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  1. 1. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 84 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION Research Paper- Education 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 TheContextWhenpre-serviceteachertraineeslearn oracquireordevelopsomethingneworsomespecific knowledge; or solve problems on teaching-learning ordevelopskillsofteaching ormakeuniquedecision, they usually do so with the objective to use it when theywouldbecomeregular teachersafterrecruitment to new profession of teaching. Teacher-educators andeducationalplannershaveexpectationswhether activities performed as teacher- trainees during teacher-training are related to the phenomenon of TransferofTraining-whichrefertotheeffectofprior learningortraining(i.e.pre-serviceteacher-training) on the subsequent performance of a different teaching-learning tasks (i.e. job of teaching profession of a regular teacher) Thus viewed, teaching profession of a regular educational practitioner is an example of transfer while the responses required are similar to those a pre-service teacher-trainee who is taught or learns in earlier practice-teaching sessions during training,theyarenotexactlythesame.Everyteacher- trainee finds it necessary to adopt the practicing teaching-habits or skills of teaching and to learn some new ones. A newly recruited or appointed teacher may even find that his or her practicing teaching habits in pre-service teacher training is interfered withthesmoothoperationofnewteaching in the class-room.The basic logic is that there would be some effect of prior practicing teaching (i.e pre- service teacher-training) on subsequent regular classroom teaching as a professional, and that is, which explores and increases the probability of the possibility of transfer of training. RationaleBehindPositiveTransferofTraining Positivetransferisoneformoffacilitation.Although transfer cannot produce miracles, it can greatly add totheprofessionalrenewalofapractitionervis-à-vis contribution of the school or college. Within many specialized discipline-oriented practitioners automatictransfermakesitunnecessarytoappoint separatelyspecializedteachertoworkineverysingle specialized discipline. Similarly, within disciplines automatic transfer generates unworthiness to teach everysingleitem.Incontextofpre-servicesecondary teacher education programme, there appears to be substantial transfer from graduate –college experience to professional post-graduate teacher training college/university attainment. From many kinds of learning the practitioners may learnhowto learn. To take the superiority of the condition of transfer, the teacher educators present similar tasks in close succession, bringing out the similarity. Severaltasksofteacher-trainingprogrammeareseen as parts of one principle (e.g. various methods and methodsofdevelopment,skillsofteachingetc);thus the knowledge of the principle aids to those tasks. Suchtasksneedtobeperformedwithintheframework of well understood working rule. In teacher training institutions there should be much varied practice in applying the principle.The investigator, the author, didaseriesof earlierexperimentsandexperimentally verified the possibility of lateral transfer, sequential and vertical transfer of pre-service training abilities to professional life situation with the following additional highlights. (i)That each of skills of practicingteachinginpre-serviceteachertrainingas behaviour components facilitate teaching in new regular and professional teaching situation at comparable level of practicing teaching behaviour. (ii)That in vertical transfer, ability acquired in practicingteachingsessionsfacilitatesotherteaching situationutilizingpracticingteaching-operationskills. Transfer is often a second best. At times, it maybebetterthandirectpracticewhichiscostlyand offers little early reinforcement. The substitute for the direct practice (transfer task) may also have something of value in itself. For better transfer it is difficulttodecidewhethertoplungeintocomplicated learning or training task or to begin with an easier version of learning or training task. Experience of a teacher-educator speaks that the version is better whenever there is a reasonable certainty of early ANALYZE STATISTICALLY POSSIBILITIES OF TRANSFER OF TRAINING FROM PRE SERVICE SECONDARY TEACHER EDUCATION SYSTEM TO REGULAR TEACHING PROFESSION November, 2010 * Dr. Bijay krishna Jana * Tagore Govt College Of Education Middle Point Port Blair
