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World History Unit 1 Exploration
Locates Major Featurs of Earth
▲Beijing ▲English Channel ▲India ▲Iraq ▲Moscow ▲Sahara Desert ▲South Africa ▲Venezuela Balkan Peninsula Berlin Black Sea Bosporus Strait Euphrates River Geneva Hong Kong Israel Libya North Korea Pakistan Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Suez Canal Tigris River Tokyo Yangtze River Places to Locate
Renaissance
Renaissance
Secular World View
Machiavelli
Shakespeare
Humanism
Innovations in Art
Michelangelo
Da Vinci
Architecture
St. Peter’s Dome
Reformation
Reformation
Establishment of Protestant faiths
Counter Reformation
Gutenberg Press
Catholic vs Protestant Wars of Religion
Catholic vs Protestant Wars of Religion
Exploration and Expansion
Rise of European Power
European Expansion
Famous Explorers
Mercantilism
Columbian Exchange
Impact on indigenous People
Impact on indigenous People
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
Constitutionalism in Britain vs. France
Constitutionalism in Britain
Constitutionalism in Britain
Changes Resulting from the War
Glorious Revolution
English Bill of Rights
Establishment of Parliament
Political Structures in France
French Absolutism
French Absolutism
Russian Absolutism
Ivan the Terrible
Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
Ottoman, Safavid & Mogul empires
Ottoman Empire
Safavid Empire
Mogul empire
An Isolated East Asia
Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan
Great Ming Naval Expeditions in China
Locates Major Featurs of Earth
▲Beijing ▲English Channel ▲India ▲Iraq ▲Moscow ▲Sahara Desert ▲South Africa ▲Venezuela Balkan Peninsula Berlin Black Sea Bosporus Strait Euphrates River Geneva Hong Kong Israel Libya North Korea Pakistan Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Suez Canal Tigris River Tokyo Yangtze River Places to Locate

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World History Unit 1 Exploration Renaissance Reformation Expansion

Editor's Notes

  1. ▲Beijing▲English Channel▲India▲Iraq▲Moscow▲Sahara Desert▲South Africa▲VenezuelaBalkan PeninsulaBerlinBlack SeaBosporus StraitEuphrates RiverGenevaHong KongIsraelLibyaNorth KoreaPakistanSaudi ArabiaSingaporeSouth KoreaSuez CanalTigris RiverTokyoYangtze River
  2. About 1450, European scholars became more interested in studying the world around them. Their art became more true to life. They began to explore new lands. The new age in Europe was eventually called “the Renaissance.” Renaissance is a French word that means “rebirth.” Historians consider the Renaissance to be the beginning of modern history. The Renaissance began in northern Italy and then spread through Europe.
  3. A focus on worldly rather than spiritual issues.Above all intensified the assertion of personal independence and individual expression. Zeal for the classics was a result as well as a cause of the growing secular view of life. Expansion of trade, growth of prosperity and luxury.Widening social contacts generated interest in worldly pleasures.
  4. Wrote the book "The Prince” Emphasized control of the people by a ruler to establish a society People would be best served by the ruler
  5. From 1594-1608 Shakespeare worked for the London Theatre World. Some plays he wrote were Hamlet, Julius Caesar, Richard the Third, and Romeo and Juliet. These plays were all tragedies. He also wrote A Midsummer Night's Dream, which was a comedy. In 1609 Shakespeare's 154 sonnets were published. Shakespeare also changed and invented words. He made up spelling and a very lyrical language. His invented vocabulary is still being used today. Shakespeare had great influence on culture throughout the world. His writing is still studied today. Shakespeare influenced literature and is looked up to for his great works. His plays are still being produced today, and made into movies.
  6. Nothing is used to distinguish the Renaissance from the Middle Ages more than humanism.The humanists of the Renaissance rediscovered the Latin and Greek classics (hence the "rebirth" or "renaissance" of the classical world)Humanist philosophy stressed the dignity of humanity.Humanists shifted intellectual emphasis off of theology and logic to specifically human studies. Humanists influenced the European Renaissance and paved the way for the modern, secular world.
  7. Renaissance Artistic innovations include: oil painting, perspective as a science, aerial perspective, non religious art, tremendous detail, child-like children, and a return to landscapes and portraits.
