RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION

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RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION

  1. 1. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 ‡ÊÊœ ¬òÊ-Á‡ÊˇÊÊ ÷Ê⁄Uà ◊¥ ¬˝ÊÁflÁœ∑§ fl √ÿÊfl‚ÊÁÿ∑§ Á‡ÊˇÊÊ ∑§ Áfl∑§Ê‚ ∑§Ë ÁSÕÁà * «UÊÚ. ∞◊. flË. Á‚¢„U, **üÊË◊ÃË ‚ÈŸËÃÊ Á‚¢„U Dec.-09—Jan.-2010 * ¬˝ÊøÊÿ¸, ¬¢. „UÁ⁄U‡Ê¢∑§⁄U Á‡ÊˇÊÊ ◊„UÊÁfllÊ‹ÿ, ¡Ê¢¡ªË⁄U ** ‚„UÊ. •äÿʬ∑§, ªÈL§ÉÊʂˌʂ Áfl‡flÁfllÊ‹ÿ, Á’‹Ê‚¬È⁄U vk/kqfud ;qx esa izxfr dk jgL; ,oa lw=&ea=&Je gSA blh izk|ksfxdh; fof/k;ksa us mRiknu ls lacf/kr izR;sd dk;Z dk S a lw=&ea= dks viuk fn'kk&funsZ'kd cuk dj :l] tkiku] vusd Hkkxksa esa foHkktu dj fn;k gSA vejhdk vkfn ns'kksa us vHkwriwoZ mUufr dh gSA blds mDr nksuksa dkj.kksa ds QyLo:i izkfof/kd ,oa foijhr] gekjs ns'k esa lqnj vrhr ls gh 'kkjhfjd Je dks w O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dh ekax esa fujarj o‘f) gks jgh gSA vr% gs; n`f"V ls ns[kk x;k gSA ;g Hkkouk ^gekjh ul&ul esa bl f'k{kk dh O;oLFkk u dsoy i`Fkd~ f'k{kk laLFkkvksa esa dh ?kqlh gqbZ gS vkSj gekjs vkn'kZ dh vueksy izfrek cuh gqbZ tk jgh gS] oju~ Ldwyksa vkSj dkWystksa ds ikB~;Øeksa esa Hkh gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd ge vkt Hkh 'kkjhfjd Je ls ?k`.kk izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d fo"k;ksa dks LFkku iznku fd;k tk djrs gSA vkt vko';drk gS fd Nk=ksa dks lHkh izdkj ds a jgk gSA jkcVZ ;wfyp ds 'kCnksa es&^^Ldwyksa vkSj dkWytksa esa a s lEHko lqfo/kk,a iznku djus dh( v/;;u &dky esa mnkj vf/kd ls vf/kd uohu fo"k;ksa dks lekfo"V fd;k tk jgk Nk=o`fRr;ka( v/;;u dh lekfIr ds i'pkr~ mRre osru ij gS vkSj izkphu ekuo’kkL=ksa rFkk uohu oSKkfud ,oa O;kolkf;d rRdky ukSdfj;ka( vkSj ekufld ,oa 'kkjhfjd Je djus fo"k;ksa esa lkeatL; LFkkfir fd;k tk jgk gSA** okyksa dks leku lEeku ,oa iqjLdkj nsdj fodkl dh jkg oSfnd dky esa izkfof/kd o O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ij c<+k tk ldrk gSA oSfnd dky esa izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dk vk/kqfud f'k{kk esa rhu eq[; ifjorZu gq, gS1 & a lqfu;ksftr foLrkj djds gh vk;Z yksxksa us lH; thou dh ¼1½ cky&dsfUnzr f'k{kk ij cy( ¼2½ vfuok;Z] fu%’kqYd ,oa lHkh oLrqvkssa dks vius fy, miyC/k fd;kA bl f'k{kk ls lkoZHkSfed f'k{kk ij cy( vkSj ¼3½ O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ij izkIr gksus okys Kku ds izek.k gesa bl dky ds xzUFkksa esa cyA O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ij cy fn, tkus ds nks eq[; ;=&r= fc[kjs gq, feyrs gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ & _Xosn esa a dkj.k gSA igyk dkj.k ;g gS fd vk/kqfud ;qx&foKku a cka/kksa vkSj ugjksa dk mYys[k gSA oSfnd lkfgR; esa lwrh vkSj ;qx gSA foKku ds vk’p;Ztud vkfo"dkjksa us lalkj ds muh oL=ks]a jaxlkth] dlhnkdkjh] vkHkw"k.kks]a vL=&'kL=ks]a Lo:i vkSj ekuo&thou dh n'kkvksa esa Økafrdkjh ifjorZu jFkks]a ukSdkvks]a ik"kk.k dh izfrekvks]a lkS irokj okys ty;kuks]a dj fn, gSA O;fDr;ksa esa ;g /kkj.kk cyorh gks xbZ gS fd a lglzksa }kjksa okys vkSj lglzksa LrEHkksa ij vk/kkfjr izklknksa foKku muds thou dks lq[ke; cuk ldrk gS] mudh vkfn ds fooj.k feyrs gSA2 ^^xkSre /keZ lw=** esa 27 izdkj a vkfFkZd mUufr esa ;ksx ns ldrk gS vkSj muds lekt ds ds f'kfYi;ksa dk o.kZu gS] ftuesa mYys[kuh; gSa %& Lo.kZdkj] Lo:i dks :ikarfjr dj ldrk gSA vr% os foKku ds fofo/k /kkrqdkj] jRudkj] dqEHkdkj] fp=dkj vkSj okLrqdkjA3 vaxksa ls lacf/kr izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dh ekax dj a ckS) dky esa izkfof/kd o O;kolkf;d f'k{kk jgs gSaA nwljk dkj.k ;g gS fd O;kogkfjd foKku ,oa oSfnd dky esa /kkfeZd ,oa vk/;kfRed f'k{kk dh iz/kkurk çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 193
  2. 2. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 FkhA blds foijhr] ckS)&dky esa /kkfeZd f'k{kk ds lkFk&lkFk ds lcls vf/kd mUufr'khy oL=&m|ksx dksA mlds i'pkr~ lkekU; f'k{kk vkSj izkfof/kd ,oa oSKkfud f'k{kk dh Hkh ekax ckjh vkbZ&dkap] dkxt] /kkrq] tyiksr vkfn m|ksxksa dhA FkhA vr% bl ;qx esa izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ds Lo:i bl izdkj] vaxzstksa us Hkkjr dks Hkkjrh; oLrqvksa ls fjDr rFkk O;oLFkk esa ifjorZu gksuk LokHkkfod FkkA ^^fefyUn ikUgks** djds vaxth oLrqvksa ls Hkkj fn;kA7 1800 ls 1857 rd dh sz esa ckS)&dky esa izpfyr 19 f'kYiksa dk o.kZu feyrk gS] vof/k esa bZLV bafM;k daiuh us izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d ftuesa ls 10 dh f'k{kk r{kf'kyk fo'ofo|ky; esa nh tkrh FkhA f'k{kk dh vksj fo'ks"k /;ku ugha fn;kA mlus dqN buh&fxuh eqfLye dky esa izkfof/kd o O;kolkf;d f'k{kk laLFkk,a vo'; LFkkfir dha] ftudk eq[; mn~n';& 'kklu s Hkkjr ds yxHkx lHkh eqfLye 'kkld 'kkSdhu Fks vkSj dh vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ djuk FkkA bu laLFkkvksa esa muds ikl /ku dk vHkko ugha FkkA vr% ns'k ds leLr mYys[kuh; gSa & ¼1½ :M+dh dh VkWelu bathfu;fjax O;olk;ksa dks mudk laj{k.k izkIr gqvkA ;gh dkj.k Fkk fd dkWyt ¼1847½( ¼2½ iwuk dk bathfu;fjax Ldwy] ¼1854½( s eqfLye dky esa izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dh prqe[kh Zq vkSj ¼3½ dydRrk dk bathfu;fjax dkWyt ¼1856½A s mUufr gqbZA bl dky dk lcls egRoiw.kZ O;olk;&oL=ksa 1857 ls 1902 rd Hkkjr esa izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d dk cukuk FkkA bu oL=ksa esa lkVu] eyey vkSj tjhnkj] f'k{kk dk Øec) bfrgkl vkjaHk djus dk Js; 1854 ds lwrh] muh ,oa js'keh oL= lfEefyr FksA ;s oL= brus ^^oqM ds vkns'k&i=** dks