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59SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN
International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5...
60
International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5474, July, 2013 VOL-V * ISSUE...
61SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN
International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5...
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international indexed,refereed, Monthly, Multilingual, Interdisciplainery,research journal

  1. 1. 59SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5474, July, 2013 VOL-V * ISSUE -54 ^tu&vkUnksyu* esa lEiw.kZ lekt lekfgr gksrk gSA pkgs czkã.k gksa] {kf=; gksa] oS'; gksa vFkok 'kwæ] lHkh ,dtqV gksdj gh tu&vkUnksyu dks okftc vkdkj ns ldrs gSa] ftl ns'k esa lektxr dbZ Lrjh;rk gks ogk¡ dk dksbZ Hkh vkUnksyu ¼la?k"kZ½ tu&vkUnksyu ugha gks ldrkA gesa lcls igys blh dyqf"kr lkekftd Lrjh;rk ds f[kykQ la?k"kZ NsM+uk pkfg,] rHkh vkxs tu&vkUnksyu ds fy, lery tehu ulhc gksxh vkSj tu&vkUnksyu lcdks lekfgr dj vius okftc y{; dh izkfIr dj ik;sxkA tgk¡ rd nfyr lekt dh ckr gS] ;g lekt gtkjksa o"kksZa ls xkyh ds ckn FkIiM+ vkSj FkIi+M+ ds ckn ykBh ls pksfVy gksrk vk;k gSA bl lekt dk fuekZ.k fdu dkj.kksa ls gqvk] Los{kk ls gqvk vFkok cykr] ;g ckSf)d eUFku dk iz'u gS] ij bl lekt dh D;k fLFkfr jgh gS] vkSj D;k fLFkfr gS] dks ge viuh [kqyh vk¡[kksa ls ns[k ldrs gSaA lekt dk ,d fgLlk ekyiw,] nw/k&eD[ku xVd jgk gS vkSj ,d lw[kh jksVh] I;ky] uedA lekt dk ,d fgLlk vkyh'kku egyksa] okrkuqdwfyr edkuksa esa fuokl dj jgk gS vkSj dqN mUgha egyksa] edkuksa dh ukcnkuksa] xqly[kkuksa dh lQkbZ eas O;Lr gSA bl lkekftd Lrjh;rk dks ysdj ge fdl vkUnksyu dks mldh iw.kZrk esa ik ldrs gSa ;g ,d fopkj.kh; iz'u gSA Lo.kksZa }kjk nfyr tkfr;ksa dks ns[kdj O;aX; djuk] Hkoks&vk¡[kksa dks fldksM+uk] muls O;kogkfjd nwjh cuk;s j[kuk dgk¡ rd mfpr gSA vkt ,d oSKkfud ;qx gS] ge lHkh dks ;g Li"V gks pqdk gS fd gekjh mRifÙk czãk ds eq[k] ckgq] mnj vFkok iSjksa ls ugha gqbZ gS cfYd ge lHkh dh mRifÙk ,d gh izdkj ls gqbZ gSA lHkh ds nks gkFk] nks iSj] nks dku] nks vk¡[ks gSaA gesa czkã.k vFkok {kf=; gksus ds ukrs nks dh txg pkj gkFk ugha feys gSaA gk¡] ;g t:j gS fd gekjs chp ds dqN HkkbZ lkekftd fodkl esa fiNM+ x;s gSa] ftUgsa ge 'kwæ dgrs gSa] tks fd lgh ugha gSA vkse izdk'k ckYehfd us viuh iqLrd ^nfyr lkfgR; dk lkSUn;Z 'kkL=* esa nfyr lkfgR; o