IntelligenceIntelligence
IntelligenceIntelligence ““capacity of the individual to understandcapacity of the individual to understandthe world and ...
Nature vs NurtureNature vs Nurture genetics - 50% contributiongenetics - 50% contribution adoption studies (>correlation...
Two-factor TheoryTwo-factor Theory SpearmanSpearman g-factorg-factor s (specific)-factorss (specific)-factors factor a...
Factor Theories of IntelligenceFactor Theories of Intelligence Alfred BinetAlfred Binet Thurstone - 9 primary mental abi...
Binet’s MeasureBinet’s Measure Intelligence Quotient (IQ) developed byIntelligence Quotient (IQ) developed byTerman using...
Bell Curve PropertiesBell Curve Properties standard distribution of bell curvestandard distribution of bell curve– measur...
Wechsler ScalesWechsler Scales (adults) W-B, WAIS, WAIS-R, WAIS-III(adults) W-B, WAIS, WAIS-R, WAIS-III (children) WISC,...
Verbal Scale SubtestsVerbal Scale Subtests InformationInformation ComprehensionComprehension ArithmeticArithmetic Simi...
Performance Scale SubtestsPerformance Scale Subtests Digit SymbolDigit Symbol Block DesignBlock Design Picture Completi...
Aspects of IntelligenceAspects of Intelligence multiple reasons for low IQmultiple reasons for low IQ need individual te...
Binet’s WarningsBinet’s Warnings 1) IQ tests don’t measure innate abilities,1) IQ tests don’t measure innate abilities,bu...
Mental RetardationMental Retardation IQ 50-75 Borderline mentally retardedIQ 50-75 Borderline mentally retarded(70%)(70%)...
GiftedGifted 130-150 Moderately gifted130-150 Moderately gifted 150+ Profoundly gifted150+ Profoundly gifted
Aspects of IQAspects of IQ Nature & nurture are both contributersNature & nurture are both contributers Racial group dif...
End of Intelligence SectionEnd of Intelligence Section
Aspects of HeritabilityAspects of Heritability Twin studiesTwin studies heritability is to populations, not individualsh...
Nature vs NurtureNature vs Nurture genetics - 50% contributiongenetics - 50% contribution adoption studies (>correlation...
Personality x EnvironmentPersonality x Environment Reactive - individuals handle environmentReactive - individuals handle...
Reliability and ValidityReliability and Validity reliability - stability of measurereliability - stability of measure va...
Test ObjectivesTest Objectives AchievementAchievement PredictionPrediction– Intelligence testsIntelligence tests– SATSAT...
Problem SolvingProblem Solving Creativity - convergent thinking, divergentCreativity - convergent thinking, divergentthin...
ReasoningReasoning reasoning - transformation of informationreasoning - transformation of informationto reach conclusions...
CreativityCreativity thinking/doing things novel & usefulthinking/doing things novel & useful solve problemssolve proble...
CorrelationsCorrelations associations between variablesassociations between variables +1.00 = perfect positive relation+...
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Intelligence