izkIr gSA bl ^^vkns'k&i=** esa cf<+;k fdLe ds Fks fd ;s czEgk] eyk;k] e/; iwoZ vkfn ns'kksa cyiwoZd dgk x;k & ^^tulk/kkj.k dks O;kogkfjd ,oa dks fu;kZr fd, tkrs FksA4 Hkkjr ds eqfLye 'kkldksa dks ykHkizn f'k{kk ysus dh O;oLFkk dh tk,A** fdar]q dEiuh ds vius jkT; dh lqj{kk ,oa lqn<rk ds fy, le;&le; ij ` Hkkjr&fLFkr deZpkfj;ksa us bl vksj mfpr /;ku ugha fn;kA ;q) djus iM+rs FksA bldk LokHkkfod ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd mUgksus iwoZ ds leku dsoy 'kkldh; vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ a ck:n] Hkkyks]a cfNZ;ks]a cUnwdksa vkfn ;q)&lkexzh ls lacf/kr a ds fy, f'k{kk&laLFkkvksa dh l`f"V dhA lu~ 1866 esa iwuk ds O;olk;ksa dh vlk/kkj.k izxfr gqbZA lkFk gh] Hkkjrh; bathfu;fjax Ldwy dks foLr`r djds dkWyst dk :i fn;k iksrdyk&fuekZ.k us bruk vf/kd ;'k izkIr fd;k fd ml x;kA lu~ 1887 esa egkjkuh foDVksfj;k dh ghjd t;arh ds le; ds iqrxkfy;ksa us vius loZJ"B iksrksa dk fuekZ.k Hkkjr Z s volj ij cacbZ esa ^^foDVksfj;k tqcyh Vsdfudy baLVhV~;V** w 5 esa djok;kA vdcj ds le; esa lc dkj[kkus ,d ljdkjh dh LFkkiuk dh xbZA bZLV bafM;k daiuh us izkfof/kd ,oa foHkkx ds v/khurk esa FksA bu dkj[kkuksa esa yM+dksa dks O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dh rks dqN LFkkiuk dj nh] ij mlus fof'k"V dykvksa ,oa nLrdkfj;ksa esa f'k{kk izkIr djus ds fy, vkS|ksfxd f'k{kk dh iw.kZ mis{kk dhA bl f'k{kk ds izfr mldk fdlh f'kYidkj dk f'k"; cuk fn;k tkrk FkkA6 /;ku loZizFke 1877&78 ds ^^nqfHkZ{k&vk;ksx** (Famine fczfV’k dky esa izkfof/kd o O;kolkf;d f'k{kk Commission) }kjk vkdf"kZr fd;k x;k] ij mlus bl f'k{kk Hkkjr esa fczfV'k dky dk vkjEHk lu~ 1757 esa Iyklh esa fdlh izdkj dh :fp izdV ugha dhA bl fn'kk esa ds ;q) esa vaxtksa dh fot; ds le; ls ekuk tkrk gSA ml sz fe'kufj;ksa us vo'; dqN dk;Z fd;kA mUgksus vusd LFkkuksa a le; ls ysdj lu~ 1947 rd mUgksus Hkkjr ij v[kaM a ij vkS|ksfxd Ldwyksa (Industrial Schools) dk f'kykU;kl 'kklu fd;kA O;kikj ds mn~ns'; ls bl ns'k esa vkus ds fd;kA bu Ldwyksa dk eq[; m)s';& Hkkjrh; bZlkbZ ckydksa dkj.k mudk /;ku vius vkfFkZd fgr ij dsfUnzr gksuk dks thfodksiktZu ds fy, c<+bZ vkSj yqgkjksa ds dk;ksZa esa LokHkkfod FkkA lqUnj yky ds vuqlkj bl vlk/kkj.k izf'kf{kr djuk FkkA v/k%iru dk ewyHkwr dkj.k Fkk7 & ^^vaxsztksa dk viuh 1882 ds gaVj deh'ku us izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d fu/kkZfjr uhfr ds vuqlkj Hkkjr dh xzke&iapk;rksa] f'k{kk ds egRo dks le>dj lcls igys gkbZ Ldwy ds f'k{kk&iz.kkyh] gtkjksa yk[kksa ikB'kkykvksa vkSj gtkjksa lky ikB~;Øe esa bl f'k{kk dks LFkku fn;kA deh'ku us lq>ko ls mUur m|ksx&/kU/kksa dk uk'k dj MkyukA** fn;k fd bl ikB~;Øe dks nks oxksZa esa foHkkftr dj fn;k bu m|ksx&/kU/kksa esa loZiFke u"V fd;k x;k & Hkkjr z tk, ^^v** ikB~;Øe vkSj ^^c** ikB~;ØeA igyk ikB~;Øe 194