lekt dks ,sfrgkfld ifjn`'; esa ij[kus ij cy nsrs gq, fy[kk gS] ^^gtkjksa lky ls ,sfrgkfld ifjn`'; esa nfyrksa us tks lkekftd mRihM+u lgk gS] fo"kerk,¡ >syh gSa] HksnHkko vkSj 'kks"k.k us mlds efLr"d ij tks xgjh js[kk,¡ [khaph gS] ,slh o.kZ&O;oLFkk ls mith fo"kerkvksa vkSj folaxfr;ksa dks n`f"V esa j[kdj gh nfyr lkfgR; July,2013 ¼lekt½ dk fo'ys"k.k djds] lkSUn;Z'kkL= vkSj lkfgfR;d ewY;kdau ds v/;;u dh fn'kk esa vkxs c<+ ldrs gSaA**1 ;g lp gS fd fdlh Hkh elys dk ewY;kadu rHkh rF;xr~ vkSj lR;fu"B gks ldrk gS tc mls rRdkyhu ,sfrgkfld ifjn`'; esa j[kdj ij[kk tk;s] mlds ekud orZeku ls u xzg.k dj rkRdkfyd le; ls xzg.k fd;k x;k gksA nfyr leL;k tkfr O;oLFkk dh nsu gSA blfy, nfyr vkUnksyu dh iz-fr vFkok Lo:i dqN Hkh gks] bldk y{; tkfrfoghu lekt dh LFkkiuk gh gksuk pkfg,A lS)kfUrd :i ls tkfr O;oLFkk dk fojks/k rks deksos'k lHkh ;qxksa esa fopkjdksa o nk'kZfudksa }kjk fd;k x;k gS] ijUrq O;kogkfjd :i esa og lnSo vNwr gh cuh jghA vk/kqfud ;qx esa /keZ fujis{k 'kklu rFkk vUrtkZrh; fookg dks c<+kok nsus lEcU/kh dkuwu vkfn laoS/ kkfud O;oLFkkvksa ds ykxw gks tkus ds dkj.k tkfr O;oLFkk ds lkekftd o /kkfeZd vk;ke f'kfFky vo'; iM+ x;s gSa] fQj Hkh lekt ij mldh idM+ detksj ugha gqbZ gSA vkse izdk'k ckYehfd us lekt O;oLFkk ij tkfr vFkok o.kZ O;oLFkk ds bl idM+ dksfpf=r djrsgq, fy[kk gS]^^Hkkjrh; lekt&O;oLFkk us o.kZ O;oLFkk dk ,d ,slk ft+jgc[+rj igu j[kk gS] ftl ij yxkrkj geys gksrs jgs gSa fQj Hkh og VwV ugha ik;hA chloha lnh esa lcls cM+k geyk MkW- vEcsMdj us fd;k vkSj ckS) / keZ dks iquZthfor fd;kA o.kZ&O;oLFkk ds Lo:i esa cnyko fn[kkbZ iM+kA bl O;oLFkk dks rksM+us ds fy, tkfr O;oLFkk dk VwVuk t:jh gS] rHkh lekt esa lejlrk mRiUu gks ldrh gSA**2 e/;dkyhu lekt&O;oLFkk ijEijkRed lkeUrh O;oLFkk FkhA lkeUroknh O;oLFkk esa eq[;r% lkeUr oxZ gh vk/kkjHkwr oxZ Fkk tks jktk vkSj mlds Hkw&Lokeh izfrfuf/k;ksa rFkk mPp inkf/kdkfj;ksa dk feyk&tqyk 'kks"kd lewg FkkA ;g oxZ Hkwfe dk eq[; Lokeh gksrk Fkk] fdUrq Lo;a tksr cgqr djrk FkkA ;g lkekU;r% nwljksa ls] tks mldh tehu ij [ksrh djrs Fks] yxku olwy djrk FkkA nwljk oxZ] fdlkuksa ,oa etnwjksa dk FkkA fdlku tehankj dh tehu ij viuh dekbZ ds ,d eksVs jde ds :i esa yxku vFkok cVkbZ nsus ds miy{k esa [ksrh djrk Fkk vkSj mu lc esa -"kd etnwj vFkok rkRdkfyd gLr m|ksx ls tqM+s etnwj ^nfyr* gh gksrs Fks vkSj mu nfyrksa dks lekt esa fdlh izdkj dk lEekutud Lrj izkIr ugha FkkA vkfFkZd 'kks"k.k ds f'kdkj rks os Fks gh] ekufld vkfn dbZ 'kks"k.k
