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Modern United States 11th Grade Unit 1
Rise of Big Business
Transformation of Society
Big Business
Mechanized Farming
Social Darwinism
Gospel of Wealth
Robber Barons
Captains of Industry
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Muckrakers
American Labor Movement
Samuel Gompers
Haymarket Tragedy
Mother Jones
Industrial Workers of the World
Eugene V. Debs
Strikes
The Populists
William Jennings Bryan
Free Coinage of Silver
Government Ownership of Railroads
Graduated Income Tax
Direct Election of Senators
Election Reform
Pay Attention! When you see this cartoon…… highlight the information in your notes with either a highlighter, a different color of ink, or a big huge box or something of your choosing! These are items that will be tested on the state assessment!
United States in International Affairs
Imperialism
SpanishAmerican War
SpanishAmerican War
Philippine Insurrection
Panama Canal
Open Door Policy
Roosevelt Corollary
DollarDiplomacy
Progressive Ideas
Progressives
Influence on Elections
Government Regulation of Business
Child Labor Laws
Muckrakers
Theodore Roosevelt
Woodrow Wilson
World War I
WWI at a Glance
WWI At A Glance
Wilson’s Peace Plan
Wilson’s Peace Plan
Reason for US Entrance into WWI
US Home front in WWI
Food Administration
Espionage Act
Red Scare
Influenza
Creel Committee
Women’s Suffrage Movement
Women’s Suffrage Movement
Susan B. Anthony
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Alice Paul
States Grant Voting Rights
19th Amendment
Rise of Consumer Culture
Rise of Consumer Culture
Leisure Time
Technology
Communications
Travel
Travel
Assembly Line
Buying on Credit
Social Conflict in the 1920s
Social Conflict
Rural v Urban
Fundamentalism v Modernism
Prohibition
Navitism
Flapper v Traditional Woman
Race Relations
Ku Klux Klan
The Great Migration
NAACP
Tuskegee
Jazz Age
Harlem Renaissance
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Blues and Jazz Culture
Factors that Change Supply and Demand
Society:  Prohibition
War:  Scarcity of Resources
Technology:  Assembly Line

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Modern United States

Editor's Notes

  1. This was a confident time—for most people life was good and would get better. Mark Twain was concerned that there was too much attention to money and gold and glitter—he coined this turn of the century time period the Gilded Age.Railroads controlled much of America’s wealthThe Indian wars ended (badly for the Indians)The cattle drives were endedSome cowboys became circus starsEvil Jim Crow laws settled across the SouthPeople filled the land until there was no more frontierThese things were invented or developed: electric lights, telephones, moving pictures, flying machines, baseball leagues, football leagues It was a time of prosperity and poverty; of corruption
  2. By 1920, half of all Americans lived in cities or towns—and the US was the leading industrial nation in the world, with 9 million factory workers.No one was prepared for the era of big business.The United States was not ready for the changes that cities, industry and inventions brought.
  3. Machines made it possible for the same acre of land to produce much more than it had before.However, increased mechanization caused little need for extra laborersThese laborers moved to the city in search of work
  4. Social Darwinism was the application of Charles Darwin's scientific theories of evolution and natural selection to contemporary social development. In nature, only the fittest survived—so too in the marketplace.
  5. Andrew Carnegie (1835­-1919) was a massively successful business man His wealth was based on the provision of iron and steel to the railwaysHe lived up to his word, and gave away his fortune to socially beneficial projects, most famously by funding libraries.
  6. Is the term for one of the American industrial or financial magnates of the late 19th century who became wealthy by unethical means, such as questionable stock-market operations and exploitation of labor.John Davison Rockefeller was an American capitalist most known for his role in the early petroleum industry and the founding of Standard Oil (Exxon Mobile)is the largest of its descendants). Through a number of widely criticized business tactics, Rockefeller built Standard Oil into the largest oil refining business in the world, and was for a time himself the richest man in the United States. Adjusting for inflation, some have measured him as the richest human being ever. Much of this wealth was then given away, resulting in his legacy as a great philanthropist
  7. The wave of industrialism that we have been studying was often driven by a few great men known as industrialists. There can be no mistaking their motives: wealth. Some feel that the powerful industrialists of the gilded age should be referred to as "robber barons." This view accentuates the negative. It portrays men like Vanderbilt and Rockefeller and Ford and cruel and ruthless businessmen who would stop at nothing to achieve great wealth. These "robber barons" were accused of exploiting workers and forcing horrible working conditions and unfair labor practices upon the laborer.Another view of the industrialist is that of "captain of industry." The term captain views these men as viewed ingenious and industrious leaders who transformed the American economy with their business skills. They were praised for their skills as well as for their philanthropy (charity).