  3. 3. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 vaxksa dk 'kh?kz&ls&'kh?kz vf/kdre fodkl fd;k tk;A12 lkfgfR;d gks vkSj mu Nk=ksa ds fy, gks] tks fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa izo'k djuk pkgrs gksA nwljk ikB~;Øe vlkfgfR;d ,oa s a Hkkjrh; Nk=ksa dks bl f'k{kk dh lqfo/kk,a iznku djus ds fy, vxzfyf[kr f'k{kk&laLFkkvksa dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;k & ¼1½ O;kolkf;d gks] vkSj mu Nk=ksa ds fy, gks] tks fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa izo'k djus ds ctk; fdlh O;kolkf;d dk;Z dks viuh s bf.M;u Ldwy vkWQ ekbUl] /kuckn( ¼2½ xouZeV Ldwy as thfodk dk miktZu djus dk lk/ku cukuk pkgrs gksA vkWQ VsdukWykWth] enzkl( ¼3½ bf.M;u Ldwy vkWQ lkbUl] a caxyksj( ¼4½ gkjdksVZ VsdukWykWftdy bULVhV~;V] dkuiqj( fut LokFkZ esa fyIr Hkkjr dh vaxth ljdkj vius fgrksa dks sz w lqjf{kr j[kus ds fy,] bl ekax dk frjLdkj djrh jghA8 ¼5½ Ldwy vkWQ dsfedy VsdukWykWth] cEcbZ( vkSj ¼6½ dkWyt vkWQ bathfu;fjax ,.M VsdukWykWth] tknoiqjA lu~ lu~ 1902 esa lEiw.kZ vaxszth Hkkjr esa 80 izkfof/kd ,oa s vkS|ksfxd Ldwy Fks] ftudh Nk=&la[;k 4]804 FkhA9 1937 esa lEiw.kZ Hkkjr esa 535 izkS|ksfxd] izkfof/kd ,oa vkS|ksfxd f'k{kk&laLFkk,a FkhaA 1902 ls 1937 rd dh vof/k esa izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dh i;kZIr izxfr gqbZA lu~ 1917 ds lSMyj deh'ku 1937 ls 1947 rd dh vof/k esa izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d us bl f'k{kk ds fodkl ds fy, nks eq[; lq>ko fn;s & ¼1½f'k{kk dks rhu ?kVukvksa ls izj.kk izkIr gqb]Z ftuds QyLo:i s baVjehfM,V Lrj ij O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dh O;oLFkk dh mlds izlkj esa rhozrk vk xbZA ;q) ds fy, lkexzh vkSj izkfof/kd f'k{kk izkIr O;fDr;ksa dh ekax esa lglk vlk/kkj.k tk;( vkSj ¼2½ fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ds dk;ZØe vkjaHk fd, tk,aA lu~ 1929 dh gVkZx o`f) gks xbZA bl ekax dh iwfrZ djus ds fy, izkfof/kd ,oa lfefr us vuqjks/k fd;k fd gkbZ Ldwy ds ikB~;Øe esa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk&laLFkkvksa dk uo&fuekZ.k fd;k x;k vkSj vkS|ksfxd ,oa O;kikfjd fo"k;ksa dks LFkku fn;k tk,A ljdkj }kjk izR;sd QSDVªh dks izkfof/kd izf'k{k.k&dsUnz ds lu~ 1936 dh oqM ,oa ,cV lfefr us izkfof/kd ,oa :i esa iz;ksx fd;k x;kA13 O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ds fo"k; esa rhu eq[; lq>ko fn, & ¼1½ f}rh; fo'o&;q) ds nkSjku esa fczfV'k ljdkj dks bl ns'k ds m|ksxksa dh vko';drk ds vuqlkj bl f'k{kk dk ckr dk izR;{k vuqHko gks x;k fd Hkkjr esa izkfof/kd ,oa foLrkj fd;k tk,( ¼2½ dqVhj m|ksx&/kU/kksa esa layXu O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dh leqfpr O;oLFkk dh