  2. 2. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 85RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION reinforcement in training programme. It was necessary to workout the rules of positive transfer frompre-servicesecondaryteachereducationsystem to regular teaching profession. These rules call for active teaching of trained professionals by application of capability developed through realization of instructional objectives from various subject-specializations, search for structural association or relationship between different disciplines,thedevisingquestiononlearntmaterials and estimating ability to answer question as evident from teacher-trainees’ attained scores. Positive TransferVersusAStatistical Measure of Association in Context of NCFTE (National CurriculumFrameworkForTeacherEducation) The National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education(NCFTE),2009includes– 1. Foundations of Education (Learner Studies Contemporary Studies, Educational Studies) 2.Curriculum and Pedagogy (curriculum studies, pedagogic studies, assessment and evaluation studies). 3.School Internship.These course contents areimportanttopromoteandhaveconcernwiththree non-temperamental abilities and temperamental qualities.Theyare:*Abilitytoachieveorachievement * Ability to problem solving or decision making * Abilitytoteach(Cognition,Affectandmotororiented) of teaching competency. AbilitytoAchieve Curricular areas 1 &2 above have to provisions: Theory and practicum. Ability to achieve is an expected core ability and it is acquired from learnt materials.Teacher-trainees’ performance on theory course work is assessed by achievement test scores whichmeasure“whattheteacher-traineehaslearnt” from theory course and it is measured by conduct of home and University (public) written-theory examination. This test concerns teacher-trainees’ abilitytoachieve. Curricularaspectsmainlyconcern with teacher-trainees’ engagement with theoretical constructs(philosophical, ideological,psychological …. etc), subject content, textbooks, discipline knowledge …etc. Theory courses are designed around key concepts and research from psychology, philosophy, sociology, educational practices and management etc. AbilitytoProblemSolvingorandDecisionMaking Secondary teacher education systems assume the proposition that secondary school teachers are decision makers and problem solvers, and that developing perception and thought processes in teacher-trainees are central to the explanation of behavour in pre-service teacher-training institutes. For this purpose mode of group and individual field- based assignments followed by workshops and seminar presentations, debate competitions, symposium, conduct of projects and action researches, and specific practicum courses are designedandevaluated.Theseprovisionsalongwith engagement with teaching methods such as concept formation, enquiry based teaching are in existence. Pre-service teacher-training course requires that a teacher traineetobeafacilitatorofstudents’learning by helping students to construct knowledge and meaning.Hisfutureroleasaregularteacherwouldbe co-constructor of knowledge. Ability to Teach :-It is fundamentally accepted that the programme of school internship leads to the development of a broad repertoire of perspective, professional capacities, teachers’ sensibilities and skills. The teacher by his position is obliged to be effective and his effectiveness depends on his sensitivity and style in teaching profession. He must balance the needs of the students and demands of teaching-learning as his profession. Possiblities of teaching-learning as his profession. Possibilities of allthesethreeabilitiestohisregularteaching-jobcan be explored on the basis of theories of transfer of training and their relationship to basis statistical measures of association. UnderstandingTransferofTrainingandStatistical Association :-The concept of transfer of training highlights that: 1. increaseofsimilaritybetweentwo different situations increases the amount of transfer Theory of Identical Elements. Statistically, it is necessarytotestandverifythedegreeofrelationship and association between any two factors out of three vizabilityto:(i)achieve,(ii)problemsolvingand(iii) teach. This is the concern of partial rank co-relation co-efficient.2.theeffectoftransfercanbefacilitated by teacher-trainees’ understanding of theoretical constructs rather than specific solution on subsequent teaching performance of the same individualasaregularteacher.Thiscanbeexplained and verified by the Theory of Generalisation of the transfer of training. Statistical approaches like the Kendal Partial Rank correlation co-efficient and the Kendallco-efficientofConcordance(W)canbeused to verify whether or not transfer has taken place.3. thepracticeofaseriesofpractisingsessionsofschool internship is positively related to future teaching capabilitiesinregularprofessionalfields.Itsuggests either (i) the ability to teach and ability to achieve or (ii)abilitytoteachandabilitytoproblemsolvingare positively correlated. StatisticalFunction–ThePartialRankCorrelation
