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  1. 1. 40 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 Introduction Solid Waste Management includes all activi- tiesthatseektominimizethehealth,environmentaland aesthetic impacts of solid wastes. Solid waste can be defined as material that no longer has any value to the person who is responsible for it, and is not intended to be discharged through a pipe. It does not normally include human excreta. It is generated by domestic, commercial, industrial, healthcare, agricultural and mineralextractionactivitiesand accumulatesinstreets and public places. The words "garbage", "trash", "refuse" and "rubbish" are used to refer to some forms of solid waste. Solid wastes are generated by many different activities. TheInternationalSolidWasteAssociation The international Solid Waste Association (ISWA) is a global body concerned with professional waste management. ISWA is a non-political and non- governmental association by statutes and follows the missionstatementtopromoteanddevelopprofessional waste management worldwide as a contribution to sustainable development. ISWA's objective is the worldwide exchange of information and experience on all aspects of waste management. ISWApromotes the adoption of accept- ablesystemsofprofessionalwastemanagementand of public cleansing through technological development and improvement of practices for the protection of human life and health and of the environment as well as the conservation of materials and energy resources. Theassociationisactiveinavarietyofareas,including conferences,meetings,trainingprogrammes,informa- tion development and dissemination, and technical assistance on a global scale. ISWAhas a total of more than 1,200 members in 93 countries. Its network ex- pands to countries with more than 80% of the world's population. ISWA has three membership categories: nationalmembers,organizationmembersandindividual members.Atpresent, thereare32national membersor incoming national members that represent their coun- try on solid waste issues. ISWA's national members represent countries with 48% of the world population and 87% in terms of global GNP. Research Paper—Economics Aug.- Oct ,2013 ComparativeApproach of Solid Waste Management * Prof. R.Radjavally ** Dr.V.J.R.Emerlson Moses * Research Scholar, Muthurangam Govt. Arts College, Vellore. ** Asst. Prof. and Research Guide, PG & Research Dept. of Eco., Muthurangam Govt. Arts College, Vellore ComparativeApproachtotheSolidWasteManage- mentinUsandIndia The detailed study on solid waste management prac- tices in India and USA revealer several interesting things. India being a developing country, the trash managementinthecountryisstillatthetrashlevelonly. Though several efforts are being regularly made to recycleeverythingmostlybytheinformalsector,which need to be properly recorded. A group of poor people who undertake this activity are called rag pickers and the new name is street beautifiers.Alarge number Non Governmental Organization are now taking interest in thewastemanagementinIndia.MostlytheNGOactivi- tiesareconcentrated inbigcitiesofIndiato nameafew theNGO'Slike,TheExnora,Vatavaran,Blue bird,and other environmental organizations are active in the cities.Additionally the foreign agencies are also in the forefront to manage waste in metro cities of India. In villages solid waste management is not a problem ex- cept the plastic bags. Rest of the waste managed by composting and recycling. In cities and towns waste management has to be updated urgently on scientific way. In contrast to the above the United States of America is being a developed country established the SWM network as model in the world. However, it is found that India is one of the countries, which wastes maximum amount of resources. According to Miller (2000)98%ofthetotalsolidwastescomefrommining, oil and natural gas production, agriculture industrial activities used to produce goods and services for con- sumers. Houses and commercial centers produce the remaining 1.5% of solid wastes in the USA. The solid waste management has grown as an industry and sev- eral millions of people find their bread in the business. Itiswellorganized.Someoftheconclusionsdrawnare shown as below: SolidWasteManagementinUSA • The USEPAhas maintained the records and pub lished annual reports on Solid waste manage ment in the country since 1960 regularly. The county Produced 231.9 millions thons of solid wastes in 2000, excluding 53.4 millions tons re
  2. 2. 41RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 cycled mostly yard trimming waste. The yard wastes are composted by the locals in their back yard and used as manure for their gardens. • ThetotalSWMgeneratedin1960was88.1million thons and it rose to 231.9 tons in 2000, which showed an increasing trend with the increase in human population. • The per capita waste generation the USA was only 2.68 pounds per person per day in the 1960, increased gradually and it was 4.64 pounds in 1999. • The percent evaluation of recovery, composting and discard, revealed that 69-70% of the wastes are discarded and only about 30% of the waste materialsarerecoveredin1990-2000.Howeverit is good to note that in 1960 to 1980 the discard was more than 90% and now it declined to 70%, whichshowsagradualimprovementinthewaste recovery management technology in the nation. • The USA is said to be the nation of waste full society. It may be due to the strong economy, which is influenced the over consumption and nourishedthroughawayculture.Thethrowaway culture and over consumption of fast food evi denced by obesity in many humans in USA. Obesity is an indicator of wasteful consumption of resources. • TheUSEPAboaststhatbetween1998-1999NSW generation increased a slight and in 2000 about 59 millions of solid waste are recycled. It is not encouraging,as mostofit wasgrasscut, fromthe back yards, which can easily be composted by the householders themselves and nothing to do with Municipal Departments. The reduction at sourcecamefromthelocallyenacted bansonthe disposal of yard trimmings into landiflls and suc cessful campaign promoting for onsite composting.Therealneedistorecycleimportant goods, like paper, cardboard, rubber tire, elec tronic goods, cloth and plastics, which can save significant amounts of natural resources. There is a need to grow and nourish the recycle culture in the society further. Off course, already a good start in the recycling of paper and cardboards, acid batteries and packaging materials are under taken. • The throw away culture should be discouraged by putting regulatory ban on the manufacture of disposable goods. • The USEPA also boast that the numbers of land fill are gradually decreased the to recycling. The number was 6326 in 1990 and reduced to 2000 