tkuh vfuok;Z FkhA vr% mlus ,d ns'k&O;kih izkfof/kd f'k{kk&;kstuk dk O;fDr;ksa dks izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d izf'k{k.k fn;k tk;( vkSj ¼3½ twfu;j ,oa lhfu;j oksd'kuy Ldwyksa dh LFkkiuk s lw=ikr fd;k] ftlds ize[k vax bl izdkj Fks14 & ¼1½ lu~ q 1940 esa vkS|ksfxd vuql/kku&dk;Z esa lgk;rk nsus ds fy, dh tk,A Hkkjrh; Nk=ksa dks baXys.M esa mPp izkfof/kd f'k{kk a dk v/;;u djus ds fy, izfr o"kZ nl Nk=o`fRr;ka nsus dh ^^oSKkfud ,oa vkS|ksfxd vuql/kku&ifj"kn~** (Board of a ;kstuk vkjEHk dhA bl ;kstuk ds vuqlkj 1905 ls 1917 Scientific & Industrial Research) dh LFkkiuk( ¼2½ lu~ rd 113 Hkkjrh; ;qodksa dks Nk=o`fRr;ka iznku dh xbZA101941 esa ^^fnYyh ikWfyVsduhd** (Delhi Polytechnic) dh fdUrq] bl ;kstuk ls dksbZ ykHk ugha gqvk] D;ksfd Hkkjr a LFkkiuk( ¼3½ lu~ 1945 esa mPprj izkfof/kd f'k{kk ds okfil vkus ij 113 ;qodksa esa ls ,d dks Hkh fdlh m|ksxvk;kstu ds fo"k; esa ijke'kZ nsus ds fy, ufyuhjatu esa izo’k ugha feykA11 s ljdkj dh v/;{krk esa ^^ljdkj lfefr** (Sarkar Committee) dh fu;qfDr( ¼4½ lu~ 1945 esa ^^vf[ky Hkkjrh; ykMZ fyVu (Lord Lytton) dh v/;{krk esa ,d fof'k"V izkfof/kd f'k{kk&ifj"kn~** (All India Council for Technical lfefr dh fu;qfDr dh] tks ^^baxyS.M esa Hkkjrh; Nk=ksa dh lfefr** (Committee on Indian Students in England, Education) dh LFkkiuk( vkSj ¼5½ lu~ 1947 esa lEiw.kZ ns'k dh vko';drkvksa dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, fofHkUu Lrjksa ds 1921-22) ds uke ls izfl) gSA bl lfefr us Hkkjrh; Nk=ksa dh dfBukb;ksa dks nwj djus ds fy, vusd lq>ko fn,A oSKkfud ,oa izkfof/kd dk;ZdrkZvksa dh lwph rS;kj djus ds bldk lcls egRoiw.kZ lq>ko ;g Fkk fd Hkkjrh; Nk=ksa dksfy, ^^oSKkfud ekuoh; 'kfDr lfefr** (Scientific Manpower Committee) dh LFkkiukA15 Hkkjr esa gh mPp izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk nsus ds fy, laLFkkvksa dh LFkkiuk dh tk; vkSj bl f'k{kk ds fofHkUu 1947 esa lEiw.kZ ns'k esa bathfu;fjax ,oa izkfof/kd f'k{kk çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 195
  4. 4. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 nsus okys 28 fMxzh laLFkkvksa vkSj 41 ikWfyVsduhd laLFkku vkWQ VsdukWykWth** dks Lukrd vkSj LukrdksRrj v/;;u ds FksA fy, iw.kZ :i ls fodflr fd;k x;k( caxykSj ds ^^bafM;u Lora= Hkkjr esa izkfof/kd o O;kolkf;d f'k{kk baLVhV~;V vkWQ lkbal** dk /kkrq&foKku] 'kfDr bathfu;fjax] w fo'ofo|ky; f'k{kk&vk;ksx ¼1948&49½ us izkfof/kd ,oa fo|qr bathfu;fjax] ok;q ,oa ty bathfu;fjax ,oa vkUrfjd O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ds egRo dks Lohdkj djds vusd lq>ko fn,A ToyUr bathfu;fjax dh f'k{kk ds fy, fodkl fd;k x;k ek/;fed f'k{kk&vk;ksx ¼1952&53½ us ek/;fed f'k{kk vkSj /kuckn ds ^^bafM;u Ldwy vkWQ lkbal ,.M ,IykbM