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  1. 1. 102 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 Introduction E-learninghasbecomemuchmoreinteresting. E-education has given a new look and feel to studies. Unlike one-way teaching module in traditional teach- ing, e-learning is a two-way learning process. It is a platform where in a student can interact with a teacher online and learn by discussion. The student is free to ask theteacher anything, be itfromprescribed syllabus or from anywhere else. With the help of voice-enabled chat, the discussion and practice session becomes all the more productive. E-learning is totally technology based education classes, content teachers, learners, examinations; all these are available online through internet. Internet is the backbone of e-learning. Stu- dentscangete-lectures,demonstrations,ande-instruc- tions by eminent personalities from anywhere through e-mailorinternet. Chiuetal.(2009)discoveredthrough a research of students' e-learning that increase of user satisfaction positively influence students' intention to continue using the e-learning system. Salmon (2010) emphasized that digital technology was an important "moderator" in learning activities, as it was a condition and an environment that could assist learners in learn- ing activities. Besides, individual applications of tech- nologyare also influenced byeffectsofsocialrelations that exist between people, such as the reward system and power structure. Hackman and Walker (2010) indicated that media richness contribute to increasing e-learning satisfac- tionafter theempiricalstudyoftheuseoftelevisionfor teaching. Saade et al. (2011) indicated when students' intrinsic motivationis stronger, their willingnessto use e-learning will be higher. Therefore, Learning attitude positively influences students' use of e-learning Objectives and Hypothesesof TheStudy: The objectives of the present study were: (i). to analyse the attitude of teachers under training to- wardse-learning.;(ii)toexaminetheattitudeofteachers under training towards e-learning studying in the col- legeslocatedinruralandurbanareas(iii)toevaluatethe attitude of teachers under training towards e-learning in relation to gender. The hypotheses of the study were framedas:(i)thereexistsnosignificantdifferenceonthe attitudes of teachers under training towards e-learning studying in the colleges located in rural and urban Research Paper— Education Aug- Oct ,2013 AComparative Study ofAttitude of Teachers UnderTraining Towards E-learning * Ms. Deepika Rajpal areas, and (ii) there exists no significant difference on theattitudesofteachers undertrainingtowardse-learn- ing in relation to gender. Sample :- The data were collected from 400 rural and urban B.Ed students-both' males and females from Punjab.Outofthissample,200werefromruralcolleges and 200 were from urban colleges. From the rural and urban colleges; 50% of the sample was male and 50% female students. Tool Used:- The scale to measure the attitude towards E-learning was constructed and standardized by the researcher.Itconsistsof30itemsandhashighreliability (r=0.669)andvalidity. Results and Discussion After administrating the final format of the scale for measuring attitude of teachers under training towards E-learning to all the subjects consisting of males and females as well as rural and urban teachers under-training, the response sheets were scored on the basisoftheprocedurei.e.thepositiveitemswerescored as 5, 4, 3, 2,1 for SA,A, U, D, SD respectively and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 for the negative items. The means, SDs and SEs ofthe scores ofthe attitude scale were calculated for all the subjects and the t-ratios were computed between male and female teachers-trainees to see if any signifi- cant differences existed between two groups of B.Ed. students. Gender Differences on Attitude Towards E-learning Table 1 shows the mean scores differences on E-learning of B.Ed. students for males and females to know the sex differences on the attitude towards E- learning. See Table 1 As per the above table, it is quite obvious that significant differences existed between male and female B.Ed. students on the attitude towards E-learning; as t-ratios of 2.064 was significant at 0.05 level in case of the combined group and also in case of urban male and female students (t = 2.212 P < .05). But in case of the rural male and female students; no differ- encewasfoundtobesignificant(t=0.765NS).Itisquite evident from the means scores that males have better attitude(M=86.00)thanthefemales(M=81.40)andthe same trend was seen for the urban males which was 88.58andforurbanfemalesas81.88.Itisacommonfact that themale studentsare moreinterested inthe science andtechnicalsubjects.Theyusuallyoptfornon-medical *Research Student, SinghaniaUniversity,Pacheri Bari(Rajasthan)