  8. Regulating business in a capitalist country is not easyMost business people want as little regulation as possible—but the public needs to be protected from unfair business practices.In the 19th century, big business in America got out of control—politicians were often corrupted by business influences.In 1890, Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust ActIt said that trusts and monopolies that restrained free competition were illegalAt first no one—not the President, Congress or the courts would enforce the law because they did not want to offend the powerful business men—but that changed and eventually the law would be enforced
  9. Writers began to write about the problems of unregulated business—Theodore Roosevelt called these writers “muckrakers” because they raked up muck and told people about itMuckrakers were journalists who wrote about wrongs—about injustice, unfairness and corruptionIda Tarbell was perhaps the most famous of the Muckrakers—she wrote for McClure’s MagazineUpton Sinclair wrote The Jungle-about the city of Chicago, its horrible slums, and stock-yards and meat packers—he exposed the factories’ filthy ways of butchering and preparing meat.
  10. American labor laws lagged far behind those of almost every other industrial nation. Working conditions were often unsafe. Factory pay was rarely fair, and workers had few if any benefits. Workers as well as managers feared unions because early labor leaders seemed too radical for most Americans.
  11. His only goal was to improve working conditions in the United StatesHe wanted American workers to have the best possible wages and benefitsAmerican Federation of Labor—he would make this union a major force in the American industrial world
  12. The evening of May 4, 1886 The Knights of Labor labor union were campaigning for the 8-hour work day and Chicago at the McCormick Reaper Works, violence erupted between police and strikers on May 3, where two workers were shot. The May 4 rally at the Haymarket Square was held to protest the events of May 3. The individual who actually threw the bomb into the police squadron was never identified but 7 police officers died. The violence associated with the Knights of Labor tarnished the reputation of the union. "The decline of the Knights of Labor contributed to the rise of the American Federation of Labor, established under the leadership of Samuel Gompers in 1886.
  13. She wanted people to know the plight of child workers so she marched a group of young mill workers from Pennsylvania to New YorkShe went to jail numerous times—each time she got out she went right back to speaking out for workersShe was successful—she made people think about America’s working children
  14. Called the Wobblies—was founded by Big Bill HaywoodAll workers, not just skilled workers, should be in unions togetherTheir goal was one big union—all workers would belong to itHowever, one down fall was they were hardly in agreement on how that country would be organized
  15. Was a founder of the Wobblies—he later became the leader of the Socialist PartyWas sent to jail for opposing entrance into WWIRan for president while in jail and won more than 900,000 votes—he would run for president five times
  16. People who worked together tried to help each other solve the problems they had in commonSometimes they decided not to work unless they were paid better wages—they went on strikeOwners hated strikes and often fired anyone who joined a strikeSometimes police or soldiers were hired to break a strike—sometimes strikers were shot
  17. Efforts on behalf of farmers and laborers (the so-called "common" people) earned him the title the "Great Commoner."He strongly advocated women's suffrage (women's right to vote). His efforts, as well as others, led to the passage of the 19th Amendment, which guaranteed women a vote in elections.He supported the popular election of senators income tax in which the rich pay more than the poor the creation of a U.S. Department of Labor the prohibition of the production and sale of alcoholic beverages. He also fought for the farmers of America.
  18. Bryan did not think it was necessary for the United States to hold in reserve an amount of gold equal in value to all the paper money in circulation. Bryan wanted the United States to use silver to back the dollar at a value that would inflate the prices farmers received for their crops, easing their debt burden. This position was known as the Free Silver Movement.