sites in 2000. But the areas wise, it remained the samehence,landfillingisalsoremainedthesame. • It is concluded that there is need to reduce the rate of land filling and increase the rate of re source recovery. It is also suggested to reduce the rate of incineration and increase the rate of reuse and recycling. SolidWasteManagementinIndia • InIndiaabout629millionpeopleliveinabouthalf a million villages. The population is very thin in these villages and hence the collection and trans portation of wastes is not difficult. The tradi tional practice of using wastes by way of fuel, animalfeed,farmmanureaccountsnearly90%of allthewasteutilization.Hardly1.6%ofthewastes are not being used for any useful purpose. It is clearthattraditionalmethodshavebeenadequate inhandlingwastesgeneratedinruralareas.There fore rural waste does not pose not pose any problem like urban solid wastes do. • At parwith the industrial growthand rapid urban ization the production of solid wastes is also increased. The solid waste management is rela tively new to Indian environment. During the mind seventies the per capita solid waste produc tion in India was 150 to 300 mg/day, where as in the late eighties it roseto 320 to 500 mg/day.The urbanpopulationiscurrently330millions,outof this class I cities accounted for 60%. The poor managementofurbansolidwasteisevidenced in the degradation urban environments. • The collection efficiency in small towns lag be hind about 60% than the larger towns at >80%. This indicates poor indicates poor infrastructure and poor financial conditions of small and me dium towns. • The MSW generated in India contain high amountsofmoisture and rich inorganic contents coupled with the high temperature makes fre quentremovalorganiccontents coupled withthe high temperature makes frequent removal neces sary. Unskilled labor is employed to sweep the roads and collect the garbage. Though the labor costislowduetolargescalemanpowerdeployed and the low productivity, the cost is high. It is estimated that India spends four times more on sweeping than it spends on the collection. • Income of scavengers is required for their suste nance as they are the poor among the poorest in urban areas. There are no data available to esti mate the volume of wastes being recycled by the informal sector,as thissector isnot documented.
  3. 3. 42 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 • As in most of the Asian countries in India also, the solid wastes are land filled, many times just dumped into low-lying areas. In some cases the methodsfollowedarenotinkeepingwithmodern practice of sanitary land filling. Solid wastes are usuallydumpedin thelow-lying areas.The daily covering techniques are poor leading to vector problems.Diversionoflargeportionoffundsfor collectionandtransportationresultsinnoneavail ability of funds for disposal activities. • Composting is the highly suitable option for the solid waste managementinIndia.But thisoption is also suffering from various setbacks. • The study conducted by WHO in 1982 revealed that the Solid waste in India is poor in recyclable materials like metal, glass and paper, as they are taken away by the informal sector for recycling. According to the studyof TERI, the waste collec tion efficiency in Indian cities is 72.5% and re maining 27.5% is left on the sites. • Among the 27 states in Indian Republic, Bihar is the most backward place with a high per capita generationandlowpercapitadisposalofwastes, where as all other states showed high per capita generationwithhighpercapitadisposal.Itmeans BiharisthemostfilthystateofIndia.Haryanahas the distinction of occupying the best position as judged bythe lowper capita generation and high per capita waste disposal. • There is no national level data available on the solid waste generation, collector and disposal. However,SinghalandPandayhavepredicted the futurescenarioofsolidwasteproductioninIndia based on BAU for the year 2047. According to theirstudybytheyear2047,Indiawouldproduce approximately 260 million tons of solid waste annually,whichismorethanfivetimesthepresent levels. This enormous amount requires 1400 km landand willproducehugeamountofmethaneto the environment. • Unplanned land filling of wastes may lead to contaminationofground water andbad Oderand methaneproduced mayadd to global warming.It is estimated that in 1997 the landfills have re leased about 7 million tons of methane into the atmosphere, which would increase to 39 million tons by 2047. • There is a need for the continuous education of the common public about the awareness on en vironment in which they live and its hygiene. Indiaisyettoadoptsuitabletechnologyto handle solid waste management. In present system of collection may be arranged by providing every communitywithwaste bins,convenientlyplaced for the people to deposit their domestic wastes and door to door collection of wastes. • The final constraints are institutional problems, within department links with other concerned agencies, lack of suitable staff, lack of work cul ture civic sense, corruption etc. here there is a need to integrate three aspects like, private sec tor, NGO's and the rage pickers into a smooth network. The private entrepreneurs are now en tering into the waste industry in terms of collec tion and transportation in few areas. NGO's can play a role in projection of the community pro gramsand highlightingthebasicrequirements of urban services. The NGO's also help in organiz ing the rag pickers into waste management ser vices and organization under the supervision of local and urban bodies. • Case studies on Metro cities like Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta revealed that various NGO'S viz, Vatavaran, Exnora and Foreign companies like Sound Craft Industries, EDL company ofAustra lis, Tunnal Reactor co. are actively assisting in waste management. 1. Timothy J. Roemer, US Ambassador to India United States Environmental Protection Agency. Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2009. United States Environmental Protection Agency. [Online]. 2 Perinaz Bhada, Nickolas Themelis. Feasibility Analysis of Waste-to-Energy as a Key Component of Integrated Solid Waste Management in Mumbai, India. New York: Earth Engineering Center, Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council, 2008. 3 Solid Waste Management in India: Options and Opportunities. Shuchi Gupta, Krishna Mohan, Rajkumar Prasad, Sujata Gupta, Arun Kansal. 2, s.l. : Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 1998, Vol. 24. 4 Urban Development Sector Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region, the World Bank. What a Waste: Solid Waste Management in Asia. Environmental Strategies for Cities, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [Online] 1999. R E F E R E N C E