  2. 2. 60 International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5474, July, 2013 VOL-V * ISSUE -54 ds Hkh os f'kdkj gq,A fczfV'k 'kkludky esa fdlkuksa ds ikl [kqn Hkh tehu gksrh Fkh] gkykafd [kqn dh tehuksa okys fdlkuksa dh la[;k lhfer FkhA os vf/kdrj tehankj dh tehu ij gh [ksrh fd;k djrs Fks vkSj ftuds ikl viuh tehusa Fkh] mu fdlkuksa ls tc rd fd dksbZ [kkl dkj.k vFkok ml ij cgqr vf/kd yxku cdk;k ugha gks] mldh tehu ugha yh tk ldrh Fkh] fQj Hkh fdlku iw.kZr% tehankj ij gh fuHkZj jgrk Fkk] ftls dHkh Hkh csn[ky fd;k tk ldrk FkkA [ksrhgj etnwjksa ds ikl futh tksr ;k rks fcYdqy ugha Fkh ;k cl ukeek= dks FkhA budk fuokZg tehankj vFkok fdlku dh tksr ij dke djds gksrk FkkA budh gkyr cgqr dqN v/kZnkl tSlh FkhA tks oa'kkuqxr :i ls vius Hkw&Lokeh] ftldh tehu ij og clk gksrk Fkk] dk dke djrk FkkA ^^lkekUroknh O;oLFkk ds vUrxZr laLrj.k dk nwljk eq[; izdkj Fkk] tteku rFkk laLdkj lsodksa o nLrxhjksa dkA bl laLrj.k esa iz/kku oxZ gkykafd tteku ds uke ls tkuk tkrk Fkk] ysfdu mlesa lkeUr o Hkw&Lokeh gh vkrs FksA nwljs oxZ esa iqjksfgr] lksukj] dksgkj] c<+bZ] ukbZ] yqgkj] dgkj] ekyh rFkk pekj vkfn gksrs FksA tks ttekuh O;oLFkk ds vk/kkj ij izR;{k ;k ijks{k :i ls ,d nwljs ls lEc) FksA**3 izLrqr laLrj.k dk rkuk&ckuk tkfrijd O;oLFkk vFkkZr~ ifo=&vifo=] NqvkNwr dh /kkj.kk ds vk/kkj ij cquk x;k FkkA ^^nfyr yksx lsod o nLrxhj tkfr;ksa esa ls Fks] tks vkfFkZd o lkaL-frd n`f"V ls fuEudksfV dk dke djrs FksA ejs gq, eosf'k;ksa dks Qsaduk] mudk ek¡l [kkuk] [kky fudkyuk] peM+s dke dke djuk] ukj dkVuk rFkk tPpk&cPpk dh lQkbZ djuk] eSyk Qsaduk] lwvj ikyuk] lwvj dk cky fudkyuk] xUns diM+s /kqyuk] cqukbZ dk dke djuk] ck¡l dk dke djuk vkfn dk;Z vykHkdj rFkk xUns o vifo= le>s tkrs FksA vkerkSj ij nfyr bUgha dk;ks± dks djrs FksA**4 blfy, lkekftd] vkfFkZd <k¡ps esa bUgsa lcls fuEu LFkku izkIr FkkA mUgsa lk/kkj.k ukxfjd vf/kdkj Hkh izkIr ugha FksA bUgsa vNwr le>k tkrk Fkk vkSj eq[; cLrh ls nwj clk;k tkrk FkkA bu fonzwirkvksa ij xEHkhj fpUru djrs gq, izks- peuyky vNwr le>h tkus okyh tkfr Hkaxh ds deZ dh egÙkk dks Li"V dj mls lEeku fnykus dh iqjtksj dksf'k'k djrs gq, fy[krs gSa] ^^tjk dLcksa esa dYiuk djsa] tgk¡ vHkh y'k dh O;oLFkk ugha gS vkSj flj ij eSyk mBkus dh izFkk gSA ogk¡ nks fnu ?kj esa lQkbZ okyk u vk;k rks ?kj D;k] ekSgYyk fpfp;kus yxrk gSA tc eSys dh lQkbZ dk bruk egÙo gS rks Hkaxh ;k esgrj dks derj D;ksa le>k tk;s] mls rks vf/kd lEeku nsuk pkfg,] tks vkids ?kj o ekSgYys ;k 'kgj&dLcs dks iznw"k.k jfgr cukus esa Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gS o lekt dks xUnxh ls iSnk gks ldus okyh chekfj;ksa ls cpkrk gSA**5 izks-peuykydsmDrdFkulsyxHkxlHkh O;fDr&fopkjd lger gksaxs fd Hkaxh ;k esgrj }kjk dh tk jgh lQkbZ fdl gn rd lektksi;ksxh gS fdl izdkj os gekjs thou dks lq[kn vkSj jksx jfgr djus esa lgk;d gksrs gSaA vkt ge mUgha tkfr;ksa dks gs; n`f"V ls ns[krs gSa] mUgsa tkfr ds uhpys ik;nku ij ikdj mUgsa izrkfM+r djrs jgrs gSa vkSj bl izrkM+uk dks os fujUrj iqLr&nj&iqLr Hkksxrs vk jgs gSaA dqN le; iwoZ rd tkrh; laLrj.k ds vUrxZr O;fDr dh lkekftd fLFkfr] mldk O;olk; ,oa mldk HkkX; tUe ls fuf'pr gks tkrk FkkA tks pekj ds :i esa tUek] og vkthou pekj jgrk FkkA pekj ds :i esa og vkthou vius Hkw&Lokeh ds ;gk¡ pekjh] Maxkjh vkSj eatwjh djrk FkkA mlds fodkl ds lkjs jkLrs mlh le; cUn gks tkrs] ftl iy mlds iSj fdlh pekj ds vkaxu esa iM+rsA vFkkZr~ tUe ysrs gh og bl tkfr O;oLFkk ds dyq"k&iw.kZ tgjhyh jlksa dk iku djus yxrk FkkA tkfr O;oLFkk dks fpjLFkk;h cukus okys jktuSfrd ,oa vkfFkZd vk/kkj fczfV'k 'kkludky esa /khjs&/khjs detksj iM+us yxsA gkykafd vaxzstksa dh izkjfEHkd uhfr Hkkjrh; lekt o laL- fr ds ijEijkRed <k¡ps dks NsM+us dh ugha Fkh] D;ksafd ,slk dne muds jktuSfrd fgrksa ds fy, tksf[ke Hkjk gks ldrk FkkA rFkkfi ik'pkR; lkekftd] lkaL-frd ewY;ksa vkSj ik'PkkR; f'k{kk o thou&i)fr ds izfr mudh izfrc)rk rFkk ns'k esa ijorhZ fczfV'kdky ds jktuSfrd ?kVukØeksa ,oa fgUnw lkekftd lq/kkj vkUnksyuksa dks ns[krs gq, muds fy, ukxfjd vf/kdkjksa esa O;kIr ijEijkRed vlekurk dks feVkuk] ykSfdd dkuwuksa dk fuekZ.k djuk rFkk f'k{kk dks ykSfdd o yksdO;kih cukuk vko';d gks x;kA vkS|ksfxd fodkl vkSj i¡wthokn ds izlkj ds QyLo:i tkfr O;oLFkk dk vkfFkZd o O;kolkf;d vk/kkj Hkh lekIr gks x;kA uohu m|ksxksa o lsokvksa esa HkrhZ ds fy, yksxksa dks f'kf{kr o izf'kf{kr djus dh vko';drk gqbZA f'k{kk vkSj vkS|ksfxd ,oa ruuhfd izf'k{k.k dk rsth ls izlkj gqvkA ifj.kkeLo:i f'k{kk] ukSdjh] O;olk; rFkk is'ks ds pquko esa nfyr Lora= gks x;kA tkfr O;oLFkk dks v{kq.k j[kus okyk iqjksfgr o lkeUr oxZ dk ijEijkRed opZLo vkSifuosf'kd dky] fo'ks"k ;i ls mdls mÙkjk/kZ esa lekIr gksus yxk ftlls lkekftd lekurk ds fy, dh tkus okyh igy vklku gks x;hA gkyk¡fd bl lkekftd lekurk dks vHkh iwjh rjg izkIr ugha fd;k tk ldk gSA vHkh Hkh yksxksa ds eu&efLr"d esa oSpkfjd NqvkNwr dk Hkko Hkjk iM+k gSA vkt Hkh nfyr fdlh u fdlh :i esa fujUrj izrkfM+r gksrs vk jgsa gSa] tks fgUnqLrku dh lkewfgd ,drk ds fy, ?kkrd gSA vkt vxj lkewfgd ,drk ds fy, dksf'k'k gks Hkh jgh gS rks ek= tkfrxr tSls&czkã.k lekt] jktiwr lekt] oS'; lekt vFkok nfyr lektA tuxr ,drk ds fy, tks dksf'k'k gksus pkfg, og dksf'k'k mDr lektksa ds fuekZ.k vkSj mlds esuhQsLVks dh uDdk'kh esa my> dj jg x;h gSA gekjs