  19. Bryan wanted the Government to control the railroads so a fair price could be charged for carrying freight.It was a hardship on the farmers to pay such a price to deliver goods to market
  20. Tax people according to how much they make
  21. Wanted the citizens to elect Senators, not the state legislatures
  22. The direct primary is a more democratic process where the people would choose candidates for the main election The initiative and the referendum—voters get a chance to vote on some laws themselves instead of leaving everything up to their legislatorsA referendum is if a specific number of voters petitioned to have a measure put on the ballot—it is an initiative, when the voters vote for or against the measureBefore 1913, senators were chosen by the state legislatures, because of the Populists, senators are now chosen by the people of each state—direct election of senators
  23. A variety of factors coincided during this period to bring about an accelerated pace of U.S. expansionism:The industry and agriculture of the United States had grown beyond its need for consumption. Powerful business and political figures believed that foreign markets were essential to further economic growth, promoting a more aggressive foreign policyThe prevalence of racism, racial superiority, and the call to "civilize and Christianize" The publication of Alfred T. Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power on History in 1890, which advocated three factors crucial to The United States' ascension to the position of "world power”, expansion of the U.S. naval power, and the establishment of a trade/military post in the Pacific, so as to stimulate trade with China. This publication had a strong influence on the idea that a strong navy stimulated trade, and influenced policy makers such as Theodore Roosevelt and other proponents of a large navy.
  24. Spain controlled colonies in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine IslandsIn Cuba, people wanted freedom to run their own country, especially as many of the Spanish officials seemed cruel and corrupt—the Cubans rose up against the Spaniards—and most Americans sided with the revolutionariesThis happened at the same time two rival newspapers in America were fighting each other for readers and the story in Cuba made exciting reading. Everyday the newspaper headlines would tell of atrocities in Cuba—when there was no real story to tell—eager reporters would make one up—this is called yellow journalism and good papers don’t do it.With all of the scare stories, Americans began screaming for war with Spain—they wanted Spain out of the western hemisphere—but Spain did not want to leaveSpanish, Cuban and American diplomats began meeting to try to solve their differences quietly—then the Maine, a US battleship sailed into the harbor at Havana, Cuba.
  25. The Maine exploded and two hundred and sixty sailors were killed—experts said the ship hit a mine—Spanish experts said the explosion came from inside the ship—(in 1976 an investigation proved the Spaniards were right)—internal combustion had started a fire that reached some gunpowder on the Maine—it was an accident.The newspapers played up the Maine accident and the American people went wild and demanded war—Congress wanted war—William McKinley was president, knew the horrors of the Civil War and did not want war. He would eventually give in and War was declared on Spain.Theodore Roosevelt, Secretary of the Navy, resigned his position—he wanted to get into this war, he organized a cavalry troop and trained in Texas—called the Rough Riders—they were famous for taking San Juan Hill in CubaThe war was short—113 days—the north and south fought together which healed some of the Civil War wounds—Cuba won her freedom—Spain lost out—the US took over Puerto Rico as an American Territory.
  26. While the war in Cuba was raging, Admiral George Dewey sailed into Manila Harbor in the Spanish-help Philippine Islands and destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed there—the Philippines became an American territory; so did Guam and Wake IslandMany Filipinos wanted to be independent and form their own nation—however, American expansionists wanted the Islands—the Filipinos decided to fight.It took four times as many soldiers to conquer the Filipinos as did to defeat the Spanish in CubaSome Americans, such as Samuel Gompers, felt the war was unjust—few Americans agreed
  27. Theodore Roosevelt was president when the canal was builtIt created a water passageway from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean—before it took ships more than two months to sail around South AmericaProblems encountered while building the canal: thick jungles, mosquitoes that carried yellow fever and malaria—killed nearly 6,000 men
  28. Is the maintenance in a certain territory of equal commercial and industrial rights of all countriesIt is usually associated with ChinaUS Secretary of State John Hay in 1899 sent notes to the major powers of the world including France, Germany, Britain, Italy, Japan, and Russia asking them to declare formally that they would not interfere with the free use of the ports in ChinaEach nation evaded Hay’s requests—not committing until the other nations had compiledHowever, Hay announced that the powers had granted consent to his request—this was not true!Only Japan challenged this declaration—still the Open Door became official international policy
  29. Was an extension to the Monroe Doctrine Stating that the Americas are not to be considered subjects for future colonization by European powersThe Roosevelt Corollary stated that if anyone would intervene in the Americas it would be the US who would do so.