  8. Michelangelo was a great leader in the Italian Renaissance. His greatest glory, painting the Sistine Chapel, began in 1508, and was completed in 1512. He used the central area of the ceiling to paint the history of the Old Testament. It included over 300 figures. Michelangelo was noted for use of color, light, tone design, and draftsmanship.He excelled in architecture, sculpture and anatomy. Michelangelo set standards for sculpting, painting, poetry, and architecture. When sculpting, he always carved from front to back as shown on the unfinished piece, St. Matthew. His paintings were all equally proportioned, with very good perspective. All of his pictures had a 3-D effect to make his figures stand out from the background. Michelangelo was also a poet and architect, but painting and sculpting were his specialties.
  9. Da Vinci was an architect, musician, engineer, scientist and inventor. He sketched the first parachute, first helicopter, first airplane, first tank, first repeating rifle, swinging bridge, paddle boat and first motor car. Da Vinci designed machines of war as well. One of Leonardo's greatest pieces of art was the Mona Lisa, (1404) which was famous for her mysterious smile when piano music played. The Mona Lisa took Leonardo six years to complete. Another famous painting was The Last Supper, which was painted in 1495. It has become the most famous painting in the world. Da Vinci drew the first relaxed portraits with misty landscapes in the background. Da Vinci did not put eyebrows on his painting. Da Vinci was famous for the way he used light in his portraits. It seemed as if you could see into the soul of the paintings.
  10. Drawing inspiration from classical architecture, buildings were carefully proportioned, buildings became models for stately homes and government buildings in Europe and America
  11. The basilica's dome, designed by Michelangelo is the largest dome in the world measuring 42m in diameter and reaching 138 meter high (more than 450ft). The interior, which includes 45 altars, is decorated by many famous artists.Michelangelo died in 1624, two years before the completion of the dome
  12. The Renaissance brought a change to life in EuropePeople began to question the world around them—religion also began to changeThe Roman Catholic Church had a become powerful during medieval times—many people in Europe were pleased with the Church and accepted what it taughtBut there were others who wanted reform—changeSome began to question certain Church practices
  13. One such person was Martin LutherWas unhappy with what was going on in the Catholic ChurchHe was against the Church selling indulgencesThe lessening of the punishment a sinner would suffer after deathIndulgences were not supposed to be soldHowever many gave money to the Church in return for indulgencesLuther and others felt this was wrongHe attacked the sale of indulgences and stated that only God could forgive sins, not the churchAfter several years of debate, the Church and Luther met at the Diet of Worms—the Church leaders made Luther leave the Church—their differences could not be settledLuther and his followers set up their own churchNew churches formed in many parts of EuropeBecause of their protests, followers of Luther were called Protestants—the movement that began with Martin Luther became known as the Protestant Reformation
  14. This movement brought a change in the Roman Catholic ChurchIt decided to reform itselfA religious order called the Society of Jesus was formed—members called Jesuits—they tried to win back people to the Roman Catholic Church
  15. A German printer named Johann Gutenberg first made a kind of metal that could be used to make moveable typeGutenberg was the first to print a complete edition of the Bible and he is thought of as the founder of modern printing
  16. The religious wars began with hostilities in 1562 and lasted until 1598. It was warfare that devastated a generationAlthough religion was certainly the basis for the conflict, it was much more than a confessional dispute. There was a saying: (one faith, one law, one king). This traditional saying gives some indication of how the state, society, and religion were all bound up together in people's minds and experience. "One faith" was viewed as essential to civil order And without the right faith, pleasing to God who upholds the natural order, there was sure to be disaster. Innovation caused trouble. The way things were is how they ought to be, and new ideas would lead to anarchy and destruction.
  17. There were a series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars.The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment.Of equal importance, however, was the struggle for power between the crown and the great nobles and the rivalry among the great nobles themselves for the control of the king.