dk ,d eq[; mn~n'; & Nk=ksa esa O;kolkf;d dq'kyrk dh s ft;kYkkWth** dk foLrkj djds] ekbfuax bathfu;fjax ,oa mUufr djuk crk;kA bl mn~n'; dh izfr ds fy, ,oa s mlls lacf/kr {ks=ksa esa izf'k{k.k dh vfrfjDr lqfo/kk,a iznku a izkfof/kd f'k{kk ds fo"k; esa ^^vk;ksx** us lq>ko fn;sA dh xbZA21 f'k{kk&vk;ksx ¼1964&66½ us ns'k ds vkS|ksxhdj.k dks rhljh iapo"khZ; ;kstuk] 1961&66 esa izkfof/kd ,oa lQy cukus ds fy, izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dh O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dy mYys[kuh; izxfr gqbA m|ksxksa dh Z mRd`"V O;oLFkk dks vko';d crk;kA Hkkoh ekax dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, ;g vuqeku yxk;k x;k igyh iapo"khZ; ;kstuk] 1951&56] fdlh Hkh ns'k ds fd rhljh ;kstuk ds nkSjku 45]000 Lukrdksa ,oa 80]000 vkfFkZd fodkl esa izf'kf{kr tu'kfDr dk fuf'pr :i ls fMIyksek/kkfj;ksa dh vko';drk iM+xhA bl vko';drk dks s egRoiw.kZ Hkkx gksrk gSA vr% Lora= Hkkjr dh laHkkfor iw.kZ djus ds fy, rhljh iapo"khZ; ;kstuk essa izkfof/kd ,oa vko';drkvksa dks /;ku esa j[kdj izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ds dk;ZØeksa dk fodkl djus ds fy, f'k{kk dh lqfo/kkvksa esa ljkguh; foLrkj fd;k x;k vkSj bl 142 djksM+ :i, dh /kujkf'k fu/kkZfjr dh xbZA22 dk;Z ij 23 djksM+ :i;s O;; fd, x,A16 rhljh ;kstuk esa fMxzh iznku djus dh 3 vkSj fMIyksek lu~ 1947 esa tc Hkkjr Lora= gqvk Fkk] rc ns'k esa iznku djus dh 10 laLFkkvksa dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;kA lu~ fMxzh vkSj fMIyksek iznku djus okyh laLFkkvksa dh la[;k 1966 esa budh la[;k Øe'k% 137 vkSj 284 FkhA23 fMxzh ,oa Øe'k% 2]940 vkSj 3]670 FkhA17 lu~ 1956 esa fMxzh vkSj fMIyksek ds Lrj ij vfrfjDr O;fDr;ksa dks izf'kf{kr djus fMIyksek iznku djus okyh laLFkkvksa dh la[;k c<+dj ds fy, ljdkjh vuql/kku 'kkykvks(a izfrj{kk] jsyos] flapkbZ a Øe'k% 71 vkSj 109 gks xbZA bu laLFkkvksa dh okf"kZd izo'k s vkSj fctyh] ifjogu vkSj lapkj vkfn ea=ky;ksa vkSj {kerk Øe'k% 6]612 vkSj 10]118 FkhA18 mi;ZDr ds vfrfjDr] q lkoZtfud fuekZ.k foHkkx ds rduhdh laxBuks(a vkSj ljdkjh dykdkjksa ,oa f'kYidkjksa dks izf'k{k.k nsus dh lqfo/kkvksa esa rFkk futh vkS|ksfxd laLFkkvksa dk Hkh mi;ksx fd;k x;kA24 foLrkj fd;k x;k vkSj muds fy, xzkeksa esa Hkh izf'k{k.k&dsUnz pkSFkh iapo"khZ; ;kstuk] 1969&1974 ¼izkjafHkd :ijs[kk½ LFkkfir fd, x,A fizfVax ¼NikbZ½ VSDukWykWth] Åu vkSj a ds vuqlkj&^^1964 ds ,d los{k.k ls Li"V gks x;k Fkk fd Z js'ke dh VSDukWykWth] Hkou fuekZ.k&foKku vkSj uxj&vk;kstu bathfu;fjax dkWystksa vkSj ikWfyVsduhd laLFkkvksa esa 35 esa izf'k{k.k nsus ds dk;Z vkjaHk fd, x,A19 izfr'kr v/;kid de Fks] 53 izfr'kr midj.k de Fks] 51 nwljh iapo"khZ; ;kstuk] 1956&61 ds nkSjku esa fMxzh izfr'kr f'k{kk nsus ds fy, Hkou