  30. The US’s way of intervening in Latin American affairs using money instead of war to influence policyThe shift resulted in increased sales for US goods including warships and efforts to increase American investments there.
  31. Argued that social evils will not remedy themselves, and it was wrong to sit by passively and wait for time to take care of them—they believed in governmental actionThe Populists had made people aware of some of the nation’s problems—the Progressives began to do something about themThey fought to see that children no longer spent their days working in the fields and factories—would eventually assure children an educationProgressives attacked the problem of long hours and low pay for workers, and waste of our natural resourcesThe Progressives did not attack the problem of racism—racial prejudice
  32. The direct primary is a more democratic process where the people would choose candidates for the main election The initiative and the referendum—voters get a chance to vote on some laws themselves instead of leaving everything up to their legislatorsA referendum is if a specific number of voters petitioned to have a measure put on the ballot—it is an initiative, when the voters vote for or against the measureBefore 1913, senators were chosen by the state legislatures, because of the Populists, senators are now chosen by the people of each state—direct election of senators
  33. Congress passed a series of labor laws designed to ban child labor, shorten workdays, and, in the Workmen’s Compensation Act, provide injury protection to federal employees.
  34. Children were worked 16 hours a day, often with little pay and in dangerous conditionsMany people wanted to ban child labor
  35. Writers began to write about the problems of unregulated business—Theodore Roosevelt called these writers “muckrakers” because they raked up muck and told people about itMuckrakers were journalists who wrote about wrongs—about injustice, unfairness and corruptionIda Tarbell was perhaps the most famous of the Muckrakers—she wrote for McClure’s MagazineUpton Sinclair wrote The Jungle-about the city of Chicago, its horrible slums, and stock-yards and meat packers—he exposed the factories’ filthy ways of butchering and preparing meat.
  36. As President, T.R. pursued a progressive agenda.He attacked monopolistic corporations, and staked his political future on the premise that individuals - not businesses - are the key to political clout.
  37. It called for tariff reduction, reform of the banking and monetary system, and new laws to weaken abusive corporations and restore economic competition. Perhaps his greatest achievement was the passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, which created the system that still provides the framework for regulating the nation's banks, credit, and money supply today. Other Wilson-backed legislation put new controls on big business and supported unions to ensure fair treatment of working Americans.
  38. It was called the Great War—later WWIIt began in Europe in 1914At first the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey) fought the Allies (England, France, and Russia)It came about because of Nationalism: sense of pride in one’s country Imperialism: struggle for power, territory, economic gain Militarism: building up the military System of Alliances: choosing sides in the event of warNine million men died—WWI was worse than anyone could have imagined
  39. Many inventions that people thought would prevent war were turned into killing devices Airplanes shot each other overhead Submarines ejected torpedoes Poison gas turned men blind (mustard gas) or unable to breathe (chlorine gas)Armies of men dug themselves into trenches and shot at enemies in other trenches—both sides fought on, stuck in mud for four years—a stalemate which wasted a generation of young men.
  40. President Wilson wanted to be peacemaker—he tried talking to leaders on both sidesGermany insisted on being given French and Polish land before it would stop fightingFrance and Russia (Russia ruled most of Poland) wouldn’t agree to thatWilson wanted America to remain neutralWhen German troops marched on peaceful Belgium—many Americans became angryGerman submarines began sinking ships—even passenger ships—in past wars there had been rules for fair play: ships were given warning and passengers allowed time to get into life boats—the submarines gave no warningMore and more Americans began to side with the Allies—and sold war supplies to the Allies 1917 Germany declared war on all ships that went near England or France—8 US ships were sunk
  41. In the same year Britain intercepted a message sent from Germany to Mexico—it was believed the Zimmerman Telegram was a German plot to make Mexico fight against the United States—Germany would give Texas and New Mexico to Mexico as a prize for entering the warApril 2, 1917 Wilson went before Congress and asked to declare warThe Germans had taken a gamble—they knew sinking American ships might bring the US into war—they weren’t worried—they thought it would take several years for the US to get ready to fightThey were wrong and the US entrance into WWI brought the end to WWI in a little more than a year.
