INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER

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INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER

  1. 1. 52 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 Introduction Sex ratio is one of the important indicators to measure the extent of equity between males and fe- males in a society at a given point of time and also an important source to comprehend women's health and position in any society. Sex ratio is number of females per1000males.Thepopulationcensusof2011revealed that sex ratio in India in 2011 is 940 females per 1000 males. It has shown improvement in last 10 years, has goneupby7pointsfrom933in2001to940in2011.But this composition of population by gender is not uni- form. It shows a diverse pattern across different states and union territories. Kerala and Puduchery are the only two places in India where females are more than males.StateofKeralahas1084femalesforevery1000 males,hasthebestsexratioinIndia.WhereasHaryana has879femalesfor1000males,whichisbelownational average and lowest in India as per census 2011. This paper examines the changing pattern of sex ratio in Haryana of21 districts over the last centuryand inves- tigates current trends of sex ratio. StudyArea:- The state of Haryana is located in the north- ern part of India and has New Delhi as its neighbour alongwithPunjab&Rajasthan.PopulationofHaryana asper2011 Censesstandsatabout25million.Haryana spreads over an area of about 44212 .sq Km. The lit- eracyrateinthestateisabout76%.Densityofpopulation is573personspersq kmwhichisfifthhighestinIndian states. Objectives:- The present study has been undertaken with the following specific objectives. • To studythearithmeticsexratiointhestudyregion. • To find out the Changing pattern of sex ratio in Haryana during2001-2011 Database&Methodology The present study is primarily passed on secondary data collected from census reports of Govt. Of India covering sex ratio of 21 districts of Haryana. Thesex ratio ismeasured giventhe followingformula. FemalePopulation Formula = Sex ratio = × 100 MalePopulation Asper theCenses 2011,PopulationofHaryanais 2.54 Crorei.e. 25,351,462 of which male are13,494,734 & female are 11,856,728. Sex ratio of Haryana is 879 fe- males per thousand males. See Table 1 Table1showsthatin1901sexratioinHaryana was867,Itdeclinedto835 in1911.Sexratio increased to 844 in 1921 and further increased to 871 in 1951 & thenagainshowedadecliningtrend.Itwas861in2001 and has increased to 879 in 2011, a leap of 18 points, whichisaconsiderableincreasebutitisbelownational average of 940 as per censes 2011. The sex ratio in Haryanainpast100yearshasremainedbetween835on thelowestside&879onthehighestside.In1901itwas 867 & it was same in 1971. See Table 2 Table 1:- Haryana: Sex Ratio Year Population Male Female Sex ratio 1901 46,23,064 24,76,390 21,46,674 867 1911 41,74,677 22,74,909 18,99,768 835 1921 42,55,892 23,07,985 19,47,907 844 1931 45,59,917 24,73,228 20,86,689 844 1941 52,72,829 28,21,783 24,51,046 869 1951 56,73,597 30,31,612 26,41,985 871 1961 75,90,524 40,62,787 35,27,737 868 1971 1,00,36,431 53,77,044 46,59,387 867 1981 1,29,22,119 69,09,679 60,12,440 870 1991 1,64,63,698 88,27,474 76,36,174 865 2001 2,11,44,564 1,13,63,953 97,80,611 861 2011 2,53,51,462 1,34,94,734 1,18,56,728 879 Source:-census of India 2001, Administrative Atlas and Census of India 2011 (Haryana profile) Research Paper -Economics December , 2013 Changingpattern ofsex ratio in Haryana * Monisha Chaudhary ** Dr Renu Sardana * Asst.Professor(Economics)Govt.CollegeTigaon,Faridabad ** Asst.Professor(Economics) Govt.CollegeTigaon Faridabad