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Intelligence

  1. 1. IntelligenceIntelligence
  2. 2. IntelligenceIntelligence ““capacity of the individual to understandcapacity of the individual to understandthe world and the resourcefulness to copethe world and the resourcefulness to copewith its challenges” (Wechsler)with its challenges” (Wechsler) biological intelligence (Halstead)biological intelligence (Halstead) speed of processing better early predictorspeed of processing better early predictorof IQ than testingof IQ than testing
  3. 3. Nature vs NurtureNature vs Nurture genetics - 50% contributiongenetics - 50% contribution adoption studies (>correlation betweenadoption studies (>correlation betweenadopted children & biological parents)adopted children & biological parents) interaction effects - social support helpinginteraction effects - social support helpingto create better learning environmentsto create better learning environments Flynn effect - IQ tends to rise 3 pointsFlynn effect - IQ tends to rise 3 pointsevery decadeevery decade
  4. 4. Two-factor TheoryTwo-factor Theory SpearmanSpearman g-factorg-factor s (specific)-factorss (specific)-factors factor analysisfactor analysis
  5. 5. Factor Theories of IntelligenceFactor Theories of Intelligence Alfred BinetAlfred Binet Thurstone - 9 primary mental abilitiesThurstone - 9 primary mental abilities Gardner’s - 7 kinds of intelligenceGardner’s - 7 kinds of intelligence Sternberg’s - triarchic (analytical, creative,Sternberg’s - triarchic (analytical, creative,and practical intelligence)and practical intelligence)
  6. 6. Binet’s MeasureBinet’s Measure Intelligence Quotient (IQ) developed byIntelligence Quotient (IQ) developed byTerman using Stanford-BinetTerman using Stanford-Binet mental age (intelligence score) divided bymental age (intelligence score) divided bychronological age x 100chronological age x 100 MA/CA x 100MA/CA x 100
  7. 7. Bell Curve PropertiesBell Curve Properties standard distribution of bell curvestandard distribution of bell curve– measures of central tendency: mean, median,measures of central tendency: mean, median,modemode– variability: standard deviation (S.D.) of WAIS,variability: standard deviation (S.D.) of WAIS,SATSAT– mean and S.D. important: (+/-) 1 S.D. = 68%,mean and S.D. important: (+/-) 1 S.D. = 68%,2 S.D. = 95%, 3 S.D. = 98%2 S.D. = 95%, 3 S.D. = 98%
  8. 8. Wechsler ScalesWechsler Scales (adults) W-B, WAIS, WAIS-R, WAIS-III(adults) W-B, WAIS, WAIS-R, WAIS-III (children) WISC, WISC-R, WISC-III(children) WISC, WISC-R, WISC-III Verbal/PerformanceVerbal/Performance
  9. 9. Verbal Scale SubtestsVerbal Scale Subtests InformationInformation ComprehensionComprehension ArithmeticArithmetic SimilaritiesSimilarities Digit SpanDigit Span VocabularyVocabulary
  10. 10. Performance Scale SubtestsPerformance Scale Subtests Digit SymbolDigit Symbol Block DesignBlock Design Picture CompletionPicture Completion Picture ArrangementPicture Arrangement Object AssemblyObject Assembly
  11. 11. Aspects of IntelligenceAspects of Intelligence multiple reasons for low IQmultiple reasons for low IQ need individual test + functional evaluationneed individual test + functional evaluation
  12. 12. Binet’s WarningsBinet’s Warnings 1) IQ tests don’t measure innate abilities,1) IQ tests don’t measure innate abilities,but measure cogn abilities fr heredity &but measure cogn abilities fr heredity &environmentenvironment 2) Don’t label people w/IQ tests, use to2) Don’t label people w/IQ tests, use toassess abilities w/ other sources of info.assess abilities w/ other sources of info.
  13. 13. Mental RetardationMental Retardation IQ 50-75 Borderline mentally retardedIQ 50-75 Borderline mentally retarded(70%)(70%) IQ 35-50 Mild-ModerateIQ 35-50 Mild-Moderate IQ 20-40 Serve/Profound retardationIQ 20-40 Serve/Profound retardation SavantsSavants
  14. 14. GiftedGifted 130-150 Moderately gifted130-150 Moderately gifted 150+ Profoundly gifted150+ Profoundly gifted
  15. 15. Aspects of IQAspects of IQ Nature & nurture are both contributersNature & nurture are both contributers Racial group differencesRacial group differences– Likely reflect multiple causal differences fromLikely reflect multiple causal differences frombiological (heridity) & environmental sourcesbiological (heridity) & environmental sources(culture, experiences)(culture, experiences)
  16. 16. End of Intelligence SectionEnd of Intelligence Section
  17. 17. Aspects of HeritabilityAspects of Heritability Twin studiesTwin studies heritability is to populations, not individualsheritability is to populations, not individuals– it is not a single, fixed numberit is not a single, fixed number– it doesn’t tell source of group differencesit doesn’t tell source of group differences– it doesn’t tell effects of environment uponit doesn’t tell effects of environment uponaverage trait levelaverage trait level
  18. 18. Nature vs NurtureNature vs Nurture genetics - 50% contributiongenetics - 50% contribution adoption studies (>correlation betweenadoption studies (>correlation betweenadopted children & biological parents)adopted children & biological parents) interaction effects - social support helpinginteraction effects - social support helpingto create better learning environmentsto create better learning environments Flynn effect - IQ tends to rise 3 pointsFlynn effect - IQ tends to rise 3 pointsevery decadeevery decade
  19. 19. Personality x EnvironmentPersonality x Environment Reactive - individuals handle environmentReactive - individuals handle environmentdifferentlydifferently Evocative - individuals elicit differentEvocative - individuals elicit differenteffects from otherseffects from others Proactive - selection & construction ofProactive - selection & construction ofdifferent environmentsdifferent environments
  20. 20. Reliability and ValidityReliability and Validity reliability - stability of measurereliability - stability of measure validity - what does the test purport tovalidity - what does the test purport tomeasure?measure?– face validityface validity– content validitycontent validity– concurrent validityconcurrent validity– predictive validitypredictive validity
  21. 21. Test ObjectivesTest Objectives AchievementAchievement PredictionPrediction– Intelligence testsIntelligence tests– SATSAT– Law and medicalLaw and medical
  22. 22. Problem SolvingProblem Solving Creativity - convergent thinking, divergentCreativity - convergent thinking, divergentthinking, brainstormingthinking, brainstorming Judgment and Decision-MakingJudgment and Decision-Making
  23. 23. ReasoningReasoning reasoning - transformation of informationreasoning - transformation of informationto reach conclusionsto reach conclusions deductive (rules, laws, principles)deductive (rules, laws, principles) inductive (observations, experiences,inductive (observations, experiences,facts)facts)
  24. 24. CreativityCreativity thinking/doing things novel & usefulthinking/doing things novel & useful solve problemssolve problems take chances, refuse limitations,take chances, refuse limitations,appreciate art & music, use availableappreciate art & music, use availablematerials to make unique things,materials to make unique things,challenge social norms, take unpopularchallenge social norms, take unpopularstands, probe ideasstands, probe ideas
  25. 25. CorrelationsCorrelations associations between variablesassociations between variables +1.00 = perfect positive relation+1.00 = perfect positive relation -1.00 = perfect inverse relation-1.00 = perfect inverse relation 0.00 = no relationship0.00 = no relationship relationships, not cause-effectrelationships, not cause-effect

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