  42. Unrestricted submarine warfare. Sinking of the Lusitania (1915) American Propaganda Stressed German barbarism. Posters depicting the Kaiser as some sort of madman. Urged Americans to support allies throughout neutrality. U.S. Business Interests US trade w/ the allies increased from 825 million in 1914 to 3.2 billion in 1916. Zimmerman Note :Germany asked Mexico to enter the war against the US. We intercepted the note.
  43. Herbert Hoover was the head of the administrationAmericans voluntarily conserved foodWheat-less Mondays and Meat-less Tuesdays
  44. The Espionage Act of 1917 was a United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I—made it a crime for a person to convey antipathy with intent to interfere with the operation of the armed forces of the US or to promote the success of its enemies.
  45. Shortly after the end of World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the Red Scare took hold in the US—a nationwide fear of communists, socialists, anarchists, took hold following a series
  46. The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 killed more people than the Great War (WWI)—between 20 and 100 million peopleIt is the most devastating epidemic recorded in world historyAs much as 1/5 of the world’s population was infectedIt is estimated as many as 43,000 US service men died of influenzaIn Kansas, by the end of October 1918, more than 20,000 cases had been reported to the State Board of Healthschools were closed, meetings were cancelled, and quarantines were enforced in many townsThe epidemic in Kansas was prolonged by bitter winter weather and new outbreaks in the spring of 1919—more than 5,500 Kansans died of the flu.
  47. President Wilson created the Committee on Public Information headed by George Creel to spread positive propaganda on the war
  48. The movement to abolish slavery paved the way for the women's rights movement in America. Women began to organize for the first time and speak out against the injustices of their day.
  49. She became active in temperance. Because she was a woman, she was not allowed to speak at temperance rallies. Soon after she dedicated her life to woman suffrage.Anthony traveled, lectured and canvassed across the nation for the vote, women's rights to their own property and earnings, and women's labor organizations. In 1900, Anthony persuaded the University of Rochester to admit women.
  50. An excellent writer and speaker, she and Susan B. Anthony formed the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869 and worked together to secure women's right to vote.
  51. Her first job was to put on a parade in Washington, D.C., to draw attention to their cause. The parade took place at the same time as inauguration festivities for President Woodrow Wilson. Crowds surrounded the parading women, resulting in near riots.Party members picketed the White House and ended up behind bars, where they continued their protest with a hunger strike, until officials force-fed them.
  52. In 1872, suffragists brought a series of court challenges designed to test whether voting was a "privilege" of "U. S. citizenship" now belonging to women by virtue of the recently adopted 14th Amendment.  Wyoming was the first state with women suffrage.  By 1900, Utah, Colorado, and Idaho joined Wyoming in allowing women to vote.
  53. In 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment, allowing women the right to vote, was finally added to the Constitution.It all came down to Tennessee.  It appeared that the amendment might fail by one vote in the Tennessee House, but twenty-four-year-old Harry Burn surprised observers by casting the deciding vote for ratification.  At the time of his vote, Burns had in his pocket a letter he had received from his mother urging him, "Don't forget to be a good boy" and "vote for suffrage."  Women had finally won the vote.