  2. 2. 53SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 Table 3 shows that as per census 2011. Total sexratio inHaryanais879femalesper1000males&it varies from one district to another. Top districts ac- cordingtosexratioareMewat(906),Fatehabad(904)& Rewari (898). Bottomdistricts having lowest sexratio areSonepat&Gurgaonwithsexratioof853.Femalesex ratiodippedinMahendergarhby24pointsfrom918 in 2001 to 894 in2011 &Rewari byonepointto beat898 in2011.Jhajjarwith774femalechildper1000malechild inHaryanahastheCountry'sworstsexratioin(0-6)age group. Mewat has 903 child sex ratio which is highest inHaryana.Outof21districts20districtsarebelow880 (national average) in child sex ratio. 5 districts have showndecliningchild sexratio. Bhiwani(841)in2001 has dipped by 10 points to 831 in 2011. Jhajjar 801 in 2001 dipped by 27 points to be at 774 in 2011. In Mohindergarhchild sexratio dippedby40pointsfrom 818 in 2001 to 778 in 2011. In Rewari it dipped by 27 Points from 811 in 2001 to 784 in 2011 & Faridabad showeddeclineof5pointtobeat842in2011.5Districts Ambala(807),Rohtak(807),Jhajjar(774),Mohendergarh (778)&Rewari(784)areamongthebottomtendistricts of India in child sex ratio. Reasons for the decline in Sex ratio in Haryana:- Haryana has the lowest sex ratio in India. Main reason of decline in sex ratio is due to the biased attitudewhichismeted outto thewomen.Theassump- tionisthatthegirlsareaburden,aliabilitytothefamily where as boys carry the family name forward & bring honour to it & it is Coupled with burgeoning ultra- sound centres. This has fuelled the menace of female foeticide. Sex ratio at birth is influenced by sex selec- tion abortions, Son preference, high mortality rate, female foeticide, cultural practises & neglect of girl child. Conclusion:- Haryana has the lowest sex ratio in the coun- try. Social attitude of preference of male child, low women status & poor health facilities led to low sex ratio, although it has increased by 18 pts and is highest in past 110 years but it is much below the national average & a lot needs to be done to improve the socio- economic status of women & create an environment againstsexselection.Deficitinfemalepopulation,leads to demographic imbalance and adverse social conse- quences. It can only be suggested that sensitisation is the most important thing that can be done to come out of this complex situation. Table 2:- The Trends in sex ratio in India & Haryana - A comparison:- Year Sex ratio in India Sex ratio in Haryana 1901 972 867 1911 964 835 1921 955 844 1931 950 844 1941 945 869 1951 946 871 1961 941 868 1971 930 867 1981 934 870 1991 927 865 2001 933 861 2011 940 879 Source: - Census of India 2011. Table 3:- District wise sex ratio & child sex ratio 2001 & 2011 in Haryana. Sex Ratio Child Sex Ratio (0-6 years) District 2001 2011 2001 2011 Panchkula 823 870 829 850 Ambala 868 882 782 807 Yamuna Nagar 862 877 806 825 Kurukshetra 866 889 771 817 Kaithal 853 880 791 821 Karnal 865 886 809 820 Panipat 829 861 809 833 Sonepat 839 853 788 790 Jind 852 870 818 835 Fatehabad 884 904 828 845 Sirsa 882 896 817 852 Hisar 851 871 832 849 Bhiwani 879 884 841 831 Rohtak 847 868 799 807 Jhajjar 847 861 801 774 Mohinder Garh 918 894 818 778 Rewari 899 898 811 784` Gurgaon 850 853 807 826 Mewat 899 906 893 903 Faridabad 826 871 847 842 Palwal 862 879 854 862 Source:- Censes of India 2011 (Haryana Profile) 1 A socio Cultural study of declining sex ratio in Delhi & Haryana - a Report - National institute of Public Cooperation & Child development. 2 Census of India 2011:- Population total, Paper 1 of 2011, series-1 -Registrar General& Census commissioner of India. 3 Human Development Report 2011:- gender inequality & related indicators. 4 A situational analysis of women and girls in Haryana - National commission for women New Delhi. 5 Barakade, AJ(2012) "Declining sex ratio : An Analysis with special reference to Maharashtra " Geosciences Research , vol3,No1,pp-92-95. R E F E R E N C E

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