  3. 3. 61SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5474, July, 2013 VOL-V * ISSUE -54 lekt ;g nqHkkZX; gh gS fd ge dbZ [k.Mksa esa foHkDr gSa] ftldk ykHk fujUrj lÙkk ij dkfct+ lewg mBk jgk gS vkSj ge QVh fcokbZ dh rjg eq¡g vkSj vk¡[ksa QkM+s mudks ns[k jgs gSaA vkt gekjk lekt fdlh ,deqLr tu&vkUnksyu dh njdkj fy, ,d nwljs dk eq¡g rkdrk [kM+k gSA tu&vkUnksu ds fy, ftl lkewfgd ,dtqVrk dh vko';drk gS og vkt Hkh v/kwjk gS] ftl ij ge lHkh dks lkspuk gksxk] pkgs lo.kZ gksa ;k nfyrA Hkkjrh; lekt ds nfyrksa dks ;g lkspuk pkfg, fd fdlh Hkh tu&vkUnksyu dh lkFkZdrk] O;kidrk rFkk nh?kZdkyhu mn~ns';ksa dh izkfIr gq, mls dekscs'k lHkh tkfr;ksa] uLyksa] 1 vkse izdk'k ckYehfd] ^nfyr lkfgR; dk lkSUn;Z 'kkL=*] jk/kk-".k izdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh] r`rh; laLdj.k 2009] i`"B 58A 2 vkse izdk'k ckYehfd] ^nfyr lkfgR; dk lkSUn;Z 'kkL=*] jk/kk-".k izdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh] r`rh; laLdj.k 2009] i`"B 59&60 A 3 MkW- vkj-th- flag] ^Hkkjrh; nfyrksa dh leL;k,¡ ,oa mudk lek/kku*] e/; izns'k fgUnh xzUFk vdkneh] Hkksiky] izFke laLdj.k] 1986] i`"B 73 A 4 MkW- vkj-th- flag] ^Hkkjrh; nfyrksa dh leL;k,¡ ,oa mudk lek/kku*] e/; izns'k fgUnh xzUFk vdkneh] Hkksiky] izFke laLdj.k] 1986] i`"B 74 A 5 izks- peuyky] ^nfyr lkfgR; dk ewY;kadu*] jktiky ,.M lUl] d'ehjh xsV] fnYyh] izFke laLdj.k&2008] i`"B 202 A Hkk"kk;h] lewgksa] /kekZcyfEc;ksa ds lg;ksx rFkk leFkZu dh vko'drk gksrh gSA nfyr Lo;a dks lekt ds vU; ?kVdksa ls i`Fkd djds vius egÙo vkSj izHkko dks c<+k ugha ldrsA mudk jktuhfrd egÙo Hkh rHkh c<+ ldrs gSa tc os lekt ds vU; oxks± dks vius lkFk ,dtqV djus esa lQy gks tk;saA mÙkj izns'k esa clik usrk lqJh ek;korh }kjk fiNys fo/kkulHkk pqukoksa esa blh lks'ky bathfu;fjax }kjk nfyrksa dks lo.kks± ds lkFk tksM+dj cM+s tuleFkZu ds lkFk lÙkk izkIr djus esa lQyrk feyh FkhA Hkfo"; esa Hkh dksbZ cM+k tu&vkUnksyu nfyr tkfr;ksa ds lg;ksx ds fcuk lQy gks ik;sxk] ,slk ugha yxrk] ijUrq nfyr vU; tkfr;ksa ls vyx&Fkyx jgdj Hkh dksbZ cM+k tu&vkUnksyu pyk ik;saxs] blesa Hkh lUnsg gSA

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