  54. Americans were busy enjoying the prosperity of the 1920s. American industry had expanded during the Great War, making weapons, uniforms, equipment etc. This expansion continued after the war, helped by America's massive reserves of raw materials The greatest boom was in consumer goods, e.g. cars, refrigerators, radios, cookers, telephones etc. Ordinary people were encouraged through advertising to buy these goods and many could now afford what had been luxuries before the war. Buy now and play later philosophy—buy on credit
  55. The 1920s in America were times of great change. The Twenties saw women voting, the Harlem Renaissance, prohibition, and an incredible burst of affluence for the middle class. Automobiles and electric appliances made people's lives easier and gave them more leisure time
  56. Technology played one of the most vital parts in bringing the great prosperity that America experienced during the 1920s. New advancements, new discoveries, and new inventions improved American lives One of the first major inventions to become a national craze was the automobile.The greatest craze of the 1920s. The radio became an instant success among the American public. Being substantially cheaper than a car, the radio became a part of virtually every home in America in only a few short years.Ford's methods of mass production and efficiency enabled factories to produce a plethora products ranging from dish-washers to electric toasters.Scientific advancements during the 1920s included health and medicine which advanced greatly during the same time period. Surprisingly, a post-war interest developed in nutrition, caloric consumption, and physical vitality.
  57. The telegraph had benefited by using the railroads' right-of-ways, and the railroads used the telegraph to coordinate and organize their far-flung activities. The interwar era saw a continuation of these developments as the telephone continued to supplant the telegraph and the new medium of radio arose to transmit news and provide a new entertainment source.
  58. Travel was much different in the 1920's. Vehicles and road conditions made transportation difficult and time-consuming. What is now an hour and a half jaunt took a whole day in the 1920's. The roads were two lane, country, dirt roads. The roads consisted of yellow or red clay and got extremely muddy when it rained. They always had to carry a spare axle because it often broke on these trips. Flat tires were a lot harder to deal with, too. On those types of roads, it was easy to get a flat. Then they would have to stop, jack up the car, and take off the tire. Then Grandpa had to remove the inner tube and put it in water to find the hole. He carried a tire repair kit, and would then put the inner tube back inside the tire, and replace the tire back on the wheel. Finally, it had to be pumped up with a hand pump.
  59. They had front and back windshields and a roof, but no side windows. There were doors, but the window openings had no glass in them. If it rained, there were shields to be put up over the side windows. There was one windshield wiper on the driver's side. It had to be operated manually by the driver as he was drivingThere were no restaurants or restrooms along the way. So they had to find a cornfield. Toilet paper was either a big corn leaf or newspaper. There would be a picnic lunch of sandwiches, fruit, and maybe a piece of cake. The food was wrapped in wax paper and kept in bags.
  60. This was because of "mass production" methods used to produce many consumer goods. Assembly lines were built in factories and each worker concentrated on one small job only. The most famous example of this method was Henry Ford's factory which was fully automated (many of the jobs done by machines).Because of mass production and automation one Model T car was produced every ten minutes.
  61. Advertising which sought to make Americans want more and more.Credit became a popular purchasing method: buy now, pay later. A variety of new products emerged to entice people to buy more.
  62. The 1920s was a decade of exciting social changes and profound cultural conflicts. But for others, the United States seemed to be changing in undesirable ways.
  63. The booming decade did leave some behind: those living in rural America. Business success was most readily available to urbanBut workers in rural areas suffered; farmers actually lost business, For the first time in American history, more people lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Technology was transforming the lives of those living in cities, with public utilities providing electricity, natural gas, and running water. But rural areas were left out of these advances; only 10 percent of American farms had electricity and only 33 percent had running water by the end of the decade.
  64. Fundamentalism—belief that the Bible should be considered accurate and taken literallyModernism—open to new ideas and new application of old traditions, thoughtTraditionalists/Fundamentalists, the older Victorians, worried that everything valuable was ending. The "Scopes Trial" of 1925 pitted against each other lawyersWilliam Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow (the latter representing teacherJohn T. Scopes) in an Americancourt case that tested a law passed on March 13, 1925, which forbade the teaching, in any state-funded educational establishment in Tennessee, of "any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals". This is often interpreted as meaning that the law forbade the teaching of any aspect of the theory of evolution. It has often been called the "Scopes Monkey Trial".After eight days of trial, it took the jury only nine minutes to deliberate. Scopes was found guilty on July 21 and ordered to pay a $100 fine. Bryan offered to pay it.
