and so it
is cultivated under the
shade of big trees and it
grows rapidly beneath
the big, trees. Coffee
• India is first in the
cultivation of tea in the
world. Tea cultivation
needs hot climate, excess
rainfall and sloppy soil.
Due to this tea is
cultivated only in excess
rainfall and sloppy areas
of hills. Tea is found
more in Assam. But it is
also cultivated in
Karnataka, Kerala and
Himachal Pradesh. Tea is