de Fks vkSj 55 izfr'kr vkSj fMIyksek iznku djus okyh laLFkkvksa dh la[;k dks Nk=koklksa dk vHkko FkkA vc ;g izLrko gS fd izFke yxHkx nwuk dj fn;k x;kA lu~ 1961 esa budh la[;k izkFkfedrk ds :i esa bu vHkkoksa dks nwj fd;k tk;A** bl Øe'k% 111 vkSj 209 FkhA bu laLFkkvksa dh okf"kZd izo'k&{kerk s dk;Z esa lQyrk izkIr djus ds fy, pkSFkh iapo"khZ; ;kstuk a Øe'k% 15]497 vkSj 26]525 FkhA20 esa izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ij 253 djksM+ :i, O;; nwljh ;kstuk esa izkfof/kd ,oa izkS|ksfxd f'k{kk dk fd, x,A25 fodkl djus ij cy fn;k x;k( fnYyh ds ^^ikWfyVsduhd ikapoh iapo"khZ; ;kstuk] 1974&79 ds vuqlkj & Ldwy** esa izk|ksfxd ,oa bathfu;fjax dh f'k{kk&lqfo/kkvksa esa S ^^ikapoh ;kstuk esa izkfof/kd f'k{kk O;oLFkk ds n`<hdj.k ,oa i;kZIr foLrkj fd;k x;k( [kM+xiqj esa ^^bafM;u baLVhV~;V w xq.kkRed i)fr ij fo'ks"k cy fn;k tk,xkA** 196
  5. 5. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 “The main stress in the Fifth Plan will continue to 2- Lukrd dkslZ & Lukrd dkslksZa dh vof/k 3 ls be on the consolidation and improvement of the quality 5 o"kZ dh gSA bl dkslZ ds dqN eq[; fo"k; gSa & /kkrq ,oa of the technical education system.” - Draft Fifth Five- [kfut foKku vkSj esdfudy] bysfDVªdy] dsfedy] s Year Plan, Vol. II, p. 203. VsDlVkby ,oa ,xzhdYpjy bathfu;fjaxA izkfof/kd o O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dh orZeku 3- fMIyksek dkslZ & fMIyksek dkslksZa dh vof/k fLFkfr Present Position of Technical & Vocational lk/kkj.kr% rhu o"kZ dh gSA ;g f'k{kk lkekU;r;k ikWfyVsduhdksa Education vkSj rduhdh Ldwyksa esa nh tkrh gSA bl le; Hkkjr ds vf/kdka'k jkT;ksa esa ek/;fed ,oa 4- lfVZfQdsV dkslZ & lfVZfQdsV dkslksaZ dk mn~n'; s mPprj ek/;fed Lrjksa ij izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk & dkjhxjksa dks izf'k{k.k nsuk gSA dkjhxj nks izdkj ds gksrs iznku djus ds fy, laLFkk,a gSA bu laLFkkvksa esa d`f"k] a gSa & 1½ dq'ky dkjhxj] vkSj 2½ v)Z&dq'ky ,oa lkekU; okf.kT;] bathfu;fjax] i'kqikyu ,oa gLrf'kYiksa dks f'k{kk nh dkjhxjA nwljs izdkj ds dkjhxjksa ds izf’k{k.k ds fy, gekjs tkrh gSA tks ckyd 8oha ;k 9oha d{kk ds ckn i<+uk ugha ns’k esa dksbZ fo'ks"k O;oLFkk ugha gSA dq'ky dkjhxjksa dks pkgrs gS]a muds fy, ^^vkS|ksfxd izf'k{k.k&laLFkk,a** (Industrial izf'k{k.k nsus ds fy, 3 izdkj dh laLFkk,a gSa & Vsdfudy Training Institutes) izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øe Ldwy] b.MfLVª;y Vªfs uax bULVhV~;V vkSj vkV~l ,oa Øk¶V~l w Z pykrh gSA twfu;j Vsdfudy Ldwy&Nk=ksa dh bathfu;fjax Ldwy gSA a “Labourislife. The true epic of our times is tools ls lacf/kr O;olk;ksa ds fy, rS;kj djrs gSA ns’k esa dqN a a and the man.” - Darlyle. Quoted from The New iwo&O;kolkf;d