  65. Most drinking took place in saloons –some men drank their pay check up, and had no money left for their familiesReformers decided to attack the problem—some believed in prohibition which means to outlaw all drinkingMany states became dry—it was against the law to buy or sell liquor—some proposed a national amendment so the who nation would be dryThe 18th amendment was passed which made it illegal to sell liquor anywhere in the United StatesMany thought this was a good idea, but it didn’t work—although per capita, alcohol consumption did fall during the Prohibition years—it almost made drinking fashionableGangsters took over—people who sold liquor were called bootleggers—ships carrying whiskey from foreign supplies to coastal ports were called rumrunners—illegal bars where drinks were sold were called speakeasiesProhibition made crime a big business—eventually the 21st amendment was passed which ended prohibition
  66. At the turn of the century the United States was considered a melting pot, which is a mixture of different people of different cultures and races who blend together by abandoning their native languages and customs. There were a lot of immigrants coming into the United States, such as the Europeans, and Asians. When these people came to America they were looking for a new life, and to start over. Some were running from religious persecution, poverty, and freedom. Nativism is favoritism toward native born Americans. With all the immigrants coming in the Americans were getting scared and suspicious for their jobs and lives. Navitism gave rise to anti-immigrant groups, such as American Protective Association launched anti-Catholic attacks, and many colleges, businesses, and social clubs refused to admit Jews. And other groups such as the Immigration Restriction League campaigned to keep out "undesirable classes".
  67. A fashionable flapper had short sleek hair shorter than average shapeless shift dress a chest as flat as a board wore make up and applied it in public smoked with a long cigarette holder exposed her limbs epitomized the spirit of a reckless rebel danced the nights away in the Jazz Age
  68. Founded in Georgia in 1915, it was a small group until 1922, when it began expanding rapidly all over the country. This second Klan fought to maintain the dominance of white Protestants over blacks, as well as Roman Catholics and Jews. This group, although preaching racism and often accused of violent activities, operated openly, and at its peak in the 1920s claimed millions of members. Its popularity collapsed by 1928 due to scandals involving its own leaders.
  69. In what became known as the Great Migration, blacks poured off the farms in search of urban jobs. Between 1915 and 1920 as many as one million African Americans moved to northern cities. Although the Great Migration slowed during the Depression, nearly one-fourth of all blacks lived in the North or West by 1940. The trend continued during and after World War II.
  70. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909 in New York City by a group of bi-racial activists. It is the nation's oldest civil rights organization. In the 1920s and 1930s, the NAACP devoted much of its energy to publicizing the lynching of blacks throughout the United States. It held its 1920 annual conference in Atlanta, Georgia, considered at the time to be located in one of the most active Ku Klux Klan areas in the nation.
  71. Private, coeducational institution of higher education in Tuskegee, Alabama The black educator Booker T. Washington founded the school in 1881 Providing practical training for blacks and helping them develop economic self-reliance through the mastery of manual trades and agricultural skills. In the 1920s Tuskegee shifted from vocational education to academic higher education and became an accredited, degree-granting institute.
  72. In the early 1900s, particularly in the 1920s, African-American literature, art, music, dance, and social commentary began to flourish in Harlem, a section of New York City. This African-American cultural movement became known as "The New Negro Movement" and later as the Harlem Renaissance. More than a literary movement, the Harlem Renaissance focused on the unique culture of African-Americans and redefined African-American expression. African-Americans were encouraged to celebrate their heritage.
  73. Fitzgerald is regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the twentieth century. In his own age, Fitzgerald was the self-styled spokesman of the "Lost Generation", or the Americans born in the 1890s who came of age during World War I. He finished four novels, left a fifth unfinished, and wrote dozens of short stories that focused on themes of youth, despair, and age.
  74. Jazz, a result of the Harlem Renaissance, originated from the musical minds of American Blacks. These include traits that survived from West African music black folk music  
  75. Prohibition was the ban of manufacturing, buying, selling, transporting alcoholic beveragesWhat’s going to happen to the supply of alcohol….the supply will go downWhat’s going to happen to the demand of alcohol….the demand will go upLed to Al Capone and organized crime
  76. What happens to resources during war…converted to war time production….people at home ration so food can be sent to soldiers
  77. What were the effects of the assembly line…goods were made faster and more inexpensively…demand for labor went down because fewer workers were needed as technology increased