  18. The German held great power and prestige.An even more visible sign of the church’s power can be found in the Crusades. The First Crusade, which started in 1096 and resulted in the capture of Jerusalem three years later, was also an important sign of the European West’s power. The unique political system that developed in England was based upon a division of political power between the king and the people. Through the Magna Carta, that arrangement has had a lasting effect upon Western peoples. For France—unlike other countries, French kings were quite successful in forming the basis of a future absolute monarchy. In contrast, Germany became fragmented and disunited, creating a problem that lasted for centuries
  19. Many wanted to go and see the lands of Africa and Asia—but few Europeans had visited these lands before 1400Kings began to pay sea captains to seek and find the new lands of wealth—they hoped to rule these lands and then build empiresSea captains and soldiers joined the search for new lands—they hoped to become rich by finding a faster, shorter route to Asia and AfricaDuring the Renaissance shipbuilders improved the ways in which they built shipsPrince Henry of Portugal wanted to build his nation’s wealth-so he backed explorations to find a way to the Spice Islands of Asia
  20. 1488 Bartholomeu Dias reached the southern tip of Africa1492 Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas1498 Vasco da Gama reached India1519-1522 Ferdinand Magellan successfully sailed around the world
  21. Mercantilism is the economic theory that the wealth of a nation depends on the supply of capital.Capital is represented by bullion (amount of gold) held by the nationWealth is increased by trading with other nationsA nation must have huge exports and very low imports to succeed
  22. Deals with the exchange of goods between Europe and the Americas Agricultural GoodsLivestockSlave LaborDisease
  23. The arrival of the Europeans drastically changed the way of life of the original people living in the Americas.Populations were destroyed by disease, war and slavery.The first indigenous people to interact with Christopher Columbus were the Arawaks of Hispaniola. Their population was over 250,000, just 50 years later only 500 remained and by 100 years later, they were extinct.
  24. The original people to America were NOT immune to the disease the Europeans brought with them.Chicken pox and measles—did not kill the Europeans, however destroyed the natives.Small pox was especially deadly.Some historians estimate that up to 80% of some indigenous populations may have died due to European diseases.
  25. Portugal was responsible for transporting over 4.5 million Africans (roughly 40% of the total). During the eighteenth century however, when the slave trade accounted for the transport of a staggering 6 million Africans, Britain was the worst transgressor - responsible for almost 2.5 million.Expanding European empires in the New World lacked one major resource -- a work force. In most cases the indigenous peoples had proved unreliable (most of them were dying from diseases brought over from Europe), and Europeans were unsuited to the climate and suffered under tropical diseases. Africans, on the other hand, were excellent workers: they often had experience of agriculture and keeping cattle, they were used to a tropical climate, resistant to tropical diseases, and they could be "worked very hard" on plantations or in mines.To get these slaves, Africans had to capture people from nearby tribes, because of that people fought each other—this kept different groups of Africans from working together to keep out the Europeans
  26. Photo of King Henry VIIISimply means drafting a Constitution and a government held in check by a constitutionKings in England tried to be absolute monarchs—they believed they ruled with the consent or approval of God—they did not believe they needed the consent of the people or even the noblesKing Henry I and Henry II were the most powerful rulers of England—they both wanted the nobles to have less powerThey made new laws—most court cases would be tried by the Kings court—before they were tried by noblesThe kings army was also made stronger—now all men had to serve if they didn’t they had to pay moneyThis upset the nobles, they felt the kings had too much power—in addition King John forced the nobles to pay taxes they felt were not fair—and were used to pay for useless wars
  27. Photo of King Charles IIMagna Carta—the nobles told King John that he must sign the document and give up some of his rights, if he refused, they would turn against him—and so he signed it in 1215Nobles could only be tried for a crime before a jury of their equalsKing or Queen could not make new taxes unless the nobles agreedThis document forced the King to obey the law—just as everyone else didThis first applied only to the nobles, but eventually was extended to all peopleMagna Carta was the first step toward government by the peopleEventually under King Charles—Parliament presented the Petition of Right which stated the King could not raise taxes without the consent of Parliament—and no one could be put in jail for no reasonKing Charles agreed but did not follow the petition—he continued to raise taxes, then dissolved ParliamentEleven years later he called a meeting of Parliament to get money to fight a war with Scotland—Parliament took steps to limit the King’s power and Charles led troops into Parliament and arrested its leadersA civil war followed: Charles I fought against Parliament led by the House of Commons—Parliament won and King Charles I was put to death
  28. Photo of Cromwell’s SoldiersFor approximately 10 years England was a Commonwealth ruled by Oliver Cromwell, there was no monarch or House of Lords—eventually he would fight with Parliament then put an end to ParliamentAfter his death, Charles II became king—he was able to get along with Parliament—when he died his brother James II took over and did not get along with Parliament—he tried to take too much power in his own hands—Parliament decided to depose him (remove him from the throne)
  29. Parliament invited James II daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to take over the throneWilliam was the leader of the Netherlands William and Mary became the rulers of EnglandWhat happened during the bloodless overthrow of James came to be known as the Glorious Revolution
  30. Before entering office, William and Mary had to sign the English Bill of RightsIt placed many limits on their powers and the future rulers of England
  31. English Bill of Rights forced the monarchs to accept Parliament as the main force in the English governmentEventually, more people in England would gain rightsTheir constitution is three separate documents: Magna Carta, Petition of Right and the English Bill of Rights
  32. Democratic ideas did not come to France until the late 1700s around 100 years later than in England
  33. France had been united in the mid 1400s, the Monarchs took steps to gain absolute or complete power They held absolute power for 300 yearsKings believed they ruled by divine right—they believed God gave them the right to ruleFrance had an assembly that represented the people during the Middle Ages, but it did not become powerful like the Parliament in EnglandBy the 1700s, the French people had few rights—and little experience with a parliamentary form of government
  34. The French people became unhappy with government:Government was run by officials who took bribesGovernment officials even stole from the treasuryThe tax system was terribleRich people who owned land paid almost no taxes, while peasants and those who lived in the city paid most of the taxesEventually the Middle class grew tired of the government regulating what they could sell and for how muchDuring the American Revolution belief in liberty and freedom spread from America to France and eventually the ideas of the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence became known to many French people.