izf'k{k.k&dsUnz Hkh dk;Z dj jgs gSA26 [kku Z a Dictionary of Thoughts. vkSj /kkrqdeZ foKku vkfn fof'k"V izf'k{k.k ds fy, fMxzh vk/kqfud ;qx esa izxfr dk jgL; ,oa lw=&ea=&Je gSA vkSj fMIyksek Lrj ds dbZ dsUnzkas dh LFkkiuk dh xbZ gSA27 blh lw=&ea= dks viuk fn'kk&funsZ'kd cuk dj :l] bl le; Hkkjr esa izkfof/kd ,oa O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ds 4 Lrj tkiku] vejhdk vkfn ns'kksa us vHkwriwoZ mUufr dh gSA ;k dkslZ gS(a ;Fkk & blds foijhr] gekjs ns'k esa lqnj vrhr ls gh 'kkjhfjd Je w 1- LukrdksRrj dkslZ o vuqlU/kku & LukrdksRrj dks gs; n`f"V ls ns[kk x;k gSA vkt vko';drk gS fd Nk=ksa dkslksaZ dh vof/k ,d ;k nks o"kZ dh gSA vuql/kku&dk;Z dh a dks lHkh izdkj ds lEHko vkd"kZ.k ,oa lqfo/kk,a iznku djus vof/k nks ;k rhu o"kZ dh gS vkSj LukrdksRrj ijh{kk esa dh( v/;;u&dky esa mnkj Nk=o`fRr;ka( v/;;u dh lekfIr mRrh.kZ gksus ds ckn gh fd;k tk ldrk gSA LukrdksRrj ds i'pkr~ mRre osru ij rRdky ukSdfj;ka( vkSj ekufld ikB~;Øe vkSj vuql/kku dk;Z ds dqN eq[; fo"k; gSa a ,oa 'kkjhfjd Je djus okyksa dks leku lEeku ,oa iqjLdkj & /kkrq&foKku] mRiknu VsDukWykWth] isVkfy;e VsdukWykWth ªs nsdj fodkl dh jkg ij c<+k tk ldrk gSA vkSj bathfu;fjax dh vusd 'kk[kk,aA ‚ãŒ÷¸ ª˝ ã Õ 1- Robert Ulich : History of Educational Thought, p. 315.2- ch- ,u- ywfu;k % Hkkjrh; lH;rk rFkk laLd`fr dk fodkl] i`B 51-53. 3- Dr. Veda Mitra : Education in Ancient India, pp. 25.4- ch- ,u- ywfu;k % iwoksZDr iqLrd] i`B 379. 5- ch- ,u- ywfu;k % iwoksZDr iqLrd] i`B 380. 6- S. M. Jaffar : Education in Muslim India, p. 12-13. 7- Jawaharlal Nehru : The Discoveryof India, p. 351. 8- MadanMohanMalviya’s Views, Quoted in the Report of the Indian Industrial Commission, 1916-18. p. 250. 9- S.N. Mukerji : Education in India, Today Tomorrow, p. 279. 10- S.N. Mukerji : History of Education in India, p. 287. 11- Jh/kjukFk eq[kksik/;k; % Hkkjrh; f'k{kk dk bfrgkl] i`B 250. 12- Report of the Commission on Indian Students in England, Para. 84. 13- Jh/kjukFk eq[kksik/;k; % iwoksZDr iqLrd] i`B 252. 14- S.N. Mukerji : Education in India, Today Tomorrow, pp. 280-81. 15- Jh/kjukFk eq[kksik/;k; % iwoksZDr iqLrd] i`B 255 16- f}rh; iapokhZ; ;kstuk] i`B 279. 17- S.N. Mukerji : Administration of Education in India, p. 234. 18- India, 1966, p. 72. 19- igyh iapokhZ; ;kstuk] i`B 308. 20- India, 1966, p. 72. 21- laf{kIr f}rh; iapokhZ; ;kstuk] i`B 159. 22- Third Five Year Plan, p. 107. 23- India, 1971-72, p. 75. 24- rhljh iapokhZ; ;kstuk] ¼izkjfEHkd :ijs[kk½ i`- 103-104. 25- Fourth Five-Year Plan : A Draft Outline, p. 325. 26- India, 1976, p. 51. 27- India, 1976, p. 51 çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 197

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