INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER

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INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER

  1. 1. 54 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 nfyr dk vFkZ gS & ftldk neu vkSj nyu gqvk gS] nck;k x;k gS] mRihfM+r 'kksf"kr] lrk;k gqvk] fxjk;k gqvk] misf{kr jksank gqvk] elyk gqvk] dqpyk gqvk] oafpr rFkk gkjk gqvk] vkfnA MkWŒ ';ksjkt ds vuqlkj & Þnfyr og gS ftls Hkkjrh; lafo/kku us vuqlwfpr tkfr dk ntkZ fn;k gSAß ;g nfyr 'kCn tc lkfgR; ls tqM+rk gS] rks fojks/k vkSj udkj dh vksj ladsr djrk gSA ;g udkj pkgs O;oLFkk dk gks] lkekftd folaxfr;ksa dk gks ;k /kkfeZd #f<;ksa dk] vkfFkZd fo"kerkvksa dk gks ;k Hkk"kk izkar ds vyxko dk ;k lkfgfR;d ekun.Mksa vkSj ijEijkvksa dk gksA nfyr lkfgR; udkj dk lkfgR; gS tks LokrU';ksRrj la?k"kZ ds mijkUr mitk gS] ftlesa lerk vkSj ca/kqrk dk Hkko gS vkSj o.kZ O;oLFkk ls mits tkfrokn dk fojks/k gSA lkfgR; ds lkFk nfyr 'kCn tqM+rs gh mudh O;kidrk vkSj vf/kd 'kfDr'kkyh gks x;hA vFkZ vkSj vf/kd O;atukRed gksdj gh lkfgR; dh Hkwfedk vkSj mlds lkekftd mRrjnkf;Roksa dks vkSj vf/kd fo'ysf"kr djus dh {kerk xzg.k dj ysrk gSA Þ^nfyr^ 'kCn lkfgR; ds lkFk tqM+dj ,d ,slh lkfgfR;d /kkjk dh vksj ladsr djrk gS] tks ekuoh; ljksdkjksa vkSj laosnukvksa dh ;FkkFkZoknh vfHkO;fDr gSAÞ nfyr ys[kd dsoy nfyrksa ds vf/kdkjksa ,oa ewY;ksa rd gh lhfer ugha jgk] cfYd lkekftd lanHkks± ds lkFk tqM+dj lewps lekt dh vfLerk ,oa ewY;ksa dh igpku cu x;k gSA Þnfyr lkfgR; ml nch gqbZ vfLerk dks izk.koku ekuo vfLerk dk fgLlk cukus dh yM+kbZ yM+ jgk gSA tks o.kZ foghu] oxZfoghu] tkfr foghu] lekt cukdj ,d ekuoh; lekt cukus dh ?kks"k.kk djrk gSAß nfyr eqfDr dh pkg rks LorU=rk ls iwoZ gh izkjEHk gks pqdh Fkh fdUrq lkfgR; esa nfyr foe'kZ dh 'kq#vkr LorU=rk ds i'pkr gh ekuk tk ldrk gS D;ksafd blls igys nfyr lkfgR; dk dksbZ uke u FkkA LorU=rk ds i'pkr nfyrksa us vius vf/kdkjksa dh ppkZ djuh 'kq# dh rFkk Lo;a vius vf/kdkjksa ds izfr tkx#d gq,] ftlesa lkfgR; us egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZA nfyr lkfgR; og ys[ku gS] tks o.kZ&O;oLFkk ds fojks/k esa vkSj mlds foijhr ewY;ksa ds fy, la?k"kZjr euq"; ds izfr izfrc) gSA o.kZ&O;oLFkk vFkkZr~ }s'k] 'k=qrk] frjLdkj dh HkkoukA blds foijhr ewY;ksa vFkkZr~ izse] ca/kqRo] lerk] Hkkr`Hko iw.kZ 'kkafr vkSj le`f) dk HkkoA nfyr lkfgR; ls gekjk vfHkizk; ml lkfgR; ls gS] ftlesa nfyrksa us Lo;a viuh ihM+k dks izLrqr fd;k gSA vius thou la?k"kZ esa nfyrksa us ftl ;FkkFkZ vkSj lPpkbZ dks Hkksxk gS] nfyr lkfgR; mudh mlh vfHkO;fDr dk lkfgR; gSA ;g dyk ds fy, dyk ugha] cfYd thou dk] thou dh ftthfo"kk dk lkfgR; gS D;ksafd nfyr lkfgR; ;krukvksa dh vuqqxqat Hkj ugha gSAÞ nfYkr lkfgR; dh O;kidrk blh esa gS fd og vU;k;] vR;kpkj] lkekftd fo"kerkvksa] 'kks"k.k neu ds fo#) ,d nhokj dh rjg [kM+k gks tk, csgrj lket dh ifjdYiuk dks Lohdkj djus ds fy,A rHkh mldk lkekftd nkf;Ro vkSj oSpkfjdh izfrc)rk fl) gksxhA fgUnh dk nfyr lkfgR; nfyr vkUnksyu dk fgLlk gS ;g vkUnksyu lkeftd] lkaLÑfrd] vkfFkZd ,oa jktuSfrd ifjfLFkfr;ksa dh nsu gS rFkk ;g vkUnksyu viuh ijEijkvksa ekU;rkvksa ,oa ewY;ksa dks xzg.k djrk gqvk fodflr gqvkA nfyr lkfgr; vius ewy esa lkekftd mRrjnkf;Ro ,o lkekftd ifjorZu dks lesVs gq, gSaA ;g Økafr dks ogu djus okyk lkfgR; gS] ftlds ek/;e ls og lkekftd folaxfr;ksa] /kkfeZd #f<+;ksa ,oa vkfFkZd fo"kerkvksa dks udkjrk gSA nfyr lkfgR; us turk dh ekufldrk cnyhA ;g va/kfo'oklksa] #f<+;ksa ,oa foÑr ijEijkvksa dks ekuus okyk lkfgR; ugha gS cfYd foKku ls mRiUu rdZ dks egRo nsus okyk lkfgR; gSA nfyr lkfgR; ,slk tkfrfoghu lekt cukus dh dYiuk gS tks va/kfo'okl] ijEijkvksa] #f<+;ksa rFkk HkkX; ,oa Hkxoku ls eqDr gksA bldk y{; 'kksf"kr ls 'kks"kd ugha cfYd 'kks"k.k ds vk/kkj vFkkZr Å¡p&uhp dks [kRe dj lekurk ykuk gSA vkt fgUnh lkfgR; esa nfyr foe'kZ us ,d fo'kky ys[kd oxZ rS;kj dj fy;k gS cfYd muds i{k esa nfyr lkfgR; dks c<+kok nsus okys ekgksy yxkrkj rS;kj dj jgk gSA nfyr lkfgR; izkjEHk ls gh Økafrdkjh jgk gS pkgs oks izxfroknh nkSj gh D;ksa u gksA vkt lSadM+ks dfo ,oa ys[kd fy[k jgs gSa] rFkk viuh nklrka Lo;a c;ku dj jgs gSaA tSls vkseizdk'k ckYehfd] dkS'kY;k] clU=h bR;kfnA nfyr lkfgR;dkjksa dh jpukRed ftthfo"kk dk gh ifj.kke gS fd orZeku ;qx esa fofHkUu i=&if=dkvksa ds ek/;e ls os viuh vkokt dks ikBdksa rd igqapk jgs gSaA ;gh ugha] vusd if=dkvksa ds nfyr fo'ks"kkad fudy jgs gS rFkk dqN December ,2013 'kks/k i=& fgUnh fgUnh dk nfyr lkfgR; ¼nfyr foe'kZ dh ubZ jkg½ * MkW- y{eh nsoh * vdknfed dkmalyj] bZxuw
  2. 2. 55SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 if=dk,a rks nfyr lkfgR; ij gh dsfUnzr fn[kkbZ iM+rh gSA bu if=dkvksa esa ^;q)jr~ vke vkneh^ rFkk ^'ks"k nqfu;k^ izeq[k gS] ftUgksaus cM+s iSekus ij nfyr ys[ku dks la;ksftr vkSj izdkf'kr djus dh tks dksf'k'k dh gS] mlls fgUnh lkfgR; esa nfyr psruk dh izxfr esa fu'p; gh enn feysxhA blds vfrfjDr vU; Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa esa Hkh nfyr&psruk dks ubZ izsj.kk fey jgh gSA nfyr lkfgR; lekt&lkis{k lkfgR; gSA lkfgR; dh ewy laosnuk ds lkFk&lkFk nfyr lkfgR; euq"; dh LorU=rk] lerk vkSj ca/kqRo dh Hkkouk dks loksZifj ekurk gS rFkk nfyr jpukdkjksa us lkfgR; dks eqfDr vkUnksyu dk ,d fgLlk cuk fn;k gSA 'kCn ds ek/;e ls mtkZ xzg.k dj mUgksaus vius vkUnksyu dks xaHkhj ljksdkjksa ls tksM+ fn;k gSA fo[;kr ys[kd ckcqjke ckxqy dh ;g ekU;rk gS fd nfyr lkfgR; dk dsUnz fcUnq ekuo gS] vkSj og ekuo ds bZn&fxnZ ?kwerk gSA vkt nfyr lkfgR; dh pkjksa rjQ ppkZ gS pkgs og fgUnh lkfgR; gks ;k fQj vU; Hkk'kk dk nfyr lkfgR;A fgUnh esa ;g Hkys gh nsj ls vk;k gks] ysfdu vkrs gh blus viuh ,d fof'k"V igpku cuk yh gSa vusd fo}ku fgUnh esa nfyr dh vfHkO;fDr dHkh fl) dfo;ksa dh jpukvksa ds [kkstrs gSa rks dHkh HkfDrdky dh jpukvksa esa] ij tks Hkh gks vkt nfyr lkfgR; us pkjksa rjQ viuh ,d fof'k"V igpku dk;e dh gS rFkk lekt esa viuh mifLFkfr ntZ djok nh gSA bl izdkj dgk tk ldrk gS fd fgUnh ds nfyr lkfgR; us nfyr lekt ds mRFkku esa ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ gS] vkSj lekt esa ,d Økafr dh Tokyk Qwad nh gS vkSj ,sls lekt dh LFkkiuk ds fy, iz;Ru'khy gS tks vEcsMdjoknh] xka/khoknh fopkj/kkjk ls izHkkfor gksA tks o.kZokn] tkfrokn dk ?kksj fojks/kh gks] tgka ij gj txg leHkko gh fn[kkbZ nsA vr% fgUnh lkfgR; nfyr lekt ds lkFk&lkFk lEiw.kZ txr esa ubZ psruk rFkk u;k foe'kZ ykus okyk lkfgR; fl) gks jgk gSA 1 ;q)jr~] vke vkneh ¼if=dk] vad 41&42½] 1998] i`Œ 14 2 fojsUnzdqekj ;kno % nfyr foe'kZ vkSj /kjrh /ku o viuk] 2006] i`Œ 6 3 ;q)jr~] vke vkneh ¼if=dk] vad 41&42½] 1998] i`Œ 9 4 vkse izdk'k ckYehfd % nfyr lkfgr; dk lkSUnZ'kkL=] 2001] i`Œ 20

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