  3. 3. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 86 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION inContextofTransferofTrainingWhencorrelation is observed between (i) ability to achieve and (ii) ability to teach there is always the possibility that this correlation is due to the association between each of ability of achievement and that of teaching and the ability to problem solving – a third variable of the secondary pre-service teacher education training programme. By the technique of partial correlationtheresearcherheldtheeffectoftheability of problem solving on the relation between achievement and teaching competency and thereby the investigator determined the extent of direct or uncontaminated relation between any two abilities out of above mentioned three abilities.It is now important that whether the correlation between ‘ability to achieve’ and ‘ability to teach’ simply represents the operation of the third variable: ability toproblemsolving. Theinvestigatorcheckedwhether thisistruebycomputingapartialcorrelationbetween achievement and teaching competency partially out theeffectofneedtoproblemsolving.Theinvestigator also determined the correlation between teaching competencyandproblemsolvingwhenachievement is partialled out.The scores for the 22 subjects i.e. teacher trainees on each of the three variables in terms of the three sets of ranks are shown in Table 1. Each of the three variables whose effect has been partial out is the Z variable in the equation below:- FindingsandInterpretation Fromthedataaboveitisclear–(i)thatthecorrelation between‘achievement’(theX-variable)and‘teaching competency’(theY-variable)isrxy =0.962(ii) t h a t whenproblemsolvingability(Z)ispartialledout,the correlation between achievement (x) and teaching competency(y)is rxy.z =0.82. Sincethisvalueisnotmuch smaller than rxy =0.962; it could be concluded that the correlation between achievement and teaching competency(asmeasured)isrelativelyindependentof theinfluenceofproblemsolvingability(asmeasuredin terms of amount of problem solving ability). (iii) That in other cases when (a) achievement is partialled out, the correlation between teaching competency and problem solving is rxy.x = 0.027 which is of very low value and degree of relationship is positive but neglible and not significant. (b) Teaching competency is partialled out, the correlation between problem solving and achievementisrzx.y =0.472whichisalsonotacceptable . . 2 2(1 ) . (1 ) r r rx y x y x z r zx y r rx y z x − = − − rXY =0.962 rZY =0.869 rZX =0.900 rXY.Z =0.82 rZY.X =0.027 rZX.Y =0.472 2 2 6 1 ( 1 ) D r N N Σ = − −
  4. 4. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 87RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION fortakingintoconsiderationforfurtherinvestigation into the problem. (iv) that (1) correlation between teaching competencies and problem solving scores is rzy = 0.869, and (2) correlation between problem solving and achievement scores is rzx =0.900 (v) that student-trainees’ achievement test scores has significant role in transfer of training from pre- service secondary teacher education to regular teaching profession. TheKendallCo-efficientofConcordance(W) After measuring the correlation between two sets of rankingsofN(N=22)teacher-trainees,itisnecessary to consider a measure of the relation among several rankingsofN(N=22)teacher-trainees.Intable1there is K(=3) sets of ranking for three (3) the sets of abilities which have been arranged in table 2 below for further investigation.Here W = 0.951 is high value and is significant. It means that the ability scoresi.e.scoresinachievement(X),andin teaching comptetencies(Y)andproblemsolving(Z)measure with same standard in ranking 22 students (who studied the methods of teaching of mathematics and physical science and other compulsory and elective subjects) under study. Their pooled ordering can solveasastandardespeciallywhenthereisnorelevant external criterion for ordering these 22 students. Conclusion When the problem solving ability is partialled out, the high value of correlation between achievement scores (X) and teaching competency scores (Y) indicates that the achievement score in pre-service teacher-training programme has direct effect on subsequent performance of teaching profession. Moreover, high value of correlation co- efficient between achievement and teaching competency connotes the increase of similarly betweenthesetwoparameters.Obtaininghighscore inachievementincreasestheprobabilityofincreased amountoftransferanditcomesunderthepurviewof TheoryofIdenticalElement.Transferoftrainingfrom teacher-trainees’achievement to his future teaching profession can be facilitated by teaching theoretical constructs(philosophical,ideological,psychological) andwiththeirengagementwithsubjectcontent,text books etc. Moreover, teacher-trainees’achievement on theory courses which are designed around the key concepts and research from ‘Psychology’, ‘Philosophy’and ‘Sociology’.Foundation of