  35. During his long rule (1533-1584), Ivan IV expanded the Russian lands and made Russian culture more religious than it had ever been. He was responsible for centralizing the administration of Russia and expanding the boundaries of the Russian empire. He also established the empire in Siberia and promoted trade with various European countries, including England, France and Holland. Ivan sentenced thousands to internal exile in far flung parts of the empire. Others were condemned to death; their families and servants often killed as well. Ivan would give detailed orders about the executions, using biblically inspired tortures to reconstruct the sufferings of hell. Ivan's victims suffered heartless torture. Many were drowned or strangled to death; others roasted on a spit, still others fried in large skillets.
  36. Engineered a series of reforms that were to put Russia among the major European powers. Peter opened Russia to the West. He invited the best European engineers, shipbuilders, architects, craftsmen and merchants to come to Russia. Hundreds of Russians were sent to Europe to get the best education and learn different arts and crafts.
  37. Catherine solidified her position by awarding her supporters with high government positions and grants of land, money and serfs. Catherine quickly began to make changes in government and society based on the convictions she had assimilated during her study of French philosophies of the Enlightenment and the authors of ancient Rome. Catherine slipped deeper and deeper into autocracy - all the while maintaining the facade of an enlightened ruler. Catherine's achievements were many. She left Russia much stronger, more prosperous and beautiful than she had found it.
  38. In the 1300s the Ottoman Turks took control of Asia MinorThey slowly spread their control and crossed into the Balkan area of Europe In 1453, the Ottoman forces took Constantinople (Istanbul)—this ended the Byzantine EmpireBy the 1500s the Ottoman Empire was at its height and included parts of Asia, North Africa, the Middle East and parts of EuropeThe Empire began to decline—the government was poorly run and corrupt—the Ottoman sultan showed little thought for his subjects—the Ottomans were not well liked by their subjectsThe Ottoman Empire (now known as Turkey) allied with Germany during WWI.
  39. The Safavid Empire in PersiaThe formation of the Safavid Empire differs from that of both the Ottoman and Mughal Empires because it had religious, rather than military, beginnings. Shi’a Islam
  40. Greater numbers of Muslim invaders began to raid IndiaMuslims came to India—they brought with them the message of equity and social justice which was non-existent in India at that time because of the Caste System.
  41. Ruled Japan from 1600-1688 They set up their capital in Edo now TokyoThey gave up on invading China and instead began setting up a strong government by doing the following:Nobles had to appear at court when court was in sessionNo daimyo could build a new castle or strengthen armies without permissionThese rules were meant to see that no other person or group could take control of JapanThey decided on a policy of isolationports were closed to foreign ships built bigger and better ships closed Japan to foreign tradeoutlawed Christianity and ordered foreign missionaries to leave
  42. Under Ming Dynasty rule, China in the 15th century was the most advanced country in the world. Ming naval expeditions sailed to Southeast Asia, southern India, the Persian Gulf, and Africa. Ming merchants shipped silks, cotton, and porcelain around the world. Ming leaders revolutionized agriculture by pioneering crop rotation to preserve soil fertility. By the end of the fifteenth century, they too would practice isolationismimperial subjects were forbidden from either building oceangoing ships or leaving the country. Some historians speculate this measure was taken in response to piracy or because they feared westernization.
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