SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF PEACE,SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF PEACE,CONFLICT, AND VIOLENCE:CONFLICT, AND VIOLENCE:The Division o...
22The specific goals of the Peace Division are:The specific goals of the Peace Division are:1) to encourage psychological ...
Causes of ConflictsCauses of ConflictsLimited Resources (time, money,Limited Resources (time, money,property)property)Unme...
Levels of ConflictLevels of ConflictIntrapersonal or IntrapsychicIntrapersonal or Intrapsychic(psychotherapist?)(psychothe...
Dealing with ConflictsDealing with ConflictsNegotiationNegotiation– Two or more parties working to resolve aTwo or more pa...
Responses to Conflict (psychologicalResponses to Conflict (psychologicalresults)results)a. Withdrawing (self-destructive b...
77Nature of ViolenceNature of ViolenceViolence – The exertion of physical (Violence – The exertion of physical (ororpsycho...
88Examples of Direct ViolenceExamples of Direct ViolenceHate crimesHate crimesEthnic cleansingEthnic cleansingRapeRapeMurd...
99Examples of Structural ViolenceExamples of Structural ViolencePovertyPovertyUnemploymentUnemploymentDiscrimination (Raci...
1010Moral ExclusionMoral ExclusionMorals- Norms, rights, entitlements, obligations,Morals- Norms, rights, entitlements, ob...
1111Psychological Bases for MoralPsychological Bases for MoralExclusionExclusionTendency to exclude is fostered by normalT...
1212To Foster Social Justice:To Foster Social Justice:1.1. Welcome open dialogue and critique.Welcome open dialogue and cr...
1313Recommended ReadingRecommended ReadingChristie, D.J., Wagner, R.V. and Winter, D.D. (Eds.), 2001.Christie, D.J., Wagne...
1414The following psychologists contributed to development ofthis PowerPoint presentation: Dan Christie, Joe deRivera,Edua...
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Psychology of Peace

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What for is Man living ? Peace!