  2. 2. 103RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 andengineeringsubjectsfortheirfutureprofession.On the other hand, female students are more interested in fine arts, fashion technology, and humanities subjects. For this reason, male B.Ed. students were having more favourableattitudeinlearningcomputereducationand hence more inclined in E-learning than the traditional teaching.Duetothisfact,maleB.Ed.studentshadmore favourable and positive attitude than the female ones. Moreover,urbanmalestudentswerealsomore favourablyinclined towardsE-learning; because in the cities,therearemorefacilitiesandavenuesforcomputer education. Most of the urban colleges are providing better computer education, as they are well-equipped withcomputerlaboratoryandmoreovertherearemany cyber café in the city life. These facilities are totally or partially absent in the rural area, hence the students whethertheyaremalesorfemalesdonothaveexposure to computer education and have less knowledge re- garding the E-learning and were less favourable to this aspect of education. The results of the study have rejected the null hypothesis that there exists no signifi- cant difference on the attitudes of B.Ed. students to- wards E-learning in relation to gender; as differences have been evinced between male and female B.Ed. students. But Mungania (2007) showed that fe- male students learn better than male students in online learning. Compared to male students, female students considered some instructional factors and learning activities more valuable for their learning than other factors, such as instructional design factors. Rural-urbanDifferences The differences on attitudes towards E- learning on the basis of locale of the colleges of B.Ed. students were also studied. The mean scores differ- ences of attitude towards E-learning for the urban and rural students have been presented in See Table 2. As per the above table, there were no signifi- cant differences on the mean scores of attitudes to- wards E-learning between the urban and rural students of B.Ed. colleges, whether they were males or females or combined group; as all the t-values were found to be non-significant.Hencetheseresultshavefailedtoreject the null hypothesis of the study that there exists no significantdifferenceontheattitudesofB.Ed.students towards E-learning studying in the colleges located in rural and urban areas. As the subject of computer education is being taught in almost all the B.Ed. col- leges,whethertheyareinurban orruralareas;so allthe students have developed positive and favourable atti- tudetowardsE-learningandhencenosignificantdiffer- encewasfoundonattitudetowardsE-learningbetween B.Ed. students of urban and rural colleges. But Rimmi Anand (2012) observed that although some negative consequences have been noticed inflourishing E-learning in ruralareas because oflackofawareness,unwillingwill,illiteracyandlackof proper infrastructure, yet it has a broad scope in near futureanditwilldefinitelyhelppoorgentrytofillthegap between educated developed cities and rural underde- veloped areas. Conclusions From the results of the present study, the fol- lowing conclusions were drawn: 1. There are significant differences between male and female B.Ed. students on the attitude towards E-learn- ing and especially among male and female B.Ed. stu- dentsofurbancollegesbutnotintheruralcolleges.The maleshavemorefavourableattitudetowardsE-learning. 2. No significant differences exist on the attitude to- wards E-learning between the urban and rural B.Ed. College students; whether they are males or females or combined group. Table 1 Means, SDs and t-ratios of scores of E-learning of male and female B.Ed. Students Groups N Males Females dm SEdm t-ratios Significant level M SD SE M SD SE Combined 200 86.00 20.413 1.443 81.40 24.032 1.699 4.60 2.229 2.064* P< .05 Urban 100 88.58 18.411 1.841 81.88 24.050 2.405 6.70 3.029 2.212 P < .05 Rural 100 83.43 22.070 2.203 80.93 24.126 2.413 2.50 3.267 0.765 NS * Significant at 0.05 level Table 2 Means, SDs and t-ratios of scores of attitude towards E-learning for urban and rural B.Ed. students Groups N Urban Rural dm SEdm t-ratios Significant M SD SE M SD SE level Combined 200 85.23 21.626 1.529 82.18 23.076 1.632 3.05 2.236 1.364 NS Males 100 88.58 18.411 1.841 83.43 22.027 2.203 5.15 2.871 1.794 NS Females 100 81.88 24.050 2.405 80.93 24.126 2.413 0.95 3.407 0.279 NS 1 Chiu, C. M., Sun, S. Y., Sun, P. C. and Ju, T. L. (2009). An empirical analysis of the antecedents of web-based learning continuance. Computers & 2 Hackman, M.Z. and Walker, K. (2010). "Instructional communication in the televised classroom," Communication Education, Vol. 39, pp. 145-156. 3 Mungania, P (2007) The Seven E-learning Barriers Facing Employees, A Research Report Funded by the Masie Center October © 2003. 4 Rimmi Anand (2012) E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas, I.J.Modern Education and Computer Science, 2012, 5, 46-52 5 Saade, R.G., He, X. and Kira, D. (2011). "Exploring dimensions to online learning," Computers in Human Behaviour, Vol. 23, pp. 1721-1739. 6 Salmon, G. (2010). E-moderating: The key to teaching and learning online (2nd ed.). London, UK: Rutledge Falmer. R E F E R E N C E