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Agriculture

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Agriculture

  1. 1. • Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel drugs and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. •  The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. • However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands that are suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming. •  Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculure, including permaculture and organic agriculture.
  2. 2. SERICULTURE • Silk farming, is the rearing of silkworms for the production of silk. • Although there are several commercial species of silkworms, Bombyx mori is the most widely used and intensively studied. • India has adopted the technique by CE140 of 1st century.. Later it was introduced to Europe, the Mediterranean and other Asiatic countries. • Sericulture has become one of the most important cottage industries in a number of countries like China, Japan, India, Korea, Brazil, Russia, Italy and France. • Today, China and India are the two main producers, together manufacturing more than 60% of the world production each year.
  3. 3. • Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture. • Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks/ponds or enclosures, usually for food. • Worldwide, the most important fish species used in fish farming are carp, salmon, tilapia and catfish.
  4. 4. • Horticulture is a term that evokes images of plants, gardening, and people working in the horticultural industries • Horticulture impacts widely on human activities, more than its popular understanding as merely "gardening" would indicate. It needs to be recognized as a matrix of interrelating areas that overlap, with complex interrelationships.
  5. 5. viticulture • Viticulture refers to the cultivation of grapes, often for use in the production of wine. It is one branch of the science of agriculture. • In India southern state of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka & Andhra • Within the Maharashtra region, vineyards are found on the Deccan Plateau and around Baramati, Nashik, Pune, Sangli and Solapur.
  6. 6. FARM • A farm is an area of land, or, for aquaculture, lake,  river or sea, including various structures, devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing  food (produce,grains, or livestock), fibres and, increasingly, fuel. It is the basic production facility infood production.Farms may be owned and operated by a single individual, family, community, corporation or a company. A farm can be a holding of any size from a fraction of a hectare to several thousand hectares.
  7. 7. • Farming is practiced in various ways across the world .Depending upon the geographical condition ,demand of produced ,labour and level of technology ,farming can be classified into tow main types. These are subsistence farming and commercial farming.
  8. 8. • Subsistenceagriculture  is self sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families. The typical subsistence farm has a range of crops and animals needed by the family to feed and cloth themselves during the year. Planting decisions are made principally with an eye toward what the family will need during the coming year, and secondarily toward market prices.
  9. 9. • Tony Waters writes: "Subsistence peasants are people who grow what they eat, build their own houses, and live without regularly making purchases
  10. 10. • However, despite the primacy of self-sufficiency in subsistence farming, today most subsistence farmers also participate in trade to some degree, though usually it is for goods that are not necessary for survival, and may include sugar, iron roofing sheets, bicycles, used clothing, and so forth. Most subsistence farmers today live in developing countries . Although their amount of trade as measured in cash is less than that of consumers in countries with modern complex markets, many have important trade contacts and trade items that they can produce because of their special skills or special access to resources valued in the marketplace.
  11. 11. TYPES OF SUBSISTENCE FARMING • Intensive Subsistence Farming • Primitive Subsistence Farming • Intensive Subsistence Farming :- The farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour. Climate with large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils permit growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot. Rice is the main crop. Other crops include pulses and oilseeds. Its prevalent in the thickly populated area.
  12. 12. • Primitive Subsistence farming:- There are two types of primitive subsistence farming • Shifting cultivation • Nomadic herding • Shifting cultivation:• Cultivated in thickly forested areas of Amazon basin and Northeast India. • A plot of land is cleared by felling trees and burning them . • The ashes are mixed with soil and crops like maize, ,potato and cassava are grown.. • After the soil loses its fertility and the cultivator moves to a new plot. • Its called shifting cultivation
  13. 13. • Nomadic herding :• The herds man move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water. • These type movement arises in response to climatic condition • They provide milk, meat, wool, hides and other products to the herders and their families.
  14. 14. • Commercial agriculture  is large-scale production of plants for sale, intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or  retail outlets. In commercial farming crops such as wheat , maize, tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, cotton are harvested and sold into world markets. Commercial agriculture includes livestock production and livestock grazing. Due to the expensive nature of capital formation and implementation of technological processes, the landowners of such farms are often large agricultural corporations (especially in developing countries). Largescale commercial farming, in terms of some of its processes, may be conceptually not very different from large industrial enterprises; United Fruit Company (now Chiquita Brands International) is an example. Commercial farming is most commonly found in advanced industrialized nations.
  15. 15. • There are two type of Commercial farming :• Mixed farming • Plantation • Mixed farming :- • The land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock. • It is practiced in Europe, Eastern USA, Argentina, New Zealand and South Africa
  16. 16. • Plantation :• A type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, or cotton are grown. • Large amount of labour and capital are required. • The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. • The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming. • Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. • Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.
  17. 17. • RICE • WHEAT • MAIZE • COFFEE • TEA • Are the major crops
  18. 18. RICE • Rice is an important food grain of India. India is next to China in the world in the production of rice. Rice cultivation needs 25° Celsius temperature and an average of 150 centimeters of rain per year. Rice plant needs water from its plantation-stage to harvesting of paddy in its root. Rice cultivation needs fertile soil or loamy soil. River valley and delta areas are suitable for the cultivation of rice. Rice is produced throughout the country but it is found more in Tamilnadu, A.P., Orissa, Bihar, M.P., Assam etc. Rice is
  19. 19. WHEAT • Wheat is the second food grain of India. Wheat needs medium rainfall and low cold climate. Wheat cultivation is suitable for the area which has 5 to 10 centimeters of rainfall and 10° to 15° Celsius temperature. Though wheat is produced in different soils but it is more fruitful in fertile sloping and loamy soil. Black soil is also suitable for wheat cultivation. Less rainfall at the graining stage of wheat plant and dry climate during harvesting period raises production. Irrigation facilities help wheat cultivation. Wheat cultivation is generally found in two regions (a) Punjab, Haryana, north-east of U.P. and central U.P. and river valley of
  20. 20. MAIZE • Maize is an important khaki crop of rainy season. Maize is cultivated in different areas and in different climates but it is suitable where temperature is 35° Celsius and rainfall is 75 centimeters. Sloppy fertile soil is suitable for the cultivation of maize. Though rocky soil is unsuitable for maize cultivation, but it is cultivated in hilly areas-of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Maize is
  21. 21. COFFEE • Coffee cultivation needs hot and wet climate and fertile sloppy land. Coffee needs more temperature than tea. So it is cultivated in southern part of India. Coffee tree cannot bear direct sunshine and so it is cultivated under the shade of big trees and it grows rapidly beneath the big, trees. Coffee
  22. 22. TEA • India is first in the cultivation of tea in the world. Tea cultivation needs hot climate, excess rainfall and sloppy soil. Due to this tea is cultivated only in excess rainfall and sloppy areas of hills. Tea is found more in Assam. But it is also cultivated in Karnataka, Kerala and Himachal Pradesh. Tea is
  23. 23. •Done By •S. Priya Krishnan •Vlll ‘B’

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