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Psychology of Peace

  1. 1. SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF PEACE,SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF PEACE,CONFLICT, AND VIOLENCE:CONFLICT, AND VIOLENCE:The Division of PeaceThe Division of PeacePsychology, established withinPsychology, established withinthe American Psychologicalthe American PsychologicalAssociation (APA) in 1990, is aAssociation (APA) in 1990, is agrowing organization consistinggrowing organization consistingof psychologists, students, andof psychologists, students, andprofessional affiliates fromprofessional affiliates fromdiverse disciplines.diverse disciplines.www.peacepsych.orgwww.peacepsych.org11PEACE PSYCHOLOGY DIVISION OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
  2. 2. 22The specific goals of the Peace Division are:The specific goals of the Peace Division are:1) to encourage psychological research, education, and1) to encourage psychological research, education, andtraining on issues concerning peace, nonviolent conflicttraining on issues concerning peace, nonviolent conflictresolution, reconciliation, and the causes, consequencesresolution, reconciliation, and the causes, consequencesand prevention of war and other forms of destructiveand prevention of war and other forms of destructiveconflict;conflict;2) to provide an organization that fosters communication2) to provide an organization that fosters communicationamong researchers, teachers, and practitioners who areamong researchers, teachers, and practitioners who areworking on peace issues; andworking on peace issues; and3) to apply the knowledge and the methods of3) to apply the knowledge and the methods ofpsychology in the advancement of peace, non-violentpsychology in the advancement of peace, non-violentconflict resolution, reconciliation, and the prevention ofconflict resolution, reconciliation, and the prevention ofwar and other forms of destructive conflict.war and other forms of destructive conflict.
  3. 3. Causes of ConflictsCauses of ConflictsLimited Resources (time, money,Limited Resources (time, money,property)property)Unmet Basic Needs (security, identity,Unmet Basic Needs (security, identity,material necessities, self-determination)material necessities, self-determination)Clashing Values (freedom versus equality)Clashing Values (freedom versus equality)Beliefs (chosen people)Beliefs (chosen people)Ideologies (capitalism versus communism)Ideologies (capitalism versus communism)
  4. 4. Levels of ConflictLevels of ConflictIntrapersonal or IntrapsychicIntrapersonal or Intrapsychic(psychotherapist?)(psychotherapist?)Interpersonal (marriage counselor?)Interpersonal (marriage counselor?)intragroup (leadership?)intragroup (leadership?)intergroup (diplomacy?)intergroup (diplomacy?)interstate (world government?)interstate (world government?)
  5. 5. Dealing with ConflictsDealing with ConflictsNegotiationNegotiation– Two or more parties working to resolve aTwo or more parties working to resolve aconflictconflictMediationMediation– Parties in a conflict are assisted by a third partyParties in a conflict are assisted by a third partyArbitrationArbitration– Settlement imposed by a third partySettlement imposed by a third party
  6. 6. Responses to Conflict (psychologicalResponses to Conflict (psychologicalresults)results)a. Withdrawing (self-destructive behavior)a. Withdrawing (self-destructive behavior)b. Dominating (aggression)b. Dominating (aggression)c. Submitting (depression)c. Submitting (depression)d. Engaging (healthy)d. Engaging (healthy)e. Vascillating (anxiety)e. Vascillating (anxiety)ab bc cd a
  7. 7. 77Nature of ViolenceNature of ViolenceViolence – The exertion of physical (Violence – The exertion of physical (ororpsychologicalpsychological) force that harms.) force that harms.Direct Violence – That committed by identifiableDirect Violence – That committed by identifiablepeople on particular victims.people on particular victims.Structural Violence – Harm that comes fromStructural Violence – Harm that comes fromsubtle, gradual, systematized, normallysubtle, gradual, systematized, normallyaccepted actions of particular social institutionsaccepted actions of particular social institutionswhere responsibility is blurred. (Determines whowhere responsibility is blurred. (Determines whogets heard, who gets devalued and who getsgets heard, who gets devalued and who getsresources.)resources.)Direct and Structural Violence manifestDirect and Structural Violence manifestdifferently but are interdependentdifferently but are interdependent
  8. 8. 88Examples of Direct ViolenceExamples of Direct ViolenceHate crimesHate crimesEthnic cleansingEthnic cleansingRapeRapeMurderMurderWarWarPolice brutalityPolice brutality
  9. 9. 99Examples of Structural ViolenceExamples of Structural ViolencePovertyPovertyUnemploymentUnemploymentDiscrimination (Racism, sexism, etc.)Discrimination (Racism, sexism, etc.)Poor health care, schools or housingPoor health care, schools or housingRacial profilingRacial profilingCorrupt political systemCorrupt political systemPoor accountability for misuse of powerPoor accountability for misuse of power
  10. 10. 1010Moral ExclusionMoral ExclusionMorals- Norms, rights, entitlements, obligations,Morals- Norms, rights, entitlements, obligations,responsibilities and duties that shape our senseresponsibilities and duties that shape our senseof justice and guide our behavior with others.of justice and guide our behavior with others.Moral Community- Those we value inside ourMoral Community- Those we value inside our“scope of justice”, family, friends, compatriots“scope of justice”, family, friends, compatriotsand coreligionists. “US”and coreligionists. “US”Morally Excludable- Strangers outside our scopeMorally Excludable- Strangers outside our scopeof justice and enemies. “THEM”of justice and enemies. “THEM”
  11. 11. 1111Psychological Bases for MoralPsychological Bases for MoralExclusionExclusionTendency to exclude is fostered by normalTendency to exclude is fostered by normalperceptual tendencies:perceptual tendencies:1.1. Social categorizationSocial categorization2.2. Evaluative judgmentsEvaluative judgments3.3. Fundamental attribution errorFundamental attribution error4.4. Self-serving biasesSelf-serving biases5.5. Zero-sum thinkingZero-sum thinking6.6. Attributive projectionAttributive projection7.7. Just world thinkingJust world thinking
  12. 12. 1212To Foster Social Justice:To Foster Social Justice:1.1. Welcome open dialogue and critique.Welcome open dialogue and critique.2.2. Establish procedures that keep communicationEstablish procedures that keep communicationchannels open during increased conflict.channels open during increased conflict.3.3. Value pluralism and measured acceptance ofValue pluralism and measured acceptance ofthe different.the different.4.4. Be alert to symptoms of moral exclusion.Be alert to symptoms of moral exclusion.5.5. Challenge injustice constructively.Challenge injustice constructively.
  13. 13. 1313Recommended ReadingRecommended ReadingChristie, D.J., Wagner, R.V. and Winter, D.D. (Eds.), 2001.Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V. and Winter, D.D. (Eds.), 2001. Peace, Conflict,Peace, Conflict,and Violence: Peace Psychology for the 21and Violence: Peace Psychology for the 21ststCenturyCentury. Upper Saddle River,. Upper Saddle River,NJ: Prentice Hall.NJ: Prentice Hall.Deutsch, M. and Coleman, P.T. & Marcus, E.C. (Eds.) (2006).Deutsch, M. and Coleman, P.T. & Marcus, E.C. (Eds.) (2006). The HandbookThe Handbookof Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice.of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Bass.de Rivera, J. (Ed.), 2009.de Rivera, J. (Ed.), 2009. Handbook on Building Cultures of Peace.Handbook on Building Cultures of Peace. New York,New York,NY: Springer.NY: Springer.MacNair, R.M. (2003).MacNair, R.M. (2003). The Psychology of Peace: An IntroductionThe Psychology of Peace: An Introduction. Westport,. Westport,CT: Praeger Publishers.CT: Praeger Publishers.Mayton, D.M. (2009).Mayton, D.M. (2009). Nonviolence and Peace Psychology: Intrapersonal,Nonviolence and Peace Psychology: Intrapersonal,Interpersonal, Societal, and World PeaceInterpersonal, Societal, and World Peace. New York: Springer.. New York: Springer.
  14. 14. 1414The following psychologists contributed to development ofthis PowerPoint presentation: Dan Christie, Joe deRivera,Eduardo Diaz, and Linden Nelson.For more information about peace psychology, please visit<www.peacepsych.org>.Credits

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